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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 236-243, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970642

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systematic and continuous physical exercise of certain intensity and volume is irreplaceable in the stages of growth and development and in preventing impairments of the biological, functional and health state of the human organism.Many studies show that physical exercise contributes to development and reinforcement of mental health and increases self-esteem. Examine mental health and self-esteem of active athletes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects of the study are active athletes from Herzegovina and students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar. Mental health and self-esteem were measured by a sociodemographic questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. RESULTS: There is a statistically significant difference in the frequency of exercise, active athletes have the highest percentage (100%) and state that they exercise often (almost every day) while university students have a significantly lower percentage (20%).Students scored significantly higher on the subscales for somatization, obsessive - compulsive symptoms, interpersonal vulnerability, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobia, and paranoia than active athletes. Active athletes have statistically higher scores for almost all the claims of the subjective assessment of life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Active athletes showed significantly less psychological symptoms and better mental health, greater life satisfaction and higher self-esteem than students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937978

RESUMO

COVID-19 and lockdown strategies may affect mental health and addictive behavior differently in the population, and elite athletes are among the professions clearly affected by the pandemic. This study in top elite athletes aimed to study current perceived psychological influence from COVID-19 and symptoms of depression, anxiety and changes in alcohol drinking, gambling behavior and problem gambling in the midst of the COVID-19 lockdown. This web survey included athletes in top leagues of soccer, ice hockey and handball in Sweden (N = 327, 62% men). A total of 66% and 51% were worried about the future of their sport or about their own future in sports, respectively. Feeling worse psychologically during the pandemic was common (72% of women, 40% of men, p < 0.001); depression criteria were endorsed by 19% of women and three percent of men (p < 0.001); anxiety criteria by 20% of women and five percent of men (p < 0.001). Reporting increased gambling during the pandemic was associated with gambling problem severity. Moderate-risk or problem gambling was seen in 10% of men and none of the women (p < 0.001). Depression and anxiety were associated with feeling worse during the COVID-19 pandemic and with concern over one's own sports future. In conclusion, COVID-19-related distress is common in elite athletes and associated with mental health symptoms. Gambling increase during the pandemic was rare, but related to gambling problems, which were common in male athletes. The calls for increased focus on COVID-19-related concerns in athletes and on problem gambling in male athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899526

RESUMO

The spread of COVID-19 has altered sport in Spain, forcing athletes to train at home. The objectives of the study were: (i) to compare training and recovery conditions before and during the isolation period in handball players according to gender and competitive level, and (ii) to analyse the impact of psychological factors during the isolation period. A total of 187 participants (66 women and 121 men) answered a Google Forms questionnaire about demographics, training, moods, emotional intelligence, and resilience sent using the snowball sampling technique. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare sport level and gender differences. Linear regressions were used to analyse the psychological influence on training. Handball players reduced training intensity (in the whole sample; p = 0.44), training volume (especially in professional female handball players; p < 0.001), and sleep quality (especially in professional male handball players; p = 0.21) and increased sleep hours (especially in non-professional female players; p = 0.006) during the isolation period. Furthermore, psychological factors affected all evaluated training and recovery conditions during the quarantine, except for sleep quantity. Mood, emotional intelligence, and resilience have an influence on physical activity levels and recovery conditions. In addition, training components were modified under isolation conditions at p < 0.001. We conclude that the COVID-19 isolation period caused reductions in training volume and intensity and decreased sleep quality. Furthermore, psychological components have a significant impact on training and recovery conditions.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Esportes , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Sono , Isolamento Social , Espanha
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21164, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Both athletes with and without disabilities can develop burnout symptoms. However, athletes with disabilities may face different or more challenges compared to their counterparts without disabilities. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effect of digital storytelling intervention on burnout thoughts of adolescent-athletes with disabilities. METHOD: This study is a randomized controlled trial involving a total of 171 adolescent-athletes with disabilities who showed a high degree of burnout symptoms. These adolescent-athletes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 85) or a waitlisted control group (n = 86). The treatment intervention for the adolescent-athletes was digital stories which were created based on the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire was used for gathering of data at three different times (baseline, post-test and follow up). Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance at a significant level of 0.05. RESULTS: Results showed that the digital storytelling intervention based on REBT significantly reduced burnout thoughts among disabled adolescent-athletes in the intervention group compared to athletes in the waitlisted control group as measured by the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Additionally, at follow-up evaluation, it was observed that the decrease in burnout scores was maintained by those athletes in the digital storytelling intervention. CONCLUSION: Digital storytelling intervention based on rational emotive behaviour therapy shows great potentials in addressing burnout among adolescent-athletes with disabilities.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Psicológico/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Narração , Adolescente , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751819

