Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.699
Filtrar
1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907873

RESUMO

A 71-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with low oxygen saturations and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection. Apart from a small left-sided ischaemic stroke 10 years prior with very minor residual deficit, he had been well and in full-time employment until development of symptoms. Within minutes of commencing non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the ED, he developed a complete left-sided paralysis and hemineglect. This case highlights the significance of the prothrombotic complications associated with COVID-19 infection. It also raises the question whether pressure changes upon commencing NIV could lead to clot migration.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948531

RESUMO

We are reporting a middle-aged male patient with polycythaemia vera comorbidity. The patient was exhibiting symptoms including fever, cough and shortness of breath and was found to have acute pulmonary embolism. He was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. This case suggests that a high index of suspicion should be taken into consideration for thromboembolic events, when treating patients with COVID-19 with breathing difficulty and low oxygen saturation levels, especially in those who have underlying predisposing conditions for coagulopathy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Policitemia Vera/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Policitemia Vera/sangue , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21922, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871929

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cancer-related stroke has been regarded as an emerging subtype of ischemic event. Acute treatment for this subtype may include the antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, or endovascular intervention. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old woman with sudden-onset right hemiparesis and conscious change was sent to our emergency department. The patient had underlying sigmoid adenocarcinoma and received chemotherapy FOLFIRI (FOL, folinic acid; F, fluorouracil; and IRI, irinotecan) with targeted therapy cetuximab following lower anterior resection since the diagnosis was made. DIAGNOSES: Brain magnetic resonance angiography revealed a filling defect in left carotid bulb, and neurosonography showed a thick atherosclerotic plaque (size 4.9 mm) in the left internal carotid artery on day 5 after the onset of stroke. INTERVENTIONS: During the first three hours after onset, administration of IV tissue plasminogen activator did not resolve the thrombus. Dabigatran (110 mg bid) started on day 7. OUTCOMES: The atherosclerotic plaque dissolved on day 24. The patient recovered her muscle strength but still had nonfluent speech in mild extent. LESSONS: Thrombolytic and anticoagulant medications in this patient suggested the thrombus formation with fibrin-rich content which may be attributable to both cancer and chemotherapy. Dabigatran, an oral anticoagulant, had a benefit for this subtype of ischemic stroke among patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/terapia , Artéria Carótida Interna , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/induzido quimicamente , Terapia Trombolítica , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo Sigmoide/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
4.
Brasília; s.n; 8 jul. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117634

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos e 11 protocolos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais/instrumentação , Estudos de Coortes , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620938149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677459

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response that can lead to severe manifestations such as adult respiratory syndrome, sepsis, coagulopathy, and death in a proportion of patients. Among other factors and direct viral effects, the increase in the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, the decrease in the vasodilator angiotensin, and the sepsis-induced release of cytokines can trigger a coagulopathy in COVID-19. A coagulopathy has been reported in up to 50% of patients with severe COVID-19 manifestations. An increase in d-dimer is the most significant change in coagulation parameters in severe COVID-19 patients, and progressively increasing values can be used as a prognostic parameter indicating a worse outcome. Limited data suggest a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in up to 40% of patients, despite the use of a standard dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in most cases. In addition, pulmonary microvascular thrombosis has been reported and may play a role in progressive lung failure. Prophylactic LMWH has been recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) and the American Society of Hematology (ASH), but the best effective dosage is uncertain. Adapted to the individual risk of thrombosis and the d-dimer value, higher doses can be considered, especially since bleeding events in COVID-19 are rare. Besides the anticoagulant effect of LMWH, nonanticoagulant properties such as the reduction in interleukin 6 release have been shown to improve the complex picture of coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/sangue , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/epidemiologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/prevenção & controle , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Risco , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/sangue , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/prevenção & controle , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
7.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(3): 341-344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak is currently the major public health concern worldwide. This infection, caused by the novel coronavirus Sars Cov2, primarily affects respiratory system, but there is increasing evidence of neurologic involvement and cerebrovascular accidents. CASE REPORT: We present a case of stroke in a 62-year-old COVID-19-positive patient, with multiple vascular risk factors. The patient arrived 1 h after onset of symptoms, was treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) with improvement of neurologic deficits, and later developed right foot arterial ischemia (recanalized by balloon catheter angioplasty) and left arm superficial venous thrombosis. A control computed tomography (CT) scan 7 days after onset showed hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic lesion without mass effect. However, respiratory and neurologic conditions improved so that the patient was discharged to rehabilitation. DISCUSSION: Until now, few cases of stroke in COVID-19 have been described, mainly in severe forms. This patient had ischemic injuries in different sites as well as venous thrombosis; hence, we speculate that Sars Cov2 could have a direct role in promoting vascular accidents since its receptor ACE2 is a surface protein also expressed by endothelial cells. This case suggests that COVID-19 can favor strokes and in general vascular complications, even in milder cases, and the presence of preexisting risk factors could play a determinant role.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Causalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(9): 2529-2543, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654082

