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1.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211019854, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061685

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the 11th of March 2020, leading to some form of lockdown across almost all countries of the world. The extent of the global pandemic due to COVID-19 has a significant impact on our lives that must be studied carefully to combat it. This study highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on crucial aspects of daily life globally, including; Food security, Global economy, Education, Tourism, hospitality, sports and leisure, Gender Relation, Domestic Violence/Abuse, Mental Health and Environmental air pollution through a systematic search of the literature. The COVID-19 global lockdown was initiated to stem the spread of the virus and 'flatten the curve' of the pandemic. However, the impact of the lockdown has had far-reaching effects in different strata of life, including; changes in the accessibility and structure of education delivery to students, food insecurity as a result of unavailability and fluctuation in prices, the depression of the global economy, increase in mental health challenges, wellbeing and quality of life amongst others. This review article highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown across the globe. As the global lockdown is being lifted in a phased manner in various countries of the world, it is necessary to explore its impacts to understand its consequences comprehensively. This will guide future decisions that will be made in a possible future wave of the COVID-19 pandemic or other global disease outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19/transmissão , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Máscaras/provisão & distribuição , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/organização & administração , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Esportes/psicologia , Turismo
2.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 585-593, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942893

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak strongly restricted daily activities, creating a risk factor for negative affect and depression. This study assessed the immediate effects of a behavioural activation (BA) intervention on positive (PA) and negative (NA) state affect. We expected depression and anxiety to function as moderators reducing the intervention effects. In a quasi-experimental online study, 3624 German-speaking participants evaluated a list of rewarding activities between 9 April and 26 April 2020. A subsample of 2561 (71%) additionally engaged in an imagination task. Depression, anxiety, socioeconomic variables and COVID-19 related burdens were assessed as moderators. There was an increase in PA (total sample d = .13; subsample: d = .27) and a decrease in NA (total sample d = -0.68; subsample: d = -0.71; all p < .001). The effects rose with higher levels of depression and anxiety (all p < .001). Furthermore, living with family enhanced the effects on NA, while additionally having to take care of children reduced them. An easy-to-use intervention prompting BA could improve state mood during lockdown. Participants with higher depression and anxiety benefit more. Implications for the prevention of mental health problems during a pandemic are discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(10): 1073-1076, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study investigated a potential correlation between owning a superregional low-cost ski and leisure card, namely the Leisure Card Tirol (LCT), and perceived quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: A cross-sectional, quantitative approach (online questionnaire) was chosen. METHODS: In total, 1588 LCT users as well as 684 non-users (residents living in the Alpine region of Tyrol, Austria) were reached throughout the study period. RESULTS: Compared to non-users, LCT users reported significantly higher scores in all domains of QOL. However, the correlation was neither mediated nor moderated by the level of general physical activity (in contrast to alpine skiing in particular). CONCLUSIONS: As superregional low-cost leisure cards were suggested as a way of facilitating access to skiing-at least according to its buyers-owning the LCT was associated with higher perceived QOL. Subsequent research should elaborate the extent to which this correlation is causal. If there is a causal link, such cards should be actively promoted to improve/maintain residents' QOL.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Esqui/economia , Esqui/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(4): 1375-1379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896844

RESUMO

We assessed depression in 72 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who live in retirement homes during the COVID-19-related lockdown. We invited caregivers of 72 patients with AD who live in retirement homes to rate depression in the patients both before and during the lockdown. Analysis demonstrated increased depression in the patients during the lockdown. We attribute this increased depression to the restrictive measures on activities, visits, and physical contact between patients with AD and family members during the lockdown.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , COVID-19 , Depressão , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Cuidadores , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Masculino , Distanciamento Físico , Instituições Residenciais/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Visitas a Pacientes/psicologia , Visitas a Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(9): 596-602, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821817

