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1.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 681-686, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-dose alteplase (LrtPA) has been shown not to be inferior to the standard-dose (SrtPA) with respect to death/disability. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the percentage of patients treated with LrtPA at our center after the ENCHANTED trial and the factors associated with the use of this dosage. METHODS: Prospective study in consecutive patients with an acute stroke admitted between June 2016 and November 2018. RESULTS: 160 patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis, 50% female; mean age 65.4±18.5 years. Of these, 48 patients (30%) received LrtPA. In univariate analysis, LrtPA was associated with patient's age (p=0.000), previous modified Rankin scale scores (mRS) (p<0.000), hypertension (p=0.076), diabetes mellitus (p=0.021), hypercholesterolemia (p=0.19), smoking (p=0.06), atrial fibrillation (p=0.10), history of coronary artery disease (p=0.06), previous treatment with antiplatelet agents (p<0.000), admission International Normalized Ratio-INR (p=0.18), platelet count (p=0.045), leukoaraiosis on neuroimaging (p<0.003), contraindications for thrombolytic treatment (p=0.000) and endovascular treatment (p=0.027). Previous relevant bleedings were determinants for treatment with LrtPA. Final diagnosis on discharge of stroke mimic was significant (p=0.02) for treatment with SrtPA. In multivariate analysis, mRS (OR: 2.21; 95%CI 1.37‒14.19), previous antiplatelet therapy (OR: 11.41; 95%CI 3.98‒32.70), contraindications for thrombolysis (OR: 56.10; 95%CI 8.81‒357.80), leukoaraiosis (OR: 4.41; 95%CI 1.37‒14.10) and diagnosis of SM (OR: 0.22; 95%CI 0.10‒0.40) remained independently associated. CONCLUSIONS: Following the ENCHANTED trial, LrtPA was restricted to 30% of our patients. The criteria that clinicians apply are based mostly on clinical variables that may increase the risk of brain or systemic hemorrhage or exclude the patient from treatment with lytic drugs.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 52(4): 327-331, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343036

RESUMO

Saddle pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a challenge to diagnose and manage in pediatric patients. Current literature encourages early consideration of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in high-risk PE patients with impending right ventricular failure. We present a 17-year-old patient who was admitted to a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit with saddle PE requiring emergent VA-ECMO support because of cardiovascular collapse. Despite anticoagulation with bivalirudin and receiving systemic thrombolysis with alteplase, the clot burden was persistent with minimal improvement in right ventricular function. We proceeded to catheter thrombolysis while on VA-ECMO. This ultimately led to a successful resolution of the PE and allowed for weaning off VA-ECMO. PE is rare in children compared with adults, and pediatricians may be unaware of therapies becoming increasingly used in adults such as the use of VA-ECMO, with systemic and local thrombolysis. The concurrent use of a direct thrombin inhibitor for ECMO anticoagulation alongside the thrombolysis is a novel combination in this condition and age-group.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Embolia Pulmonar , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Hirudinas , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23620, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the priority drug for treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS), alteplase is a thrombolytic drug with strong fibrin specificity. It can obviously treat AIS with high safety. However, the validity of its time window is controversial. This study focus on the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for treating AIS at different time windows. METHODS: Retrieval of English database (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library) and Chinese database was conducted (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WAN FANG, VIP, China Biology Medicine disc) by computers. From the establishment of the database to October 2020, a retrospective study and case-control study on intravenous thrombolysis at different time windows for treating AIS were conducted. Two researchers independently conducted data extraction and quality evaluation of literature on the included studies, and RevMan5.3 was used for Meta-analysis on the included literature. RESULTS: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase at different time windows for treating AIS by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, modified Rankin Scale rating scale, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage incidence rate, All-cause mortality, and so on. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide an evidence-based basis for the clinical efficacy of alteplase for treating AIS by thrombolytic therapy at different time windows. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also does not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval was not required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated at relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605 / OSF.IO / K7PHB.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD012980, 2020 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frostbite is a thermal injury caused when tissue is exposed to sub-zero temperatures (in degrees Celsius) long enough for ice crystals to form in the affected tissue. Depending on the degree of tissue damage, thrombosis, ischaemia, necrosis (tissue death), gangrene and ultimately amputation may occur. Several interventions for frostbite injuries have been proposed, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, sympathectomy (nerve block), thrombolytic (blood-thinning) therapy and vasodilating agents such as iloprost, reserpine, pentoxifylline and buflomedil, but the benefits and harms of these interventions are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of the different management options for frostbite injuries. SEARCH METHODS: On 25 February 2020, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S), as well as trials registers. Shortly before publication, we searched Clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and GreyLit (9 November 2020) again. We investigated references from relevant articles, and corresponded with a trial author. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any medical intervention, e.g. pharmacological therapy, topical treatments or rewarming techniques, for frostbite injuries to another treatment, placebo or no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. We used Review Manager 5 for statistical analysis of dichotomous data with risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess bias in the included trial. We assessed incidence of amputations, rates of serious and non-serious adverse events, acute pain, chronic pain, ability to perform activities of daily living, quality of life, withdrawal rate from medical therapy due to adverse events, occupational effects and mortality. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included one, open-label randomised trial involving 47 participants with severe frostbite injuries. We judged this trial to be at high risk of bias for performance bias, and uncertain risk for attrition bias; all other risk of bias domains we judged as low. All participants underwent rapid rewarming, received 250 mg of aspirin and 400 mg intravascular (IV) buflomedil (since withdrawn from practice), and were then randomised to one of three treatment groups for the following eight days. Group 1 received additional IV buflomedil 400 mg for one hour per day. Group 2 received the prostacyclin, iloprost, 0.5 ng to 2 ng/kg/min IV for six hours per day. Group 3 received IV iloprost 2 ng/kg/min for six hours per day plus fibrinolysis with 100 mg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for the first day only. The results suggest that iloprost and iloprost plus rtPA may reduce the rate of amputations in people with severe frostbite compared to buflomedil alone, RR 0.05 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.78; P = 0.03; very low-quality evidence) and RR 0.31 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.94; P = 0.04; very low-quality evidence), respectively. Iloprost may be as effective as iloprost plus rtPA at reducing the amputation rate, RR 0.14 (95% CI 0.01 to 2.56; P = 0.19; very low-quality evidence). There were no reported deaths or withdrawals due to adverse events in any of the groups; we assessed evidence for both outcomes as being of very low quality. Adverse events (including flushing, nausea, palpitations and vomiting) were common, but not reported separately by comparator arm (very low-quality evidence). The included study did not measure the outcomes of acute pain, chronic pain, ability to perform activities of daily living, quality of life or occupational effects. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of evidence regarding interventions for frostbite injuries. Very low-quality evidence from a single small trial indicates that iloprost, and iloprost plus rtPA, in combination with buflomedil may reduce the need for amputation in people with severe frostbite compared to buflomedil alone. However, buflomedil has been withdrawn from use. High quality randomised trials are needed to establish firm evidence for the treatment of frostbite injuries.


Assuntos
Congelamento das Extremidades/terapia , Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Viés , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Epoprostenol/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Iloprosta/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Reaquecimento/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23414, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327266