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is gradually being comprehended. A high number of thrombotic episodes are reported, along with the mortality benefits of heparin. COVID-19 can be viewed as a prothrombotic disease. We overviewed the available evidence to explore this possibility. We identified various histopathology reports and clinical case series reporting thromboses in COVID-19. Also, multiple coagulation markers support this. COVID-19 can be regarded as a risk factor for thrombosis. Applying the principles of Virchow's triad, we described abnormalities in the vascular endothelium, altered blood flow, and platelet function abnormalities that lead to venous and arterial thromboses in COVID-19. Endothelial dysfunction, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with the release of procoagulant plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and hyperimmune response with activated platelets seem to be significant contributors to thrombogenesis in COVID-19. Stratifying risk of COVID-19 thromboses should be based on age, presence of comorbidities, D-dimer, CT scoring, and various blood cell ratios. Isolated heparin therapy may not be sufficient to combat thrombosis in this disease. There is an urgent need to explore newer avenues like activated protein C, PAI-1 antagonists, and tissue plasminogen activators (tPA). These should be augmented with therapies targeting RAAS, antiplatelet drugs, repurposed antiinflammatory, and antirheumatic drugs. Key Points • Venous and arterial thromboses in COVID-19 can be viewed through the prism of Virchow's triad. • Endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, hyperviscosity, and blood flow abnormalities due to hypoxia, immune reactions, and hypercoagulability lead to thrombogenesis in COVID-19. • There is an urgent need to stratify COVID-19 patients at risk for thrombosis using age, comorbidities, D-dimer, and CT scoring. • Patients with COVID-19 at high risk for thrombosis should be put on high dose heparin therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombose/sangue , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Plaquetas , Viscosidade Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Ativação Plaquetária , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombofilia/metabolismo , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/sangue , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(3): 263-267, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality, due mainly to hemodynamic instability. In these cases, the recommendation is to perform some reperfusion procedure, with systemic thrombolysis being the main therapy used. However, national data evaluating the efficacy and safety of thrombolysis are scarce. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a case series. We included 13 patients diagnosed with high-risk APE and 4 patients with intermediate-high risk from a single-center, who were treated with alteplase 100mg. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 55 years, most of them female (76.4%). Among the risk factors for VTE were immobilization (41.17%), contraceptive use (35.29%), cancer (17.63%), and previous history of DVT (11.76%). The most frequent clinical manifestations of APE were dyspnea (88.23%), hypoxia (82.35%), hypotension (82.35%), and tachycardia (64.70%). 82.35% of the patients had echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction, and 52.94% had increased troponin and BNP. Severe bleeding associated with thrombolysis occurred in 17.54% of cases. No patient died due to bleeding. There were 8 deaths from right ventricular failure (47%), 6 in the cases of patients presenting as high-risk APE (35.3%), and 2 in the cases of intermediate-high risk (11.8%). CONCLUSION: Thrombolysis in patients with high-risk APE or intermediate-high risk had a severe bleeding rate of 17.6%. However, the high mortality of this population (47%) due to right ventricular failure justifies the use of this therapeutic modality.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 90-97, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573538