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and low back pain (LBP) in adults from primary care settings, and to explore how sedentary behavior influences this association. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: LTPA is inversely associated with LBP. However, there is no study investigating this association in primary care settings from a middle-income country. Moreover, the influence of sedentary behavior in this association is unknown. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of an ongoing longitudinal study with adults from Bauru, Brazil (n = 557). Data on physical activity, sedentary behavior (sitting time), LBP, body mass index (BMI), and chronic diseases were assessed by face-to-face interviews, physical evaluation, and medical records. Binary logistic regression was used to test the association of LTPA with the presence of LBP. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health variables were used as covariables in the multivariable models. RESULTS: The fully adjusted model showed that active participants were 33% less likely to have LBP when compared with those insufficiently active (odds ratios [OR]: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.46-0.98]). A significant association was found for active participants who spent less than 3 h/day sitting (OR: 0.45 [95% CI: 0.23-0.89]) but not for those who spent 3 h/day or more in sedentary activities (OR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.48-1.27]). An inverse association of LTPA with LBP was observed in obese participants (OR = 0.49 [95% CI: 0.25-0.94]), but not in those with normal BMI and overweight. CONCLUSION: LTPA was inversely associated with the prevalence of LBP in adults from primary care. This association was influenced by sedentary behavior and BMI.Level of Evidence: 4.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705415

RESUMO

Household time-use patterns are expected to reflect each household member's daily activity participation and duration with intra-household interactions constrained by multiple budgets. Among various activities, the allocated activity derived from undertaking a household task is studied relatively less in the literature. Who will take an allocated activity is a discrete choice problem of household task assignment, and once a household member is assigned with one household task, other members will have more time to do other activities. To better understand household time-use patterns affected by household task assignment, this paper proposed a joint household-level multiple discrete-continuous extreme value-multinomial logit (MDCEV-MNL) model with multiple constraints. The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) method combined with the simulation-based maximum likelihood estimation method is proposed to estimate the proposed model. Based on the household activity-travel data from Beijing of China, the proposed model is customized to explore elderly couples' time-use patterns with intra-household interactions affected by household task assignment. Following the findings, policy implications are suggested to build an age-friendly society.


Assuntos
Serviço de Limpeza/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço de Limpeza/normas , Serviço de Limpeza/tendências , Idoso , Pequim , China , Simulação por Computador , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Cônjuges/psicologia
7.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 34(5): 530-544, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, many employees transitioned from in-office work to telework to slow down the spread of the virus. Building on the Job Demands-Resources model, we examined day-level relationships between job demands, home demands and emotional exhaustion during telework. Moreover, we tested if leisure crafting (i.e., the proactive pursuit and enactment of leisure activities targeted at goal setting, socializing, growth and development) is negatively related to emotional exhaustion. We expected that proactive personality would be positively related to leisure crafting. Finally, emotional exhaustion was predicted to relate negatively to job performance. METHODS: We tested our assumptions using a daily diary study on seven consecutive days with 178 employees (964 observations in total). RESULTS: Multilevel path analysis supports the assumptions that daily job demands as well as daily home demands during telework are positively related to emotional exhaustion. As predicted, we found leisure crafting to be negatively related to emotional exhaustion, and proactive personality to be positively related to leisure crafting. Finally, emotional exhaustion was negatively related to job performance. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study supports a health-promoting role of leisure crafting above the unfavorable relationships between job demands and home demands with emotional exhaustion.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Teletrabalho , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Masculino , Ruminação Cognitiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desempenho Profissional , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(2): 555-565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that mentally stimulating activities and socially engaged lifestyles may reduce dementia risk; however, it is unclear which activities are more beneficial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated intellectual and social leisure activities in relation to dementia incidence and explored the modifying role of sex and marital status in these associations. METHODS: The sample was comprised of 8,030 participants aged 50+ from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, who joined at wave 1 (2002-2003), or waves 3 (2006-2007), or 4 (2008-2009). The end of the study period was wave 8 (2016-2017). Subdistribution hazard models investigated the role of leisure activities grouped into intellectual and social domains in relation to dementia while accounting for the risk of death. Subsequent analyses were conducted with individual leisure activities. RESULTS: During the study period of up to 15 years, 412 participants developed dementia, and 2,192 died. We found that increased engagement in the intellectual activities' domain was associated with a decreased dementia incidence (SHR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.96, p = 0.007), independent of the risk of death in married individuals, but not in those who were single, divorced, or widowed. Individual analyses for each leisure activity showed independent associations for reading newspapers in females (SHR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.84, p = 0.001), mobile phone usage in males (SHR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, p = 0.002), and having hobbies for married individuals (SHR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.95, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: We found that intellectual leisure activities contribute to lower dementia risk in a representative population of English adults, suggesting intervention opportunities.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4): 329-339, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581775

RESUMO

There is a large and growing body of evidence on the health benefits of engagement in leisure activities (voluntary, enjoyable non-work activities, such as hobbies, arts, volunteering, community group membership, sports, and socialising). However, there is no unifying framework explaining how leisure activities affect health: what the mechanisms of action are by which engagement with leisure activities leads to the prevention, management, or treatment of mental and physical illness. In this Review, we identify and map over 600 mechanisms of action. These mechanisms can be categorised as psychological, biological, social, and behavioural processes that operate at individual (micro), group (meso), and societal (macro) levels, and are synthesised into a new theoretical framework: the Multi-level Leisure Mechanisms Framework. This framework situates understanding of leisure activities within the theoretical lens of complex adaptive systems and aims to support the design of more theory-driven, cross-disciplinary studies.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
10.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246634, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with diabetes or obesity are more likely to be physically inactive than healthy adults. Physical activity is essential in the management of both diseases, necessitating targeted interventions in these groups. This study analysed physical inactivity (defined as not taking part in leisure-time physical activity) in over 100,000 adults in Germany considering their body mass index and the presence of diabetes. Furthermore, the relationship between specific socio-demographic factors with physical inactivity was investigated, particularly focussing diabetic and obese people, to refine the identification of risk-groups for targeted interventions on physical activity promotion. METHODS: Data from 13 population-based health surveys conducted in Germany from 1997 to 2018 were used. The relevant variables extracted from these datasets were merged and employed in the analyses. We included data from 129,886 individuals in the BMI analyses and 58,311 individuals in the diabetes analyses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the importance of six socio-demographic variables (age, sex/gender, education, income, employment, and migration) for the risk of physical inactivity. RESULTS: Obese and diabetic people reported a higher prevalence of physical inactivity than those who were not affected. Logistic regression analyses revealed advanced age, low education level, and low household income as risk factors for physical inactivity in all groups. A two-sided migration background and unemployment also indicated a higher probability of physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Similar socio-demographic barriers appear to be important determinants of physical inactivity, regardless of BMI status or the presence of diabetes. However, physical activity promoting interventions in obese and diabetic adults should consider the specific disease-related characteristics of these groups. A special need for target group specific physical activity programmes in adults from ethnic minorities or of advanced age was further identified.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 63(5): 566-575, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386633

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the predictors of magnitude of change in response to a participation-focused leisure-time physical activity intervention in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using the ParticiPAte CP protocol. METHOD: We included 33 children (16 males, 17 females) aged 8 to 12 years (mean age=10y, SD=1y 6mo) with CP with pre/postintervention data from a wait-list randomized trial. The hypothesized linear predictors of change in primary outcomes (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure [COPM]-performance and COPM-satisfaction, Belief in Goal Self-Competence Scale (BiGSS), and minutes per day moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]) were: age; Gross Motor Function Classification System level; comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD); Goal Attainment Scaling T score; Problems in Schools Questionnaire; Physical Activity Climate Questionnaire; Motives for Physical Activities Measure-Revised; and stage of behaviour change. Multivariable models were selected using the Bayesian information criterion. RESULTS: Overcoming barriers to participation, age, and comorbid ASD explained 49% of the variance in change in COPM-performance. Being motivated by interest and/or enjoyment and age explained 32% of the variance in change in COPM-satisfaction. Being motivated by physical activity competence or appearance (extrinsic motivation) explained 24% of the variance in change in BiGSS. Parental autonomy supportiveness, overcoming barriers to participation, appearance motivation, and baseline MVPA explained 59% of the variance in change in MVPA. INTERPRETATION: These findings support a behaviour paradigm for conceptualizing physical activity in children with CP. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Children who met their treatment goals showed a greater increase in physical activity participation. Children who were more intrinsically motivated by physical activity at baseline improved more. Being older and having a comorbid diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were associated with an attenuated effect of the therapy.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Motivação , Participação Social , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
CuidArte, Enferm ; 15(1): 82-89, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1290694

RESUMO

Introdução: As alterações sociodemográficas que acarretaram o aumento do número de idosos mundialmente têm sido responsáveis pelas pesquisas cada vez mais constantes na área de gerontologia e qualidade de vida (QV), em busca de avanços e melhorias nos serviços de promoção, prevenção e assistência aos longevos. Objetivos: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos idosos institucionalizados, caracterizar de forma sociodemográfica as pessoas idosas investigadas e apresentar quais das atividades oferecidas interferem significativamente nos escores da QV dos mesmos. Método: Amostra obtida de 13 idosos residentes em Instituição de Longa Permanência (ILPI), entre novembro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018, os quais foram entrevistados através de questionários, sendo dois destes de Avaliação de QV da Organização Mundial da Saúde, e o terceiro de caracterização sociodemográfica e de atividades. Resultados: A maior parte dos idosos são do gênero masculino, têm boa adesão e participação nas atividades oferecidas e possuem QV satisfatórias quando comparadas a outros estudos em idosos institucionalizados. Houve maiores escores nos domínios Social e Morte e Morrer, e menores nos Físico e Autonomia. Conclusão: É necessário fortalecer e incentivar atividades que promovam melhorias físicas autonômicas aos idosos institucionalizados, os quais são afetados pelas idades mais avançadas e pelo desuso ocasionado na institucionalização. Estes idosos constituem parte importante de nossa sociedade, logo, cabe aos gestores dos serviços que prestam atenção em gerontologia, às universidades e à sociedade promover campanhas, projetos, medidas educativas capazes de melhorar a QV e proporcionar maior autonomia e independência aos nossos idosos.


Introduction: The sociodemographic changes that have led to the increase in the number of elderly people worldwide have been responsible for the increasingly constant research in the area of Gerontology and quality of life (QOL), in search of advances and improvements in promotion services, prevention and assistance to longevity. Objectives: To evaluate the quality of life of institutionalized elderly people, to characterize in a sociodemographic way the elderly people investigated and to present which of the activities offered significantly interfere in their QOL scores. Method: Sample obtained from 13 elderly residents of Long Stay Institution (ILPI), between November 2017 to January 2018, who were interviewed through questionnaires, two of them from World Health Organization's QOL Assessment, and the third of socio-demographic characterization and activities. Results: Most of the elderly are male, have good adherence and participation in the activities offered and have satisfactory QOL when compared to other studies in institutionalized elderly. There were higher scores in the Social and Death and Death domains, and lower scores in the Physical and Autonomy domains. Conclusion: It is necessary to strengthen and encourage activities that promote autonomic physical improvements to institutionalized elderly, who are affected by advanced ages and disuse caused by institutionalization. These elderly people are an important part of our society, so it is up to the managers of the services that pay attention to Gerontology, universities and society to promote campaigns, projects, educational measures capable of improving the QOL and providing greater autonomy and independence to our elderly.(AU)


Introducción: Los cambios sociodemográficos que han propiciado un incremento en el número de personas mayores a nivel mundial han sido responsables de una investigación cada vez más constante en el campo de la gerontología y la calidad de vida (CV), en busca de avances y mejoras en los servicios de promoción, prevención y asistencia a los longevos. Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida de ancianos institucionalizados, caracterizar sociodemográficamente a los ancianos investigados y presentar cuáles de las actividades ofrecidas interfieren significativamente en sus puntuaciones de CV. Método: Muestra obtenida de 13 ancianos residentes en el Centro de Cuidados a Largo Plazo (ILPI), entre noviembre de 2017 y enero de 2018...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Saúde do Idoso Institucionalizado , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos
13.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 21(1): 1-17, ene. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201957

RESUMO

Los participantes en deportes extremos usualmente han sido estudiados desde la perspectiva de riesgo. El presente estudio busca alejarse de dicha preconcepción y tiene como objetivo estudiar la experiencia subjetiva emocional. Se empleó una metodología cualitativa con diseño fenomenológico-hermenéutico tomando como herramienta un sistema de categorías construido a partir de los sistemas conversacionales. Los informantes fueron 8 deportistas extremos pertenecientes a un mismo grupo. Dentro de los deportes extremos se incluyen: escalada de montaña, rapel, puenting, montañismo y bungee jumping. Los resultados indican que el miedo es generador de libertad, puede ser útil, es gratificante y también es promotor de transformaciones personales. Esta investigación otorga valor teórico al porqué del involucramiento en deportes extremos


Participants in extreme sports have usually been studied from a risk perspective. The present study seeks to move away from this preconception and aims to study the emotional subjective experience. A qualitative methodology with phenomenological-hermeneutic design was used taking as a tool conversational systems. The informants were 8 extreme athletes belonging to the same group. Extreme sports included were: Mountain climbing, rappelling, bungee jumping, and mountaineering. The results indicate that fear is a generator of freedom, it can be useful, it is rewarding and it is also a promoter of personal transformations. This research gives theoretical value to the reason for involvement in extreme sports


Participantes em esportes radicais geralmente têm sido estudados a partir de uma perspectiva de risco. O presente estudo busca afastar-se desse preconceito e visa estudar a experiência emocional subjetiva. Uma metodologia qualitativa com desenho fenomenológico-hermenêutico foi utilizada, utilizando sistemas conversacionais como ferramenta. Os informantes eram 8 atletas extremos pertencentes ao mesmo grupo. Esportes radicais incluem: alpinismo, rapel, bungee jumping, montanhismo e bungee jumping. Os resultados indicam que o medo é um gerador de liberdade, pode ser útil, gratificante e também promotor de transformações pessoais. Esta pesquisa dá valor teórico ao motivo do envolvimento em esportes radicais


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Esportes/psicologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Montanhismo/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Competência Profissional , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia
14.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(1): jrm00136, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of children with disabilities and their families regarding factors that interfere with participation in leisure activities in Brazil. METHODS: This qualitative study included 14 focus groups, involving a total of 80 participants (40 children with disabilities and 40 family members). Discus-sions were recorded and transcribed. Coding was based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health, following linking rules. RESULTS: A total of 80 individuals participated in the study. For parents and children the most-cited barriers to participation in leisure activities were relat-ed to environmental factors. For children, the main barriers were the attitudes of their nuclear family, acquaintances, and friends. Access to products and technology for personal mobility were also important obstacles. For them, support from immediate family was both a facilitator and barrier. Other barriers identified by family members were open-space planning services and assets. As facilitators, the atti-tudes and support of people in positions of authority also were reported by this group. CONCLUSION: For parents and children, most disabling barriers were related to environmental factors, such as access to products and technology, support, and attitudes. Some differences in perception were observed between comments from children and parents; for example, regarding barriers due to immediate family. Parents showed greater awareness of barriers and facilitators to participation in leisure activities.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
15.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(6): 1232-1235, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in motivation perceptions toward exercise per self-determination theory and theory of planned behavior between active and insufficiently active persons with multiple sclerosis, given the well-being enhancements associated with exercise engagement for this population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional between-groups design where active persons ≥14 points on the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and insufficiently active <14. SETTING: Community setting in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Australian participants (N=70; mean age, 49.61±12.79y; FIM 64:6; Patient Disability Disease Steps median, 3). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and adaptations of the self-determination theory (autonomous and controlling forms of motivation) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (attitudes to exercise, subjective norms to exercise, behavioral control to exercise, intention to exercise) items tailored toward exercise perceptions. RESULTS: Active persons perceived higher ratings compared with insufficiently active persons of autonomous motivations toward their exercise d=0.85 in addition to positive attitudes toward the value of exercise d=1.28, their behavioral control over exercise d=1.86, and their enhanced intentions to engage in exercise d=1.14. All effect sizes were large (d>0.80). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the value of considering ways of enhancing the perceived autonomy toward engaging in physical activity in addition to the reduction of barriers toward participating and enhancing positive attitudes toward the value of physical activity when practitioners are working with persons living with multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Motivação , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Atitude , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 28(2): 121-135, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about facilitators and barriers to leisure activity participation for children with disabilities in Norway, which is needed to improve rehabilitation interventions. AIM: This study aims to explore the main facilitators and barriers for participation in leisure activities for children and youth with disabilities in Norway. METHODS: Semi-structured group interviews with 31 parents, 20 healthcare professionals, and nine children with disabilities were conducted. Qualitative content analysis with thematic coding was used, and the model of factors affecting the participation of children with disabilities developed by King et al. was applied for further deductive analysis. RESULTS: Child factors, as viewed by parents and professionals, worked primarily as barriers and tended to increase with the child's age. The children themselves focussed on their own preferences, friendship and enjoyment as their main facilitators for participation. Most environmental and family factors worked both as facilitators and as barriers, with parental support as the most important facilitator. Differences between urban and rural areas in the availability and accessibility of activities were reported. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge from this study is important for the improvement of rehabilitation interventions that aim to increase participation in leisure activities for children and youth with disabilities.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Participação Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega
17.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(2): 168-175, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031469

RESUMO

Aims: Leisure activity helps people engage with life, and it promotes health and well-being as we age. This study investigated whether individuals with active jobs (high psychological demands, high control) in mid-life were more active during leisure time in old age compared with those with less active jobs. Methods: Two individually linked Swedish surveys were used (N=776) with 23 years of follow-up. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: Having an active job in mid-life was associated with greater engagement in intellectual/cultural, social and physical activity in old age, even when leisure activity in mid-life was taken into account. Conclusions: The results suggest that active jobs in mid-life may be replaced by active leisure during retirement. Active job conditions may promote engagement in society in old age, which in turn may have positive health consequences.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
18.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(6): 1036-1048, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Participating in a variety of daily activities (i.e., activity diversity) requires people to adjust to a variety of situations and engage in a greater diversity of behaviors. These experiences may, in turn, enhance cognitive functioning. This study examined associations between activity diversity and cognitive functioning across adulthood. METHOD: Activity diversity was defined as the breadth and evenness of participation in seven common daily activity domains (e.g., paid work, time with children, leisure, physical activities, volunteering). Participants from the National Survey of Daily Experiences (NSDE: N = 732, Mage = 56) provided activity data during eight consecutive days at Wave 1 (W1) and Wave 2 (W2) 10 years apart. They also provided cognitive data at W2. RESULTS: Greater activity diversity at W2 was associated with higher overall cognitive functioning and higher executive functioning at W2. Individuals who increased activity diversity from W1 to W2 also exhibited higher scores in overall cognitive functioning and executive functioning at W2. Overall cognitive functioning, executive functioning, and episodic memory were better in those who had higher activity diversity at both waves, or increased activity diversity from W1 to W2, compared to those who had lower activity diversity or decreased activity diversity over time. DISCUSSION: Activity diversity is important for cognitive health in adulthood. Future work can study the directionality between activity diversity and cognitive functioning and underlying social and neurological mechanisms for these associations.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Participação Social/psicologia , Idoso , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(2): 514-526, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519189

RESUMO

Social Stories™ (SS) is a widely used intervention for children on the autism spectrum. A preliminary survey of 103 practitioners highlighted that SS are often used to support adapting to a change. This study investigated the use of digitally-mediated SS to support ten children on the autism spectrum attending a school summer camp. Teacher perceptions of anxiety, understanding and closeness to the goal of the SS were assessed before and after the intervention (prior to the event). The pre- post-intervention comparisons highlighted significant improvements in child understanding, anxiety, and closeness to goal with medium-large effect sizes. The child's understanding and closeness to SS goal post-intervention related to their difficulties with the SS goal and their anxiety during the event.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências
20.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(4): 801-809, 2021 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patterns of healthy leisure are dependent upon age, but people with disabilities are particularly susceptible to passive and disengaged types of activities. This study evaluates how individuals with disabilities spend their time in passive, active, social, and isolated forms of leisure over the life course, and how these patterns vary by age. METHOD: I analyze nationally representative data from 70,165 respondents ages 15 and older in the 2008, 2010, and 2012-2016 American Time Use Survey. Linear regression models estimate the association between disability and leisure time, net of self-rated health and sociodemographic controls. Interactions between age and disability are also evaluated, as well as the robustness of results by sensory, cognitive, physical, and multiple disability status. RESULTS: People with disabilities report significantly more, and poorer quality, leisure than people without disabilities. This includes more than 2 hr more time in passive leisure as well as a disproportionate amount of isolated leisure spent at home, alone. These differences are not fully explained by health and sociodemographic controls. The isolated leisure time of people with disabilities is most different from people without disabilities in later life-whereas differences in total and passive leisure time, by disability status, are greatest in midlife. DISCUSSION: People with disabilities spend less time in health-promoting forms of leisure at all ages, but these patterns are unique across midlife and older age.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Envelhecimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Adolescente , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Avaliação da Deficiência , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/classificação , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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