RESUMO

Our study aimed to investigate the effect of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase and edaravone on cerebral hemodynamics and T lymphocyte level in patients harboring acute cerebral infarction.There involved a total of 118 patients with acute cerebral infarction from November 2017 to May 2019 in our hospital were randomly divided into 2 groups: the observation group (59 patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase combined with edaravone) and the control group (59 patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis of alteplase). The clinical effect, neurological function, cerebral hemodynamic index, T lymphocyte level, oxygen free radical scavenging level and oxidative stress index of the 2 groups were observed and compared.Before the treatment, there were no significant differences in neurological function, cerebral hemodynamic indexes, T-lymphocyte level, oxygen free radical scavenging level and oxidative stress indexes between the 2 groups (P > .05). After the treatment, the neurological function, cerebral hemodynamic indexes, T-lymphocyte level, oxygen free radical scavenging level and oxidative stress indexes of the 2 groups were significantly improved. In addition, the observation group exerted greater beneficial effect in terms of the clinical effect, neurologic function, cerebral hemodynamic index, T lymphocyte level, oxygen free radical scavenging level and oxidative stress index than those of the control group (P < .05).The intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase and edaravone is effective in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, which also provides better results in terms of improving the clinical efficacy and prognosis of patients and might be an alternative option for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Edaravone/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of meldonium (mildronat) in patients with chronic cerebral vascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An open comparative study of the clinical efficacy of meldonium (mildronat) in patients with chronic CVD caused by arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis was conducted. The main group included 30 (60%) patients who were prescribed meldonium (mildronat) at a dose of 1000 mg per day in addition to routine basic therapy. The control group was consisted of 20 (40%) patients who received routine basic therapy only. The duration of the study was 60 days. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the meldonium (mildronat), the main subjective clinical symptoms, neurological, psychoemotional and cognitive status, quality of life were assessed when patients were included in the study (before treatment), on the 11th and 60th days from the start of treatment. To assess the meldonium (mildronat) effect on the endothelium vascular wall, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and endothelin-1 were determined in the blood when patients were included in the study, on the 11th and 60th days from the start of treatment. RESULTS: Meldonium (mildronat) has a positive therapeutic effect on the main clinical symptoms and cognitive functions which appears in increasing the quickness of mental activity, improving short-term and operative memory, increasing the resistance of mental processes and memory traces to interfering influences, and improving cognitive evoked potentials P300 results. Meldonium (mildronat) therapy leads to the decrease in the level of state and trait anxiety. The quality of life of patients treated with meldonium (mildronat) increases due to the physical and mental components. The effect of meldonium (mildronat) on the decrease in endothelin-1 and PAI-1 levels, which indicates the antitrombogenic effect of the drug, has been identified. CONCLUSION: Nootropic, anxiolytic and antitrombogenic effects of meldonium (mildronat) in patients with chronic CVD are demonstrated that makes it possible to recommend this drug for widespread use by specialists in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metilidrazinas , Neuroproteção , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Kardiologiia ; 60(10): 73-79, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228509

RESUMO

Aim To study the association between concentrations of endothelial dysfunction (ED) markers and arterial hypertension (AH) in people who were exposed to long-term action of "low-dose" ionizing radiation.Material and methods The study subjects were men of middle age (45-55 years) who were workers of the Siberian Integrated Chemical Plant with the length of service on the shop floor of at least 5 years. The subjects were divided into the main group (n=96) consisting of workers with grade 1-2 AH and the control group (n=48) consisting of arbitrarily healthy workers. Both groups contained workers who had been exposed to long-term occupational low-intensity irradiation (γ-radiation) and those not exposed to this irradiation. The study evaluated risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, presence of concomitant diseases, blood biochemistry (concentrations of glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, creatinine, and ED markers, including endothelin, angiotensin II, von Willebrand factor, C-type natriuretic peptide, tissue plasminogen activator, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and homocysteine, major clinical data, total dose of external irradiation, and the content of 239Pu in the body.Results AH was associated primarily with excessive body weight and severity of atherogenic dyslipidemia and homocysteinemia. Higher plasma concentrations of TNF-α and a tendency to increasing hsCRP in the AH group, as distinct from the control group of arbitrarily healthy men, indicated a proinflammatory shift. The ED markers were related with clinical data of AH patients and associated with the lipid profile and increased blood concentrations of inflammatory mediators. The radiation exposure did not change the ED marker array in AH patients, which did not allow recommendation of the studied plasma indexes for detection of vascular endothelial injury in workers with AH of the Siberian Integrated Chemical Plant.Conclusion The study results evidenced the absence of adverse effects of long-term occupational exposure to low-intensity radiation on the vascular endothelium as evaluated by ED markers. In men aged 45-55 years, AH was associated primarily with excessive body weight, homocysteinemia, and atherogenic dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular , Hipertensão , Exposição Ocupacional , Plutônio , Lesões por Radiação , Biomarcadores , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 2029-2039, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169568

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a major health crisis causing high mortality and morbidity. The key treatment relies on the rapid intervention to dissolve thrombus, to reduce bleeding side effect and re-canalize clotted blood vessels using clot lysis drugs. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved drug for ischemic stroke, but it has many limitations in clinical use. In recent years, the development of thrombolytic drugs and treatment strategies based on tPA has been progressed rapidly. Here we review the recent progress in this field, including the contributions from us and others, to promote the future development of novel thrombolytic drugs.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Fibrinolíticos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Terapia Trombolítica , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pesquisa/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/tendências , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
9.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 86-90, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155945

RESUMO

Objective Thromboembolic events such as acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, pulmonary artery embolism and renal artery embolism are a rare condition but a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study we discussed low-dose thrombolytic therapy, in patients with thromboembolic events in the intensive care unit.Methods The study was performed on 12 consecutive patients [8 female; 50.3±16.0 (35-95) years] with acute thromboembolism including acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, acute pulmonary embolism and acute renal embolism who were treated with low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA. We evaluated mainly in-hospital safety and also effectiveness.Total treatment episodes was 1.66±0.88 (1-4) times.Results All thromboembolic events have been successfully treated with low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA. The success criteria were clinically improvement and radiologically lysis. None of the patients had ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, embolism (peripheral and recurrence of coronary artery embolism), bleeding requiring transfusion. The most frequent in-hospital complication was a gum bleeding without need for transfusion (two patients).Conclusions In our case series low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA have been performed successfully for thromboembolic events including acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and renal embolism in patients with in the intensive care unit. Safety is promising and if efficacy will be proved; this method may be a valuable alternative to standard fibrinolytic regimen.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia , Trombose , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(5): 550-555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolution of the symptomatic intracranial occlusion during transfers from primary stroke centers (PSCs) to comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) for endovascular treatment (EVT) is not widely known. Our aim was to identify factors related to partial or complete recanalization (REC) at CSC arrival in patients with a documented large vessel occlusion (LVO) in PSC transferred for EVT evaluation to better define the workflow at CSC of this group of patients. METHODS: We conducted an observational, multicenter study from a prospective, government-mandated, population-based registry of stroke patients with documented LVO at PSC transferred to CSC for EVT from January 2017 to June 2019. The primary end point was defined as partial or complete REC that precluded EVT at CSC arrival (REC). We evaluated the association between baseline, treatment variables and time intervals with the presence of REC. RESULTS: From 589 patients, the rate of REC at CSC was 10.5% in all LVO patients transferred from PSC to CSC for EVT evaluation. On univariate analysis, lower PSC-NIHSS (median 12vs.16, p = 0.001), tPA treatment at PSC (13.7 vs. 5.0%; p = 0.001), presence of M2 occlusion on PSC (16.8 vs. 9%; p = 0.023), and clinical improvement at CSC arrival (21.7 vs. 9.6% p = 0.001) were associated with REC at CSC. On multivariate analysis, clinical improvement at CSC arrival (p < 0.001, OR: 5.96 95% CI: 2.5-13.9) and PSC tPA treatment predicted REC (p = 0.003, OR: 4.65, 95% CI: 1.73-12.4). CONCLUSION: REC at CSC arrival occurs exceptionally in patients with a documented LVO on PSC. Repeating a second vascular study before EVT would not be necessary in most patients. Despite its modest effect, tPA treatment at PSC was an independent predictor of REC.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Transferência de Pacientes , Reperfusão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Reperfusão/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fluxo de Trabalho
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105201, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased risk of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), however, there is a paucity of data regarding outcomes after administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for stroke in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We present a multicenter case series from 9 centers in the United States of patients with acute neurological deficits consistent with AIS and COVID-19 who were treated with IV tPA. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients (mean age 62 (±9.8) years, 9 (69.2%) male). All received IV tPA and 3 cases also underwent mechanical thrombectomy. All patients had systemic symptoms consistent with COVID-19 at the time of admission: fever (5 patients), cough (7 patients), and dyspnea (8 patients). The median admission NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) score was 14.5 (range 3-26) and most patients (61.5%) improved at follow up (median NIHSS score 7.5, range 0-25). No systemic or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages were seen. Stroke mechanisms included cardioembolic (3 patients), large artery atherosclerosis (2 patients), small vessel disease (1 patient), embolic stroke of undetermined source (3 patients), and cryptogenic with incomplete investigation (1 patient). Three patients were determined to have transient ischemic attacks or aborted strokes. Two out of 12 (16.6%) patients had elevated fibrinogen levels on admission (mean 262.2 ± 87.5 mg/dl), and 7 out of 11 (63.6%) patients had an elevated D-dimer level (mean 4284.6 ±3368.9 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: IV tPA may be safe and efficacious in COVID-19, but larger studies are needed to validate these results.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(269): 4751-4764, out.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145411

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar as habilidades dos enfermeiros, no uso terapêutico do Alteplase, como terapia fibrinolítica, em pacientes com diagnóstico de infarto agudo do miocárdio. Método: A pesquisa foi realizada por meio de um estudo descritivo transversal, quantitativo, realizado por meio de questionário como instrumento de coleta, contendo 10 questões de múltipla escolha elaboradas pelo autor. A amostra foi constituída por 24 enfermeiros. A coleta de dados foi realizada em julho de 2019, com CAAE n° 13159219.7.0000.5493. Os dados foram analisados e tratados por meio da análise descritiva. Resultado: Os resultados mostraram que os participantes da pesquisa possuem habilidades para o manuseio e aplicabilidade da terapia fibrinolítica, Alteplase, em pacientes acometidos por infarto agudo do miocárdio. Conclusão:Os resultados obtidos demonstram que os enfermeiros possuem habilidade para o manuseio, administração, aplicabilidade do Alteplase, bem como na avaliação dos sintomas e contraindicações do medicamento em pacientes acometidos por Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio. Entretanto, foi identificado uma porcentagem que apresentam dificuldades na execução de todas as atividades. Portanto, o estudo contribuirá na elaboração de protocolos aos profissionais da área da saúde envolvidos de modo direto ou indireto aos cuidados aos pacientes que necessitam desta intervenção farmacológica como tratamento.(AU)


Objective: to evaluate the abilities of nurses in the therapeutic use of Alteplase, as fibrinolytic therapy, in patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. Method: The research was carried out by means of a transversal, quantitative descriptive study, carried out by means of a questionnaire as a collection instrument, containing 10 multiple choice questions elaborated by the author. The sample consisted of 24 nurses. The data collection was carried out in July 2019, with CAAE No. 13159219.7.0000.5493. The data were analyzed and treated through descriptive analysis. Result: The results showed that the research participants have skills for the handling and applicability of fibrinolytic therapy, Alteplase, in patients affected by acute myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The results show that the nurses have skills in the handling, administration and applicability of Alteplase, as well as in the evaluation of the symptoms and contraindications of the drug in patients affected by Acute Myocardial Infarction. However, it was identified a percentage that present difficulties in performing all activities. Therefore, the study will contribute in the elaboration of protocols to the professionals of the health area involved in a direct or indirect way to the care of patients who need this pharmacological intervention as treatment.(AU)


Objetivo: evaluar las capacidades de las enfermeras en el uso terapéutico de la Alteplasa, como terapia fibrinolítica, en pacientes diagnosticados con infarto agudo de miocardio. Material y método: La investigación se realizó mediante un estudio descriptivo cuantitativo transversal, realizado mediante un cuestionario como instrumento de recopilación, que contenía 10 preguntas de opción múltiple preparadas por el autor. La muestra constaba de 24 enfermeras. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo en julio de 2019, con el CAAE Nº 13159219.7.0000.5493. Los datos fueron analizados y tratados mediante un análisis descriptivo. Resultado: Los resultados mostraron que los participantes en la investigación tienen habilidades en el manejo y la aplicabilidad del tratamiento fibrinolítico, Alteplase, en pacientes afectados por un infarto agudo de miocardio. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que las enfermeras tienen aptitudes para el manejo, la administración y la aplicabilidad del Alteplase, así como para la evaluación de los síntomas y las contraindicaciones del fármaco en los pacientes afectados por un infarto agudo de miocardio. Sin embargo, se identificó un porcentaje que presenta dificultades para realizar todas las actividades. Por lo tanto, el estudio contribuirá a la elaboración de protocolos para los profesionales de la salud que participan directa o indirectamente en la atención de los pacientes que necesitan esta intervención farmacológica como tratamiento.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Terapêutica , Terapia Trombolítica/enfermagem , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Infarto do Miocárdio , Enfermagem em Emergência , Serviços Médicos de Emergência
14.
Rev Prat ; 70(6): 626-628, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058603

RESUMO

Recanalization after cerebral ischemia. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) management is based on stroke unit admission and arterial recanalization. Recanalization therapies include the endovascular approach (also called mechanical thrombectomy) and intravenous (IV) alteplase (i.e. thrombolysis). In the setting of AIS consecutive to large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation (i.e. internal carotid and/or middle cerebral arteries), IV alteplase is associated to endovascular approach. IV alteplase alone being devoted to AIS without large vessel occlusion. The therapeutic window is of 4h30 for IV alteplase administration and 6 hours for endovascular approach. Using MRI and perfusion brain imaging, the therapeutic window may be individualized and extended up to 24 hours. Although this extended time window is an opportunity to treat more patients, the rapidity of recanalization remains critical, as it is a major predictor of clinical outcome, emphasizing the need to reduce, as much as possible, treatment delays.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21922, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871929

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cancer-related stroke has been regarded as an emerging subtype of ischemic event. Acute treatment for this subtype may include the antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, or endovascular intervention. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old woman with sudden-onset right hemiparesis and conscious change was sent to our emergency department. The patient had underlying sigmoid adenocarcinoma and received chemotherapy FOLFIRI (FOL, folinic acid; F, fluorouracil; and IRI, irinotecan) with targeted therapy cetuximab following lower anterior resection since the diagnosis was made. DIAGNOSES: Brain magnetic resonance angiography revealed a filling defect in left carotid bulb, and neurosonography showed a thick atherosclerotic plaque (size 4.9 mm) in the left internal carotid artery on day 5 after the onset of stroke. INTERVENTIONS: During the first three hours after onset, administration of IV tissue plasminogen activator did not resolve the thrombus. Dabigatran (110 mg bid) started on day 7. OUTCOMES: The atherosclerotic plaque dissolved on day 24. The patient recovered her muscle strength but still had nonfluent speech in mild extent. LESSONS: Thrombolytic and anticoagulant medications in this patient suggested the thrombus formation with fibrin-rich content which may be attributable to both cancer and chemotherapy. Dabigatran, an oral anticoagulant, had a benefit for this subtype of ischemic stroke among patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/terapia , Artéria Carótida Interna , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/induzido quimicamente , Terapia Trombolítica , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105168, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Isolated Sulcal Effacement (ISE) is focal cortical swelling without obscuration of cortical gray-white junction. The available information on its role in acute stroke patients treated with intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is limited. METHODS: ISE along with ASPECT and rLMC collateral score were determined in pre-treatment CT/CT angiography of 195 consecutive acute stroke patients treated with IV tPA "only". In addition, ISE-ASPECT score was created. Role of ISE on responsiveness to IV tPA, thrombolysis-associated hemorrhage and functional outcome were studied in 102 patients with CT-angiography-confirmed anterior system proximal vessel occlusion. RESULTS: ISE was observed in 12 patients (6.2% of all and 11.4% of those with occlusion of the carotid terminus, M1, or proximal M2) corresponding to excellent specificity (100%) but fair sensitivity (12%) for diagnosis of anterior cerebral circulation proximal artery occlusion. ISE ASPECT score was significantly correlated with rLMC score (p=0.023). Presence of ISE was linked to younger age, female gender, lower NIHSS, along with higher ASPECT and rLMC scores. Albeit not persisted after adjustment for collateral status and NIHSS, dramatic response to IV tPA along with excellent (23% vs. 8%, p<0.05), good (21% vs. 6%, p<0.05) and acceptable (19% vs. 4%, p<0.05) functional outcome were significantly higher in patients with ISE. CONCLUSIONS: As a plain CT marker of sufficient collateral status and increased cerebral blood volume, ISE indicates a better response to IV tPA. However, it should be noted that this relatively rare CT finding is highly specific for cerebral large vessel occlusions amenable neurothrombectomy.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Colateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 46(7): 850-852, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886934
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