RESUMO

The article provides a review of foreign literature for 2020 on existing methods of drug treatment of coronavirus disease COVID-19. To date, in the treatment of COVID-19 in different countries, a little more than 10 drugs are used. The largest number of studies on the testing of these drugs is carried out by scientists from China, the USA, and European countries. It should be noted that among these drugs there is not a single new drug developed specifically for the treatment of COVID-19, the recommended and used drugs have previously been used to treat, as a rule, diseases of the viral etiology, less often another pathology. These suggestions are often based on analogy, the hypothesis of their supposed effectiveness for COVID-19. It can be assumed that a brake on the development of a drug specific for coronavirus disease is a poor knowledge of the pathogenesis of virus invasion in the body's adhesives and the development of complications. The review provides detailed literature data on drugs such as hydroxychloroquine / chloroquine, lopinavir/natinavir, remdesivir, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers, tissue plasminogen activator, as well as plasma transfusion transfusions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
11.
N Engl J Med ; 382(24): 2316-2326, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials involving patients with stroke have established that outcomes are improved with the use of thrombectomy for large-vessel occlusion. These trials were performed in high-resource countries and have had limited effects on medical practice in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We studied the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in the public health system of Brazil. In 12 public hospitals, patients with a proximal intracranial occlusion in the anterior circulation that could be treated within 8 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care plus mechanical thrombectomy (thrombectomy group) or standard care alone (control group). The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients were enrolled, including 79 who had undergone thrombectomy during an open-label roll-in period. Approximately 70% in the two groups received intravenous alteplase. The trial was stopped early because of efficacy when 221 of a planned 690 patients had undergone randomization (111 to the thrombectomy group and 110 to the control group). The common odds ratio for a better distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days was 2.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 3.69; P = 0.001), favoring thrombectomy. The percentage of patients with a score on the modified Rankin scale of 0 to 2, signifying an absence of or minor neurologic deficit, was 35.1% in the thrombectomy group and 20.0% in the control group (difference, 15.1 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.6 to 27.6). Asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 51.4% of the patients in the thrombectomy group and 24.5% of those in the control group; symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4.5% of the patients in each group. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized trial conducted in the public health care system of Brazil, endovascular treatment within 8 hours after the onset of stroke symptoms in conjunction with standard care resulted in better functional outcomes at 90 days than standard care alone. (Funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health; RESILIENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02216643.).


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am Heart J ; 225: 38-43, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have implied the efficacy and safety of argatroban plus recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Further trials are needed to establish convincing conclusions in a large sample size. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Argatroban plus r-tPA for Acute Ischemic Stroke (ARAIS) trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, and blind-end point trial. The trial proposes to randomize 808 patients with acute ischemic stroke National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score≥ 6 at the time of randomization) within 4.5 hours of symptom onset to receive argatroban (100 µg/kg bolus followed by an infusion of 1.0 µg/kg per minute for 48 hours) plus r-tPA or r-tPA alone. The primary end point is the proportion of patients with an excellent outcome of no clinically significant residual stroke deficits (modified Rankin scale 0-1) at 90 days. Secondary end points include the proportion of patients with a good outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-2) at 90 days, early neurological improvement (NIHSS score ≥2-point decrease) at 48 hours, early neurological deterioration (NIHSS score ≥4-point increase) at 48 hours, decrease in the NIHSS score from baseline to 14 days, and stroke recurrence or other vascular events at 90 days. Safety end points include symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, parenchymal hematoma type 2, and major systemic bleeding. CONCLUSION: ARAIS trial will evaluate whether argatroban plus r-tPA is superior to r-tPA alone in improving functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients in a large sample population.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Pipecólicos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 239, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) improves outcome for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but many of them still have substantial disability. Glibenclamide (US adopted name, glyburide), a long-acting sulfonylurea, shows promising result in treating AIS from both preclinical and clinical studies. This study investigates the safety and efficacy of glibenclamide combined with rtPA in treating AIS patients. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial with an estimated sample size of 306 cases, starting in January 2018. Patients aged 18 to 74 years, presented with a symptomatic anterior circulation occlusion with a deficit on the NIHSS of 4 to 25 points and treated with intravenous rtPA within the first 4.5 h of their clinical onsets, are eligible for participation in this study. The target time from the onset of symptoms to receive the study drug is of 10 h. Subjects are randomized 1: 1 to receive glibenclamide or placebo with a loading dose of 1.25 mg, followed by 0.625 mg every 8 h for total 5 days. The primary efficacy endpoint is 90-day good outcome, measured as modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 2. Safety outcomes are all-cause 30-day mortality and early neurological deterioration, with a focus on cardiac- and glucose-related serious adverse events. DISCUSSION: This study will provide valuable information about the safety and efficacy of oral glibenclamide for AIS patients treated with rtPA. This would bring benefits to a large number of patients if the agent is proved to be effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on September 14th 2017 at www.clinicaltrials.gov having identifier NCT03284463. Registration was performed before recruitment was initiated.


