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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4632, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential value of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as prognostic predictors in hospitalized elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on data collected from elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a public hospital located in the Northeastern region of Brazil, from April to July 2015. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measurements. Cardiovascular risk and prognostic markers, such as troponin and creatine kynase MB isoenzyme values, acute myocardial infarction classification according to ST segment elevation, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score were used. RESULTS: The sample comprised 99 patients with mean age of 71.6 (±7.4) years. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was 64.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent among males (p=0.017) aged >80 years (p=0.008). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction was the only marker of cardiovascular risk significantly associated with sarcopenia (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high and associated with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. Sarcopenic obesity affected approximately one-third of patients and was not associated with any of the prognostic predictors.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16315, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277175

RESUMO

Driving is an essential activity for community engagement in patients with brain injury. However, brain injury patients have cognitive-perceptual deficits and low independence in daily activities. The aims of this study were to identify the driving errors of brain injury patients and determine their relevance to cognitive-perception function and daily activity level. This study was conducted at a single rehabilitation hospital. Thirty-one brain injury patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a driving-scene-based simulator evaluation in the rehabilitation clinic. Driving errors were checked using automatic software. Perceptual ability was measured using Motor-free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPT) and Cognitive-perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD). A linear relationship was found between the driving aptitude score, steering wheel and judgment, simultaneous operation items, total score of road course test, and cognitive-perceptual functions and daily activity levels of the participants (P <.05). The general factors that affected driving errors included driving experience, age, part of the hemispheric affected, and presence of vascular injury (P <.05). In addition, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) score and the CPAD score correlated with driving errors (P <.05). The total error score of the participants correlated with the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score (P <.05).These findings suggest that driving experience and age have more influence on driving error than perceptual level due to brain damage. In addition, it was found that the basic level of daily living influences overall operating errors.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4619, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle perception and physical activity levels in obese prebariatric surgery patients. METHODS: A quantitative, cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 male and female morbidly obese prebariatric surgery patients. Questionnaires addressing sociodemographic profile, lifestyle perception and physical activity levels were applied. RESULTS: Patients were aged 40.3±11.45 years. Inadequate levels of physical activity were reported by 47.8% of patients; most respondents (79.2%) attributed scores defined as inadequate to the physical activity domain of the lifestyle questionnaire. Time spent on physical activity practice per week differed significantly between patients reporting being physically active or physically inactive in adolescence (p=0.046). CONCLUSION: Most obese prebariatric surgery patients perceive their lifestyle as inadequate, in spite of eligibility for bariatric surgery. Results also indicate that physical activity practice and nutrition are the domains with greatest impacts on patient lifestyle, and that physical activity practice in adolescence may contribute to adoption of a more active behavior in adulthood, which may represent a vital tool for health promotion in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Exercício/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobility recovery is one of the main purposes of physical rehabilitation after acute stroke and in a number of other neurological diseases. AIM: To quantify the efficiency of rehabilitation measures in patients after stroke and to compare the effectiveness of motor function restoration in patients in the acute phase of stroke and in the early recovery period. METHODS: Examinations were made in 116 patients aged 27 to 88 years who had experienced a stroke (75% of ischemic stroke cases) and been admitted to the Department of Medical Rehabilitation. A control group consisted of 111 sex- and age-matched patients who had suffered a stroke (86% of ischemic stroke cases) and been admitted to the Department of Neurology for patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. The methods of working with patients included a clinical interview and an evaluation of complaints and history data, as well as a classic neurological examination using quantitative scales to assess symptoms, degree of disability and mobility. RESULTS: The cycle of rehabilitation measures provided the following quantitative recovery indicators: the strength scale showed recovery indicators (from 0 to 5 scores) by an average of 1 score in both groups; Ashworth's scale scores for spasticity improved by an average of 1 in the Department of Rehabilitation; the average Rankin scale demonstrated 1 score better in both groups; and the Rivermead mobility index improved by an average of 3 scores in the Department of Rehabilitation and by an average of 8 scores in the Department of Neurology for patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. CONCLUSION: The investigation demonstrated the quantitatively best indicators in patients with acute stroke, in those with more severe motor deficits, and in younger individuals.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(4): 493-510, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual-task (simultaneous motor and cognitive task) (DT) training via virtual-reality exergaming is known to benefit balance control post-stroke. However, the efficacy of such training on DT balance control (volitional and reactive) and cognitive (executive function and attention) domains associated with fall risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of cognitive-motor exergame training (CMT) (Wii-fit games in conjunction with cognitive tasks) for improving balance control (volitional and reactive) and cognition (executive function and attention) among people with chronic stroke (PwCS). METHODS: Hemiparetic, ambulatory PwCS were randomly assigned to either CMT (n = 12) or conventional training (CT) (n = 12) and underwent six weeks of high-intensity, tapered balance training. The CMT group performed Wii-fit games in conjunction with cognitive tasks, while CT group underwent customized, progressive balance training. Performance under DT conditions on Limits of Stability (volitional) and Slip-Perturbation (reactive) tests, and letter-number sequencing (cognition) determined the efficacy of CMT. RESULTS: Post-intervention, under DT reactive conditions, CMT group improved both motor and cognition, while the CT group improved motor alone. Under DT volitional conditions, motor performance improved only in CMT group. CONCLUSION: Cognitive-motor exergaming appears to be effective for improving balance control and cognition and could be implemented in clinical stroke rehabilitation settings.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Jogos de Vídeo , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
6.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(4): 459-477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research mainly focuses on motor recovery of the upper limb after stroke. Less attention has been paid to somatosensory recovery. OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize the effect of upper limb somatosensory interventions on somatosensory impairment, motor impairment, functional activity and participation after stroke. METHODS: Biomedical databases Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PEDro, and OTseeker were searched with an update in May 2018. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of somatosensory-specific interventions focusing on exteroceptive, proprioceptive or higher cortical somatosensory dysfunction, or any combination were eligible for inclusion. Quality of included studies were assessed using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Standardized Mean Differences and Mean Differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and combined in meta-analyses. RESULTS: Active somatosensory interventions did not show a significant effect on somatosensation and activity, but demonstrated a significant improvement in motor impairment (SMD = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.14 to 1.32). No study evaluating active somatosensory intervention included participation. Passive somatosensory interventions significantly improved light touch sensation (SMD = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.20 to 2.05). Passive somatosensory interventions did not show significant effects on proprioception and higher cortical somatosensation, motor impairment, activity and participation. CONCLUSIONS: To date, there is low quality evidence suggesting active somatosensory interventions having a beneficial effect on upper limb impairment and very low quality evidence suggesting passive somatosensory interventions improving upper limb light touch sensation. There is a need for further well-designed trials of somatosensory rehabilitation post stroke.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Distúrbios Somatossensoriais/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Distúrbios Somatossensoriais/reabilitação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1132-1139, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182867

RESUMO

An approaching predator and self-motion toward an object can generate similar looming patterns on the retina, but these situations demand different rapid responses. How central circuits flexibly process visual cues to activate appropriate, fast motor pathways remains unclear. Here we identify two descending neuron (DN) types that control landing and contribute to visuomotor flexibility in Drosophila. For each, silencing impairs visually evoked landing, activation drives landing, and spike rate determines leg extension amplitude. Critically, visual responses of both DNs are severely attenuated during non-flight periods, effectively decoupling visual stimuli from the landing motor pathway when landing is inappropriate. The flight-dependence mechanism differs between DN types. Octopamine exposure mimics flight effects in one, whereas the other probably receives neuronal feedback from flight motor circuits. Thus, this sensorimotor flexibility arises from distinct mechanisms for gating action-specific descending pathways, such that sensory and motor networks are coupled or decoupled according to the behavioral state.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Vias Eferentes/fisiologia , Octopamina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Estimulação Luminosa
8.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(7): 2155-2171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161451

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Exercise shows promise as a treatment option for addiction; but in order to prevent relapse, it may need to be introduced early in the course of treatment. OBJECTIVE: We propose that exercise, by upregulating dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)-nucleus accumbens (NAc) transmission, offsets deficits in pathways targeting glutamate, BDNF, and dopamine during early abstinence, and in doing so, normalizes neuroadaptations that underlie relapse. METHODS: We compared the effects of exercise (wheel running, 2-h/day) during early (days 1-7), late (days 8-14), and throughout abstinence (days 1-14) to sedentary conditions on cocaine-seeking and gene expression in the dmPFC and NAc core of male rats tested following 24-h/day extended-access cocaine (up to 96 infusions/day) or saline self-administration and protracted abstinence (15 days). Based on these data, we then used site-specific manipulation to determine whether dmPFC metabotropic glutamate receptor5 (mGlu5) underlies the efficacy of exercise. RESULTS: Exercise initiated during early, but not late abstinence, reduced cocaine-seeking; this effect was strongly associated with dmPFC Grm5 expression (gene encoding mGlu5), and modestly associated with dmPFC Grin1 and Bdnf-IV expression. Activation of mGlu5 in the dmPFC during early abstinence mimicked the efficacy of early-initiated exercise; however, inhibition of these receptors prior to the exercise sessions did not block its efficacy indicating that there may be redundancy in the mechanisms through which exercise reduces cocaine-seeking. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that addiction treatments, including exercise, should be tailored for early versus late phases of abstinence since their effectiveness will vary over abstinence due to the dynamic nature of the underlying neuroadaptations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recidiva , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Autoadministração
9.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2497-2505, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain activation in response to spoken motor commands can be detected by electroencephalography (EEG) in clinically unresponsive patients. The prevalence and prognostic importance of a dissociation between commanded motor behavior and brain activation in the first few days after brain injury are not well understood. METHODS: We studied a prospective, consecutive series of patients in a single intensive care unit who had acute brain injury from a variety of causes and who were unresponsive to spoken commands, including some patients with the ability to localize painful stimuli or to fixate on or track visual stimuli. Machine learning was applied to EEG recordings to detect brain activation in response to commands that patients move their hands. The functional outcome at 12 months was determined with the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E; levels range from 1 to 8, with higher levels indicating better outcomes). RESULTS: A total of 16 of 104 unresponsive patients (15%) had brain activation detected by EEG at a median of 4 days after injury. The condition in 8 of these 16 patients (50%) and in 23 of 88 patients (26%) without brain activation improved such that they were able to follow commands before discharge. At 12 months, 7 of 16 patients (44%) with brain activation and 12 of 84 patients (14%) without brain activation had a GOS-E level of 4 or higher, denoting the ability to function independently for 8 hours (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 17.1). CONCLUSIONS: A dissociation between the absence of behavioral responses to motor commands and the evidence of brain activation in response to these commands in EEG recordings was found in 15% of patients in a consecutive series of patients with acute brain injury. (Supported by the Dana Foundation and the James S. McDonnell Foundation.).


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Inconsciência/fisiopatologia
10.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 22(13): 1043-1046, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131627

RESUMO

We evaluated the feasibility of a set of indexes based on ground reaction forces to discriminate between the degree of severity of spastic diplegia, identified via Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). A stepwise discriminant ordinal regression analysis performed on a sample of 58 children returned a subset of variables related to the ratio between braking and propulsive vertical forces and anteroposterior timings. Rather, parameters concerning bilateral symmetry were poorly discriminating. The relative simplicity of the selected indexes allows for their easy implementation on existing gait analysis applications for screening purposes.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
11.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(7): 473-478, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different levels of exercise on telomere length. METHODS: CINAHL, SPORTDiscus (EBSCO), OVID (Medline) and EMBASE databases were searched for eligible studies. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and heterogeneity among the studies was assessed using the I-squared test. When heterogeneity among studies was high (I2 > 50%), a random-effects model was used (Review Manager version 5, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark); otherwise, a fixed-effects model was used. RESULTS: Eleven eligible studies involving 19,292 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Longer telomere length was associated with physically active individuals, with a mean difference (MD) of 0.15 (95% confidence interval; 95% CI 0.05, 0.24); I2 = 99%. Longer telomere length was significantly associated with robust exercise (MD 0.08 (95% CI 0.04, 0.12)); I2 = 99%, as was moderate exercise (MD 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11)); I2 = 100%. Subgroup analysis revealed that longer telomere length was positively associated with exercise, regardless of sex, but was not statistically significant in elderly populations. CONCLUSION: Compared with inactive individuals, telomere lengths were longer in active subjects, regardless of the intensity of exercise.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Telômero/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 77, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder mainly affecting females. One of the main clinical manifestations is hand stereotypies, which is presumed to based on dysfunction rather than on structural impairment. Reflex interictal discharge precipitated by tapping-lips in electroencephalogram (EEG) is a rare phenomenon among RTT. CASE PRESENTATION: We firstly reported a case of RTT concerning interictal reflex discharge precipitated by tapping- lips. The child, female, 5 years old, presented with a significant regression in motor development and language skills. She almost always tapped the lips with the right hand and stopped only when was interrupted. Her EEG results displayed extensive low amplitude fast wave could be elicited by lightly and slowly- rhythm tapping lips and multifocal bilateral discharges could be precipitated by relatively stronger and quicker rhythm action. It was when the movement stopped that corresponding discharges immediately disappeared. Besides, the reflex discharges were not precipitated by tapping- lips using observer's hand at the certain tempo and intensity. The hand stereotypies did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Tapping- lips may be a somatosensory stimulation to precipitate interictal discharges in RTT, which may provide another idea to enrich the insight on hand stereotypies of RTT.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Movimento Estereotipado/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Lábio
13.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(5-6): 22, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041531

RESUMO

Orb-web spiders typically construct their webs with a vertical asymmetry: the hub, or meeting point of the radial threads, is often above the geometric center of the web. Previous explanations for this asymmetry involve differences in up/down running speed and mass, but fail to account adequately for ontogenetic changes in vertical asymmetry. The current article argues that the hub location is determined so as to maximize the expected number of prey and is updated, partially, in response to predation experience. A Bayesian model of spider learning from predation experience is presented and shown to be alone a better fit than spider mass to an existing empirical dataset. Combining this Bayesian model with the extant results on spider mass and differential running speeds ought to provide more thorough explanations for observed web asymmetry. The results of this theory-driven work positions orb-web spiders as a potentially ideal study family for animal Bayesian learning: predation experience is manifest in the spider's orb-web geometry, which is updated frequently, and is readily quantifiable. Spider orb webs ought to facilitate further theoretical and empirical work in animal cognition and learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2241, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113944

RESUMO

The red nucleus (RN) is required for limb control, specifically fine motor coordination. There is some evidence for a role of the RN in reaching and grasping, mainly from lesion studies, but results so far have been inconsistent. In addition, the role of RN neurons in such learned motor functions at the level of synaptic transmission has been largely neglected. Here, we show that Vglut2-expressing RN neurons undergo plastic events and encode the optimization of fine movements. RN light-ablation severely impairs reaching and grasping functions while sparing general locomotion. We identify a neuronal population co-expressing Vglut2, PV and C1QL2, which specifically undergoes training-dependent plasticity. Selective chemo-genetic inhibition of these neurons perturbs reaching and grasping skills. Our study highlights the role of the Vglut2-positive rubral population in complex fine motor tasks, with its related plasticity representing an important starting point for the investigation of mechanistic substrates of fine motor coordination training.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleo Rubro/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Animais , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Núcleo Rubro/citologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/genética , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(6): 950-962, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036947

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence for a cerebellar contribution to cognitive processing, but the specific input pathways conveying this information remain unclear. We probed the role of climbing fiber inputs to Purkinje cells in generating and evaluating predictions about associations between motor actions, sensory stimuli and reward. We trained mice to perform a visuomotor integration task to receive a reward and interleaved cued and random rewards between task trials. Using two-photon calcium imaging and Neuropixels probe recordings of Purkinje cell activity, we show that climbing fibers signal reward expectation, delivery and omission. These signals map onto cerebellar microzones, with reward delivery activating some microzones and suppressing others, and with reward omission activating both reward-activated and reward-suppressed microzones. Moreover, responses to predictable rewards are progressively suppressed during learning. Our findings elucidate a specific input pathway for cerebellar contributions to reward signaling and provide a mechanistic link between cerebellar activity and the creation and evaluation of predictions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5462694, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011576

RESUMO

Introduction: Robotic therapy has drawn attention in the rehabilitation field including home-based rehabilitation. A previous study has reported that home-based therapy could be more effective for increasing upper limb activity than facility-based therapy. The single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ) is an exoskeleton robot developed according to the interactive biofeedback theory, and several studies have shown its effectiveness for upper limb function in stroke patients. A study of home-based robotic therapy has shown to enhance rehabilitation effectiveness for stroke patient with a paretic upper limb. However, home-based therapy involving a HAL-SJ in stroke patients with paretic upper limbs has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate paretic upper limb activity and function with home-based robotic therapy involving a HAL-SJ in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: A home-based robotic therapy program involving a HAL-SJ was performed for 30 min per session followed by standard therapy for 30 min per session, 2 times a week, for 4 weeks (i.e., completion of all 8 sessions involved 8 h of rehabilitation), at home. After the intervention, patients were followed up by telephone and home visits for 8 weeks. The paretic upper limb activity and function were assessed using the Motor Activity Log (MAL; amount of use (AOU)), arm triaxial accelerometry (laterality index (LI)), the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), and the action research arm test (ARAT), at baseline and week 4 and week 12 after the start of training. Results: The study included 10 stroke patients (5 men; mean age, 61.1 ± 7.1 years). The AOU scores and LI significantly improved at week 4 after the start of training (p<0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in the LI at week 12 (p=0.161) and the FMA scores at both week 4 and week 12 (p=0.059 and p=0.083, respectively). The ARAT scores significantly improved at both week 4 and week 12 (p<0.05). Conclusion: Home-based robotic therapy combined with conventional therapy could be a valuable approach for increasing paretic upper limb activity and maintaining paretic upper limb function in the chronic phase of stroke.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Robótica/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia
17.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(5): 681-696, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958021

RESUMO

When humans manipulate an object, they prefer to grasp the object in a way that allows to terminate the manipulation in a comfortable posture. The reasons for this end-state comfort effect have remained elusive so far. One explanation assumes that comfortable end-states are not preferred per se, but rather because they come with increased movement precision, which is typically required by the end of an object manipulation. Five experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis and yielded 3 main results. First, grasps that increase control over an object are preferred irrespective of the resulting arm postures. Second, differences in the controllability associated with comfortable and uncomfortable postures are sufficient to elicit the end-state comfort effect. Third, grasps that optimize control are preferred even when this implies adopting uncomfortable end-states. Altogether, these findings directly support the hypothesis that the end-state comfort emerges because it maximizes the control over the manipulated object at the end of object manipulations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
18.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(6): 811-815, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020581

RESUMO

We assessed changes of olfactory bulbs in rata with 6-hydroxydopamine destruction of the substantia nigra. The expression of marker proteins of immature and differentiated neurons and glia (vimentin, PSA-NCAM, tyrosine hydroxylase, and S100) was analyzed by immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. The number of periglomerular dopamine neurons and astroglia in the olfactory bulbs increased on the side of toxin injection and expression of PSA-NCAM and vimentin increased in the rostral migratory stream. Destruction of the substantia nigra shifted differentiation of neuronal progenitors towards the dopaminergic phenotype and increased their survival in the olfactory bulbs, which can be explained by increased expression of PSA-NCAM.


Assuntos
Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/patologia , Substância Negra/patologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Injeções Intraventriculares , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Molécula L1 de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/administração & dosagem , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/genética , Doença de Parkinson Secundária/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas S100/genética , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Ácidos Siálicos/genética , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Vimentina/genética , Vimentina/metabolismo
19.
Zoo Biol ; 38(3): 258-265, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997695

RESUMO

Although many studies investigating the impacts of zoo exhibit designs on captive animals exist, none have been performed on how they influence the behavior and welfare of captive Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). Here, we assess the impact of exhibit design on the activity budget and spatial distribution of Bennett's wallabies. We compared animal behavior in two open exhibits (i.e. physical interaction between animals and visitors permitted) to two closed exhibits (i.e. physical interaction between animals and visitors prohibited). Behavioral data were collected using focal sampling, and spatial distribution was recorded on exhibit maps at regular time intervals. We found a significant increase in feeding and interactive behaviors in closed exhibits in comparison to open exhibits. However, other behaviors such as resting, locomotion, and vigilance did not vary with design. Functional use of space was similar between both designs; however, the effect of habituation may be relevant to consider in future studies. Although some support for visitor effects were present, our study provided no evidence for strong impacts of exhibit design on Bennett's wallaby welfare. Our study emphasizes the need for additional research into the impacts of how zoo environments affect Bennett's wallaby behavior and welfare.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Macropodidae/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Zoology (Jena) ; 133: 10-16, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979386

RESUMO

An amphidromous sicydiine goby, Sicyopterus japonicus, exhibits rock-climbing behavior during upstream migration along rivers and streams. Using a pelvic sucker formed by fused pelvic fins, S. japonicus generates suction adhesion on the climbing surface. By measuring performance variables that correlate with successful rock-climbing capability, we evaluated scaling relationships of adhesive suction force generated by the pelvic sucker and fatigue during climbing in S. japonicus during ontogeny. In continuous climbing on the experimental 60°-inclined surface, the pelvic sucker of S. japonicus exhibited strong positive allometry in generating suction force for adhesion during ontogeny. In contrast, fatigue time of the pelvic sucker muscles for sustained adhesion scaled non-linearly with body mass during ontogeny. In addition, fatigue time and body mass showed the best fit to a quadratic regression, which predicted intermediate-sized individuals (large juveniles to small adults) to have better performance in adhesive endurance than smaller or larger individuals. Our experimental results indicate that different sizes of waterfall-climbing gobies have different performance capacities for rock climbing perhaps because of physiological differences in their pelvic muscles. In addition, our data from S. japonicus indicates that selection pressures on the locomotor capacities of waterfall-climbing gobiids vary during ontogeny.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Rios
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