RESUMO

The Baron Depression Screener for Athletes (BDSA) is a brief, valid, and reliable athlete- specific assessment tool developed in the US to assess depressive symptoms in elite athletes. We examined the applicability and reliability of a Japanese version of the BDSA (BDSA-J) in a Japanese context, and further examined the construct validity of the BDSA-J. Web-based anonymous self-report data of 235 currently competing Japanese professional male rugby players (25-29 years = 123 [52.3%]) was analyzed. A two-stage process was conducted to validate the factor structure of the BDSA-J using exploratory factor analysis in a randomly partitioned calibration sample, and confirmatory factor analysis in a separate validation sample. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated to examine convergent validity with the Kessler-6. We identified a one-factor structure for BDSA-J. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this one-factor model, revealing good model fit indices. The standardized path coefficients for each of the items were ß = 0.52 to 0.79 (p < 0.001). A Cronbach's alpha of 0.71 was obtained for the BDSA-J. BDSA-J showed significant positive correlations with the Kessler-6. The BDSA-J is an appropriate and psychometrically robust measure for identifying depressive symptoms in Japanese male rugby players.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Futebol Americano , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(701): 1401-1404, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833354

RESUMO

The enthusiasm for nutritional supplements among athletes of any level seems inversely correlated to the real impact of these products; or at least this might be concluded after reading most systematic reviews and guidelines. Despite being frequently consumed, the supplements that have shown a positive effect on health or performance are rare. However, specific situations can require a supplementation, and this article outlines how to identify these situations and how to pick the right supplement for each condition. We also discuss the reason why providing evidence for an effect on health or performance is particularly challenging in this field.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Esportes , Atletas/psicologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
8.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 20(3): 15-25, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193537

RESUMO

El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los síntomas conductuales, cognitivos y fisiológicos del síndrome de burnout en deportistas, así como conocer si existen diferencias en la percepción del síndrome de burnout entre un grupo de expertos que habían tenido algún deportista con burnout y otro que no lo había tenido. Los participantes del estudio fueron 28 expertos en Psicología del Deporte, 11 mujeres y 17 hombres (M edad = 46,75 años; DT= 10,98) a quienes se les administró tres cuestionarios semiestructurados Delphi diseñados específicamente por los investigadores. Ambos grupos destacan como síntomas conductuales: falta de adherencia al entrenamiento y bajo rendimiento deportivo; como síntomas cognitivos: desvalorización de la práctica deportiva e ideas de abandono del deporte; y como síntomas fisiológicos: tensión, y agotamiento físico. Con el acercamiento a la sintomatología característica presentada por los deportistas con el síndrome en este estudio se ha pretendido obtener una mejor comprensión del burnout en el ámbito deportivo. En función de esta información, se podrían desarrollar estrategias tanto de prevención como de intervención, dirigidas a prevenir o tratar la principal sintomatología


The aim of the current research was to increase the knowledge of the behavioural, cognitive and physiological symptoms of burnout in athletes, additionally knowing if there are differences in the perception of burnout syndrome between a group of experts who had had an athlete with burnout and another who did not have it. The study participants were 28 experts in Sports Psychology, 11 women and 17 men (M age = 46.75 years; SD = 10.98) being administered three semi-structured Delphi questionnaires specifically designed by researchers. Both groups highlight as behavioural symptoms: lack of training adherence and low sport performance; as cognitive symptoms: sport devaluation and ideas of drop out of sport; and as physiological symptoms: tension and physical exhaustion. With the approach to the characteristic symptomatology presented by athletes with the syndrome in this study, we tried to get a better understanding of burnout in the sports field. Related to this information, both prevention and intervention strategies might be developed, aimed at preventing or treating the main symptomatology


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi aumentar o conhecimento sobre os sintomas comportamentais, cognitivos e fisiológicos da síndrome de burnout em atletas, bem como saber se existem diferenças na percepção da síndrome de burnout entre um grupo de especialistas que teve um atleta com burnout e outro que não teve. Os participantes do estudo foram 28 especialistas em Psicologia do Esporte, 11 mulheres e 17 homens (idade M = 46,75 anos; DP = 10,98) que receberam três questionários Delphi semiestruturados, especificam ente projetados por pesquisadores. Ambos os grupos se destacam como sintomas comportamentais: falta de adesão ao treinamento e baixo desempenho atlético; como sintomas cognitivos: desvalorização da prática esportiva e idéias de abandono do esporte; e como sintomas fisiológicos: tensão e exaustão física. Se plantean propuestas de futuro como analizar otras variables relacionadas con el síndrome. Com a abordagem da sintomatologia característica apresentada pelos atletas com a síndrome neste estudo, procuramos obter uma melhor compreensão do burnout no campo esportivo. Com base nesta informação, estratégias de prevenção e intervenção poderiam ser desenvolvidas, visando prevenir ou tratar os principais sintomas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Esgotamento Psicológico/diagnóstico , Atletas/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Psicologia do Esporte
9.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 20(3): 26-40, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193538

RESUMO

The aims of the present study are to understand indicators and the scope of theoretical models adopted to describe athletes' resilience, as well as to analyze their impact on investigations about such resilience. A search for original academic publications within a 10-year period was conducted in the PubMed / Medline, Web of Science, Taylor and Francis, Lilacs, Scopus, Humam Kinects and Science Direct databases, to substantiate a systematic literature review on athletes' resilience. Articles were analyzed based on their methodological characteristics and citation network analysis. In total, 47 articles were identified and the most referenced one was Fletcher and Sarkar (2012), which was followed by Galli and Vealey (2008). The Grounded Theory of Psychological Resilience and Optimal Sport Performance by Fletcher and Sarkar (2012) seems to encompass the basic theoretical elementary aspects to better understand athletes' resilience, so far. To conclude resilience is an on-going dynamic process based on individual characteristics and interactions with the environment


Los objetivos del estudio son buscar los indicadores y el alcance de los modelos teóricos adoptados para describir la resiliencia de los atletas y analizar el impacto en las investigaciones sobre la resiliencia. Se realizaron búsquedas en publicaciones académicas originales durante un período de 10 años en las bases de datos PubMed / Medline, Web of Science, Taylor and Francis, Lilacs, Scopus, Human Kinects y Science Direct. Los artículos fueron analizados en función de sus características metodológicas y análisis de la red de citas. En total, se identificaron 47 artículos, de los cuales los más mencionados fueron Fletcher y Sarkar (2012) y Galli y Vealey (2008). La teoría fundamentada de la resistencia psicológica y el rendimiento deportivo ideal, Fletcher y Sarkar (2012) parece cubrir mejor los aspectos elementales teóricos básicos para comprender la resistencia deportiva. En conclusión, la resiliencia deportiva es un proceso dinámico continuo, basado en las características psicológicas individuales y las interacciones del atleta con el medio ambiente


Os objetivos do estudo são buscar os indicadores e o escopo dos modelos teóricos adotados para descrever a resiliência dos atletas e analisar o impacto nas investigações sobre resiliência. Publicações acadêmicas originais foram buscadas dentro de um período de 10 anos nas bases de dados PubMed / Medline, Web of Science, Taylor e Francis, Lilacs, Scopus, Human Kinects e Science Direct. Os artigos foram analisados com base em suas características metodológicas e análise da rede de citações. No total, foram identificados 47 artigos, dos quais os mais referenciados foram Fletcher e Sarkar (2012) e Galli e Vealey (2008). A Teoria Fundamentada da Resiliência Psicológica e do Desempenho Esportivo Ideal, Fletcher e Sarkar (2012) parece melhor abranger os aspectos elementares teóricos básicos para entender a resiliência esportiva. Concluindo, a resiliência esportiva é um processo dinâmico contínuo, baseado nas características psicológicas individuais e nas interações do atleta com o meio ambiente


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Resiliência Psicológica , Atletas/psicologia , Indicadores Bibliométricos , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde Mental
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667941

RESUMO

Cross-country skiers use different sub-techniques like 'gears' (diagonals stride, double poling with kick, and double poling) depending on terrain (incline) and demand (speed and external work rate). Previous studies have identified the major effect of speed and incline, but not any potential interaction between these parameters: the incline-speed combination determines the work rate, which in itself may be a controlling factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these task conditions (external work rate, speed, incline) and their interactions on the choice of sub-technique in classical roller skiing. Twelve male and nine female cross-country skiers executed three subsets of protocols in which two of three condition parameters were altered every 15 seconds while roller skiing on a treadmill. This design created a quasi-random set of combinations of speed, incline and work rate that were analysed on sub-technique choice. A repeated measures model with sex as between subject factor was conducted for each subset of protocols. The incline appeared to be the factor affecting sub-technique choice most, but not exclusively; at constant incline, athletes applied different sub-techniques, depending mostly on speed rather than work rate. Most athletes did not use one particular sub-technique for a given speed-incline-work rate combination, but it depended on the protocol and direction of condition change in the constant speed protocol (hysteresis). Only minor differences between men and women existed regarding the impact of condition factor on sub-technique choice. The findings disagree with the notion of a simple mechanism that explains the choice of sub-technique, but rather opt for a complex structure that entangles various mechanisms which play a role in the choice of sub-technique under moderate effort conditions.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Exercício Físico , Esqui/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530925

RESUMO

This study examines the reliability and validity of the Characteristics of Resilience in Sports Teams Inventory (CREST) in Chinese team athletes. A sample of 659 athletes (male = 355, female = 304) aged from 16-34 (M = 20.08, SD = 2.98) participated in this study. The scale was translated into Chinese using forward and back translation procedures by two independent translators. Questionnaires were administered online. Data was analysed using SPSS 19.0 and Mplus 6.0. Results showed that the items were understood by Chinese team sport athletes. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the Chinese version of CREST had two sub-dimensions as it was in the original scale. Confirmatory factor analysis further demonstrated that the two-structure model was confirmed in the Chinese team sports context. The Cronbach's alpha values of the scale was 0.842, and the test-retest reliability coefficient of one-month interval was 0.836. It is concluded that the Chinese version of CREST can be used as a valid and reliable tool to assess team resilience in China and can be helpful and applicable in helping sports psychologists understand team resilience. Future studies should further examine the psychometric properties of the scale among world-class athletes and develop a team resilience measurement tool based on Chinese traditional culture.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570701

RESUMO

The psychological variables that affect competitive performance are called the psychological profile of athletes. In recent years, the interest in female soccer players and the psychological characteristics that affect their performance has increased. The aim of the present study is to analyze the psychological characteristics of female professional soccer players and female amateur soccer players, as well as to determine the differences in the psychological profile of both groups. The participants were 134 federated female soccer players, with an average age of 18.28 years (SD = 4.05). To assess the psychological profile, the questionnaire on Psychological Characteristics related to Sports Performance (CPRD) by Gimeno, Buceta, and Pérez-Llantada (2001) was used. The results showed that female professional players presented higher values for motivation, while the female amateur players presented higher values for stress control and the influence of performance evaluation. These results can have a great impact on coaches' work, since they can help them to establish tasks and training methods consistent with the characteristics of their players.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético , Futebol/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574215

RESUMO

Despite the multitude of adverse physical and psychosocial consequences of sports injury, evidence also highlights the potential for positive benefits in the injury aftermath. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by exploring the dimensions of personal growth following a severe sports injury. A 3-rounds e-Delphi method was utilized to develop a consensual understanding of the dimensions of sport-injury related growth. A panel of 24 psychology of sport injury experts participated in the process. The final list of items obtained was subjected to conventional content analysis to identify general themes. The process led to the development of a 5-dimension model capable of describing athletes' experiences of personal growth following a severe sports-related injury: personal strength, improved social life, health benefits, sport benefits, and social support and recognition. The domains of sport-injury related growth identified here are consistent with growth-domains identified in previous personal growth literature. However, they also highlight the importance of contextualizing the experience of growth. We have captured key elements of sport-injury related growth, domains that can be used as the basis for further psychometric testing and for further interventions to increase adjustment and well-being during the rehabilitation process.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Técnica Delfos , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Esportes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/reabilitação , Humanos , Psicologia do Esporte/métodos , Psicologia do Esporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Esportes/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Sports Sci ; 38(18): 2092-2099, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475220

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate swimmer's use and coach prescription of recovery strategies during training and competition while examining perceived challenges, barriers, and beliefs in the importance of their effectiveness. A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was implemented. Thirty-seven male and 45 female sub-elite to elite swimmers (age 18 ± 3 y), and 4 male and 6 female coaches (age 40 ± 9 y) completed an online, 78-item recovery strategy survey. Swimmers and coaches responded to questions regarding when, why, and how they used recovery strategies, perceived challenges and barriers to strategy inclusion during training and competition. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Fisher's Exact Test was conducted on 5-point Likert scale responses. Most recovery strategies were used and prescribed more during competition. Swimmers reported active recovery as the most effective recovery strategy (44%), whereas coaches rated sleep or napping (40%). Swimmers and coaches perceived most recovery strategies to be more effective and important during competition than in training. Swimmers used, and coaches prescribed, recovery strategies more during the competition, highlighting the discrepancies in use between training and competition. Targeted education programmes should enhance athletes and coach's recovery knowledge and practical application of strategies, while accounting for individual sport and life demands.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Fadiga/prevenção & controle , Tutoria , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Natação/fisiologia , Natação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa , Comportamento Competitivo , Exercício de Arrefecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroterapia , Imersão , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Sono , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 327-333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525767

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Eating disorders (EDs) in male athletes are potentially debilitating disorders with significant medical, psychological, and athletic performance consequences. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Searches were performed across PubMed, EBSCOhost, and PSYCinfo from 1990 to 2019. Keywords searched were eating disorder, male, athlete, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, muscularity, muscle dysmorphia, and sports. Search results included articles written in the English language and encompassed reviews, empirical studies, and theoretical articles. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. RESULTS: EDs among male athletes may lead to serious negative outcomes, including increased susceptibility to injury, inconsistent performance, problematic recovery, muscle deficiencies, impairment of optimal athletic functioning, and medical, social, and emotional problems. Male athletes with EDs may be more difficult to identify and diagnose for a variety of reasons related to differential presentation of symptoms, secretiveness or shame around behaviors, and sex-related stigma. CONCLUSION: Professionals working closely with athletes are uniquely positioned to identify and screen those who may require further evaluation and treatment.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429570

RESUMO

Research on the dark triad traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy) is increasingly focusing on the functional or dysfunctional influences of personality traits on cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses. Thus, studies in sport contexts have shown that athletes who participate in competitive sports have higher scores in the dark triad than those who do not. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to evaluate the linear and predictive relationships between dark traits and competitiveness (p < 0.01), as well as to identify any differences based on sports orientation (professionals vs. amateurs). Scales SD3 (dark personality) and C-10 (competitiveness) were applied to a sample of Spanish athletes (n = 806). The results show that competitiveness is strongly related to the traits of the dark personality triad. Narcissism is related to both the desire to win and the fear of losing, while Machiavellian tendencies are high when athletes feel like losers. Finally, psychopathic tendencies are related to feelings of inferiority and fear of failure. In conclusion, the results suggest that dark personality traits are related not only to the individuality of the athletes, but also to the self-perception of both their psychological response and the competitiveness of their sporting environment.


Assuntos
Atletas , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Personalidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Atletas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392229

RESUMO

Running participation has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite its association with different health-related aspects, athletes may experience adverse outcomes, including injuries. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between runners' resilience levels, motivation and incidence of injury, on the one hand; and to analyse the mediation that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has on the association between the number of injuries and psychological resilience levels among amateur athletes. The sample consisted of a total of 1725 runners (age: 40.40 ± 9.39 years), 1261 of whom were male (age: 43.16 ± 9.38), and 465 of whom were female (age: 40.34 ± 9.14). Athletes completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-3), the Resilience scale (CD-RISC 10), and an Injury retrospective survey. Three mediation models were constructed, and the results showed a significant indirect association of athletes' intrinsic motivation and resilience on the number of injuries (ß = 0.022, CI = 0.007, 0.0) in mediation model 1, whereas extrinsic motivation was found to have no significant association on those variables (ß = -0.062, CI = -0.137, 0.009) in mediation model 2. Model 3 showed significant differences with respect to resilience (p < 0.05) and intrinsic motivation (p < 0.05). Therefore, the mediation of intrinsic motivation on athletes' resilience levels and incidence of injury was demonstrated, i.e., it was found that intrinsic motivation was associated with a higher incidence of injury, while no such correlation was found for extrinsic motivation. This study shows that the amateur long distance runners with a high level of intrinsic motivation tend to suffer from a greater number of injuries, and at the same time psychological resilience was associated with a lower number of injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Corrida/psicologia , Adulto , Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Motivação , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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