Assuntos
Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Constrição Patológica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Thromb Res ; 193: 79-82, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526545

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19) has been reported in almost every country in the world. Although a large proportion of infected individuals develop only mild symptoms or are asymptomatic, the spectrum of the disease among others has been widely variable in severity. Additionally, many infected individuals were found to have coagulation markers abnormalities. This is especially true among those progressing to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure. While the incidence of venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease has been recently noted to be elevated among critically ill patients, the incidence among ambulatory and non-critically ill patients is not yet clearly defined. Herein, we present six patients who didn't have any hypercoagulable risk factors yet presented with pulmonary embolism in association with COVID 19 infection. Furthermore, we discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of hypercoagulability and highlight the possibility of underdiagnosing pulmonary embolism in the setting of overlapping symptoms, decreased utilization of imaging secondary to associated risks, and increased turnover times. In addition, we emphasize the role of extended thromboprophylaxis in discharged patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 90-93, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497796

RESUMO

In a proportion of patients, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a multisystem syndrome characterized by hyperinflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and hypercoagulability. A 68-year-old man with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory failure, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and skin ischemia - microthrombosis. Specific coagulation and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, ferritin, and C-reactive protein), along with the clinical picture, triggered the trial of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and tocilizumab. This was followed by resolution of the skin ischemia and CRS, while respiratory parameters improved. No major complications associated with rt-PA or tocilizumab occurred. The combination of rt-PA with targeted anti-inflammatory treatment could be a new therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19, ARDS, hyperinflammation, and increased blood viscosity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
17.
Neurology ; 95(1): e11-e22, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prior meta-analysis of reports published between 2000 and 2008 found that women were 30% less likely to receive IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) treatment for stroke than men; we updated this meta-analysis to determine if this sex difference persisted. METHODS: We identified studies that reported sex-specific IV rtPA treatment rates for acute ischemic stroke published between 2008 and 2018. Eligible studies included representative populations of patients with ischemic stroke from hospital-based, registry-based, or administrative data. Random effects odds ratios (ORs) were generated to quantify sex differences. RESULTS: Twenty-four eligible studies were identified during this 10-year period. The summary unadjusted OR based on 17 studies with data on all ischemic stroke patients was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.93), indicating that women had 13% lower odds of receiving IV rtPA treatment than men. However, substantial between-study variability existed. Lower treatment odds in women were also observed in 7 studies that provided data on the subgroup of patients eligible for IV rtPA treatment, although the summary OR of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88-1.02) was not statistically significant. Examination of time trends across 33 studies published between 2000 and 2018 found evidence that the sex difference had narrowed in more recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is considerable variability in the findings of individual studies, pooled data from recent studies show that women with acute stroke are less likely to be treated with IV thrombolysis compared with men. However, the size of this difference has narrowed compared to studies published before 2008.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo
18.
Transl Stroke Res ; 11(3): 322-325, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186593

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with neurological symptoms and complications including stroke. There is hypercoagulability associated with COVID-19 that is likely a "sepsis-induced coagulopathy" and may predispose to stroke. The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) present on brain endothelial and smooth muscle cells. ACE2 is a key part of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and a counterbalance to angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) and angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is proinflammatory, is vasoconstrictive, and promotes organ damage. Depletion of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 may tip the balance in favor of the "harmful" ACE1/angiotensin II axis and promote tissue injury including stroke. There is a rationale to continue to treat with tissue plasminogen activator for COVID-19-related stroke and low molecular weight heparinoids may reduce thrombosis and mortality in sepsis-induced coagulopathy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/administração & dosagem , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/sangue , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
20.
Brasília; s.n; 22 maio 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097386

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 21 artigos e 13 protocolos.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Vacinas/provisão & distribução , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Tazobactam/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA