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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444946

RESUMO

The exponentially growing quantity of nutrition information creates a new situation and challenge for every stakeholder, from athletes, coaches and nutritionists to policymakers. To measure the perception of the information environment related to healthy eating, the diet information overload scale was developed. The scale consists of eight items, measuring the perceived importance of pieces of information overload on Likert-type scales. The objective of the study was to test the applicability and validity of the diet information overload scale among athletes. A cross-sectional validation study was conducted with elite athletes (n = 177). To validate each item of the scale, we applied Cronbach's alpha test, and the inner consistency of the scale was analyzed with linear correlation coefficients of the different variables. To evaluate the relationship between question groups, we applied factor analysis. The different fit indices showed a good fit to the model; the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) value was 0.09 and the Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) value was 0.84. The indicators of reliability (α based upon the covariances = 0.81) produced suitable results; thus, the sport nutrition information overload scale showed high reliability and applicability. Based on the sport nutrition information overload scale, further analysis could be carried out on how to optimize the content of key pieces of sport nutrition-related information.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Dieta/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371832

RESUMO

Limited research has examined athletes' food and health beliefs and decisions and the congruence of these decisions with recommendations from nutrition professionals. This study aimed to improve understanding of athletes' food-related beliefs and practices to enable nutrition professionals to more effectively enhance performance while protecting athletes' health. Division I college athletes (n = 14, 64% female) from a variety of sports were recruited to participate in 20-min semi-structured phone interviews about food and nutrition-related behaviors and cognitions. Data were content analyzed to identify themes and trends. Prominent factors influencing athletes' food choices were potential benefits to health and performance, availability of foods, and recommendations from sports dietitians. Foods commonly consumed by athletes, including fruits, vegetables, and lean protein, were generally healthy and aligned with sports nutrition recommendations. Athletes avoided energy-dense nutrient-poor foods, such as fast food and fried foods, with the goal of improving performance. Some athletes took supplements (i.e., multivitamin, iron, protein) on the premise that they would improve health and enhance performance or recovery. While athletes' nutrition behaviors are generally congruent with current recommendations, findings highlighted misconceptions held by athletes related to the benefits of some supplements and the belief that packaged/processed foods were inherently less healthy than other options. Nutrition misconceptions held by athletes and incongruities between athletes' nutrition knowledge and behaviors suggest that dietitians should aim to dispel misconceptions held by athletes and provide additional guidance and information to support athletes' current healthful behaviors to ensure these behaviors extend beyond their college athletic career.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/normas , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low energy availability results in physiological adaptations which contribute to unfavourable health outcomes. Little information exists on perceptions of nutritional advice to eat more food to maintain health and enhance performance. The aim of this study was to explore athletes' and coaches' perceptions towards advice to athletes to eat larger than their current quantities of food and to explore how nutritionists could deliver this advice. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews (~20 min in length) were conducted using online communication technology, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. The interview explored perceptions of the nutritional advice provided, its role in health and performance, and the challenges to eating larger amounts of food. Data were analysed using NVIVO 1.2 using an inductive thematic approach. RESULTS: Nine elite athletes (female = 6; males = 3) and nine high-performance coaches (female = 3; male = 6) completed the semi-structured interviews. Athletes reported improved training consistency, fewer injuries and illnesses, and improved resilience when consuming adequate energy and nutrients to meet their needs. Lack of time and meal preparation difficulties were the main challenges faced to fuelling. CONCLUSIONS: Although education about under-fuelling is important, motivating, enabling, and supporting athletes to change behaviour is pivotal to increasing athlete self-awareness and to make long-term nutritional changes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético , Ingestão de Energia , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14521, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267238

RESUMO

Home advantage in professional sports is a widely accepted phenomenon despite the lack of any controlled experiments at the professional level. The return to play of professional sports during the COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique opportunity to analyze the hypothesized effect of home advantage in neutral settings. While recent work has examined the effect of COVID-19 restrictions on home advantage in European football, comparatively few studies have examined the effect of restrictions in the North American professional sports leagues. In this work, we infer the effect of and changes in home advantage prior to and during COVID-19 in the professional North American leagues for hockey, basketball, baseball, and American football. We propose a Bayesian multi-level regression model that infers the effect of home advantage while accounting for relative team strengths. We also demonstrate that the Negative Binomial distribution is the most appropriate likelihood to use in modelling North American sports leagues as they are prone to overdispersion in their points scored. Our model gives strong evidence that home advantage was negatively impacted in the NHL and NBA during their strongly restricted COVID-19 playoffs, while the MLB and NFL showed little to no change during their weakly restricted COVID-19 seasons.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Volta ao Esporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/psicologia , América do Norte , Pandemias , Preconceito/psicologia , Volta ao Esporte/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Esportes de Equipe
6.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 421-430, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267581

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to identify coherence, hope for success and coping strategies as predictors of mood among this year's Olympians in the context of coronavirus events. The relationships between the above variables and the mood of athletes were analysed. The study group consisted of 57 athletes - women (29) and men (28) between 18 and 39 years of age - representing various sports disciplines who were preparing for the Tokyo Olympics. The research was conducted in the period of April 7-28, 2020 during the first threat of COVID-19 pandemic, following the decision to move the Summer Olympics to the year 2021. It was time of the greatest national restrictions and information about the postponement of the games had been received. As a result of the step regression analysis, three predictors of vigour were established: sense of meaningfulness, coping with stress through positive reframing, and not using the self-blaming strategy. A positive predictor of anger was the use of substances. Confusion was predicted based on the frequency of behavioral disengagement. Behavioral disengagement predicted the severity of depression. Predictors of fatigue were the sense of meaningfulness, and the strategies of positive reframing and self-blaming. The results obtained emphasize the importance of positive reframing as a factor contributing to maintaining a positive mood state. In contrast, behavioral disengagement and self-blaming were strategies that lowered the mood of elite athletes. The results confirm the importance of factors included in the salutogenic model (sense of coherence, coping strategies) as predictors of athletes' mood during a pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atletas/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Senso de Coerência , Adulto , Afeto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio , Adulto Jovem
7.
Phys Ther Sport ; 50: 184-194, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore injury profile, opinions on risk factors and injury prevention, among Irish amateur women soccer players. DESIGN: A cross-sectional online survey. SETTING: Irish amateur winter league. PARTICIPANTS: Active players ≤18 years of age. MAIN OUTCOMES: Differences were found between injured and uninjured groups, and risk factors that significantly predict soccer injury were identified. RESULTS: 168 injuries were reported by 83 respondents during the winter season. An increased prevalence of competition anxiety was observed in (53.8%:n = 85 of respondents) compared to other risk factors. There was a negative association between injuries and players' general health state (OR = 0.820, 95% CI 0.7-0.9, p = 0.007). Players' knowledge about some risk factors including playing position, joint hypermobility, and playing during menses contradicts current evidence. 50%; n = 67 of the respondents had not received any education on injury risk or prevention. CONCLUSION: This study identified that Irish amateur women soccer players that responded have different characteristics, prevalence of risk factors and injury profiles to women players from different levels and countries. The findings suggest that some players may not be aware of the existing evidence base pertaining to common risk factors for injury. Further research is required to confirm the findings and explore the implementation of injury prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Futebol/lesões , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(7): 1537-1543, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Athlete Food Choice Questionnaire (AFCQ) is a novel tool for understanding factors influencing athlete food selection and providing context to nutrition knowledge and diet quality data. Reliability, face, and content validity have been previously established during development. The aim of this study is to evaluate the AFCQ's factorial structure, reliability, and construct validity in an independent sample of international high-performance athletes. METHODS: The AFCQ contains 36 items within nine factors. Participants rate how frequently (1 never to 5 always) items influence their choices. Model consistency and construct validity was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis. Measures included model fit incidences and duplicate methods examining reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity. RESULTS: Athletes (n = 232) at the 2018 Commonwealth Games, Gold Coast, Australia, completed the AFCQ. A modified 32-item model achieved discriminant validity for all factors and convergent validity for "emotional influence," "food and health awareness," "nutritional attributes of food," "performance," and "influence of others." Reliability measures of all constructs except "usual eating practice" and "food values and beliefs" were above acceptable thresholds, although "usual eating practice" was considered tolerable and conditionally accepted. CONCLUSION: The AFCQ was confirmed in its original nine-factor structure in an independent sample of high-performance athletes. This provides a detailed and transparent account of the construct validity of the AFCQ, adding to the foundation of evidence for this new instrument. The AFCQ captures the unique influences specific to athletes while being broad enough for application across diverse sporting and culturally mixed cohorts. This tool could assist sports science professionals in making more informed and effective decisions around strategies to support athletes, including the ability to triage for specific sports nutrition advice.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067303

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to provide information on energy availability (EA), macronutrient intake, nutritional periodization practices, and nutrition knowledge in young female cross-country skiers. A total of 19 skiers filled in weighted food and training logs before and during a training camp. Nutrition knowledge was assessed via a validated questionnaire. EA was optimal in 11% of athletes at home (mean 33.7 ± 9.6 kcal·kgFFM-1·d-1) and in 42% at camp (mean 40.3 ± 17.3 kcal·kgFFM-1·d-1). Most athletes (74%) failed to meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake at home (mean 5.0 ± 1.2 g·kg-1·d-1) and 63% failed to do so at camp (mean 7.1 ± 1.6 g·kg-1·d-1). The lower threshold of the pre-exercise carbohydrate recommendations was met by 58% and 89% of athletes while percentages were 26% and 89% within 1 h after exercise, at home and at camp, respectively. None of the athletes met the recommendations within 4 h after exercise. Nutrition knowledge was associated with EA at home (r = 0.52, p = 0.023), and with daily carbohydrate intake at home (r = 0.62, p = 0.005) and at camp (r = 0.52, p = 0.023). Carbohydrate intake within 1 and 4 h post-exercise at home was associated with better nutrition knowledge (r = 0.65, p = 0.003; r = 0.53, p = 0.019, respectively). In conclusion, young female cross-county skiers had difficulties meeting recommendations for optimal EA and carbohydrate intake. Better nutrition knowledge may help young athletes to meet these recommendations.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Esqui , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adolescente , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067402

RESUMO

In the last decade, the number of full-time registered dietitians (RDs) serving intercollegiate athletes in the United States has more than quadrupled. However, many student athletes may be at increased risk of nutrition-related problems that impact physical and academic performance, which include inadequate macronutrients, inadequate micronutrients, and excessive macronutrients. This narrative review reports the current literature to date on nutrition-related knowledge in collegiate athletes and the impact of sports RDs on student athletes' nutrition knowledge and behaviors. To date, only observational and quasi-experimental studies have been published with regard to changes in nutrition knowledge and behaviors in NCAA athletes. While these studies report benefits of the RD as a member of the interdisciplinary student athlete support team, more well-designed randomized control trials are warranted to determine benefits related to health outcomes and sport-specific performance outcomes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nutricionistas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Universidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Esportes , Estudantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
11.
J Safety Res ; 77: 255-262, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rate of concussions in youth soccer is among the highest of all youth sports. Parents play an important role in caring for their children and making decisions regarding whether they should participate in a sport, such as soccer, where concussions are well known. This study examined parental perceptions regarding: (a) coaches' role in concussion management, (b) heading restriction policies, and (c) overall concussion risk and participation issues. METHOD: Online surveys were completed by 419 parents of youth soccer players who participated in the largest U.S. youth soccer programs nationwide. RESULTS: Findings indicated 44.5% of the respondents had considered keeping their children from playing organized soccer and 47.2% were concerned about a potential decline in youth soccer participation due to concussions. Nearly 69% of responding parents agreed that heading should be banned for participants 10 years old or younger, while 56.5% thought heading should not be limited for participants 13 or older. Only 35% of parents were very confident about their child's coach's ability to properly identify concussions and remove those suspected of a concussion from play. Parents' socioeconomic status (SES), soccer coaching and playing experience, and previous history of concussion(s) were key predictors of greater perceived risk about concussions. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study shed light on parents' perceptions about concussions and related safety issues in youth soccer. Understanding what parents believe about concussions is vital to preserve youth soccer participation and can be used to strengthen education and policies that promote a safer environment for youth sport participants. Practical Applications: Youth soccer coaches can benefit from stronger, comprehensive educational efforts at the league/club level. Additionally, parents of youth athletes who are in the lower SES communities should be targeted to receive concussion safety information and/or interventions that would improve their knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding concussion safety.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Futebol , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Esportes Juvenis
12.
J Athl Train ; 56(5): 518-528, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000016

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Spiritual well-being is the expression of one's spirituality as measured in the dimensions of existential and religious well-being. The Smith Cognitive Affective Model of Athletic Burnout suggests that personality factors such as spiritual well-being and the use of religious coping methods may affect burnout as well as its causes and outcomes. This has not been examined in collegiate athletic trainers (ATs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between spiritual well-being and burnout in collegiate ATs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Web-based survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 783 certified ATs employed full time in the collegiate setting participated. Part-time employees (eg, graduate assistants, interns) were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): A 100-item online questionnaire was created for this study. It used items from previously developed scales, including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Brief RCOPE, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and substance-use questions from the Monitoring the Future study. Participants were able to complete the survey in approximately 10-15 minutes. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyze survey data. We mapped all independent (existential well-being, religious well-being, positive and negative religious coping) and dependent variables (situational variables, Maslach Burnout Inventory burnout subscales, substance use, and intention to leave) onto the Smith Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout to determine which variables altered burnout levels, substance use, and intention to leave. Tests of mediation or moderation were conducted when appropriate. RESULTS: Existential well-being was a significant positive predictor of social support and a significant negative predictor of work-family conflict, decreased sense of personal accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, intention to leave the profession, and binge drinking. Existential well-being also served as a mediator or moderator in several components of the model. CONCLUSIONS: Existential well-being was a protective factor against burnout as well as some of the causes and effects of burnout in collegiate ATs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional , Saúde Mental , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Ajustamento Emocional , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Apoio Social , Universidades
13.
J Athl Train ; 56(5): 508-517, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000017

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The transition to practice of newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs) has become an area of focus in the athletic training literature. However, no theoretical model has been developed to describe the phenomenon and drive investigation. OBJECTIVE: To better understand the lived experience of the transition to practice and develop a theoretical model of transition to practice for ATs. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Telephone interviews. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen professional master's athletic training students (7 men, 7 women, age = 25.6 ± 3.7 years, from 9 higher education institutions) in the first year of clinical practice as newly credentialed ATs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Participants completed semistructured phone interviews at 3 timepoints over 12 to 15 months. The first interview was conducted just before graduation, the second 4 to 6 months later, and the third at 10 to 12 months. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: We developed a theoretical model to explain the causal conditions that triggered transition, how the causal conditions were experienced, the coping strategies used to persist through the first year of practice, and the consequences of those strategies. CONCLUSIONS: The model provides a framework for new athletic training clinicians, educators, and employers to better understand the transition process in order to help new clinicians respond by accepting or adapting to their environment or their behaviors.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atletas , Credenciamento , Competência Profissional/normas , Adulto , Atletas/educação , Atletas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
14.
J Athl Train ; 56(5): 473-483, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000018

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Athletes are often exposed to pain due to injury and competition. Using preliminary evidence, researchers have shown that cardiovascular measures could be an objective measure of pain, but the cardiovascular response can be influenced by psychological factors, such as catastrophizing. OBJECTIVE: To use a painful cold-pressor test (CPT) to measure the relationship among catastrophizing, pain, and cardiovascular variables in athletes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 36 male rugby athletes (age = 24.0 ± 4.6 years, height = 180.0 ± 6.1 cm, mass = 90.5 ± 13.8 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We measured catastrophizing using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and pain using a numeric pain rating scale. Cardiovascular measures were heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate variability. RESULTS: During the CPT, participants experienced increases in pain (from 0 to 4.1 ± 2.2), systolic blood pressure (from 126.7 ± 16.5 to 149.7 ± 23.4 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (from 76.9 ± 8.3 to 91.9 ± 11.5 mm Hg), and heart rate variability (from 0.0164 ± 0.0121 to 0.0400 ± 0.0323 milliseconds; all P values < .001). In addition, we observed a decrease in heart rate after the CPT (P = .04). We found a correlation between athletes' pain catastrophizing and both pain intensity and change in heart rate during the CPT (P = .02 and P = .003, respectively). Linear regression indicated that pain and catastrophizing explained 29% of the variance in the change in heart rate (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Athletes who had catastrophizing thoughts were more likely to experience higher levels of pain and a greater cardiovascular response during a painful stimulus. The change in cardiovascular variables may be a good objective measure of pain in athletes in the future.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Catastrofização , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor , Adulto , Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia
16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 129: 105269, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the relationship between competitive anxiety, fear/anxiety of COVID-19, and autonomic and endocrine stress responses in professional football players after returning to competition during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Ninety male professional football players (age: 26.33 ± 2.48 yr) volunteered to participate in this study, which included an official competition. Psychophysiological responses, including the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised, were collected 30 min before the competition. In addition, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol (sCort) were collected at 8 a.m. and 15 min before the competition. RESULTS: The main findings, based on the Pearson correlation, showed significant positive correlations between COVID-19 anxiety and somatic competitive anxiety (p = 0.01), cognitive competitive anxiety (p = 0.01), and competition response of sCort and sAA (p = 0.01). Moreover, fear of COVID-19 was positively correlated with COVID-19 anxiety (p = 0.01). On the contrary, the awakening response of sCort and sAA was not found to be correlated with psychological parameters (all p > 0.05). The analysis also indicated that there was no significant correlation between self-confidence with other psychological and physiological variables (all p > 0.05). The regression analysis showed that cognitive anxiety was a relevant predictor for the competition response of sCort and sAA (p < 0.05). Moreover, COVID-19 anxiety was the only predictor of somatic and cognitive anxiety (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first preliminary evidence that COVID-19 anxiety and competitive anxiety might pose a negative impact on the athletic performance of professional football players during COVID-19 pandemic competitions. Thus, research is needed to build a strategy to reduce the psychophysiological stress related to COVID-19 and competition response.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Atletas , COVID-19 , Comportamento Competitivo , Medo , Futebol , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Saliva , alfa-Amilases Salivares/metabolismo , Futebol/fisiologia , Futebol/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(9): 782-788, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862638

RESUMO

Monitoring the physical load undertaken by athletes and examining the subsequent relationship with performance and injury and illness risk is common practice in high performance sport. Less attention has been paid to the psychological factors contributing to the overall load experienced and the impact upon health status and performance. This paper discusses considerations for the conceptualization and measurement of psychological load in sport. First, we outline the importance of ensuring conceptual clarity is adopted in the measurement of psychological load. Next, we discuss the challenges to measuring psychological load in a comparable manner to which physical load is currently evaluated, including use of subjective assessment, adoption of specific and global approaches, and development of measurement instrumentation, techniques, and expertise. We then offer recommendations for practitioners when undertaking assessment of psychological load in sport. We conclude with future research directions to advance the study and measurement of the construct, including the interaction between psychological and physical load, the appraisal of the load faced, and personal and social resources available to successfully cope. We also highlight the need to consider groups of athletes (e. g., transitioning athlete, long-term injured) at greater risk from threats to mental and physical health from increased psychological load.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Cognição , Humanos , Fadiga Mental
18.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923663

RESUMO

The main objective of this research was to carry out an experimental study, triple-blind, on the possible immunophysiological effects of a nutritional supplement (synbiotic, Gasteel Plus®, Heel España S.A.U.), containing a mixture of probiotic strains, such as Bifidobacterium lactis CBP-001010, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and Bifidobacterium longum ES1, as well as the prebiotic fructooligosaccharides, on both professional athletes and sedentary people. The effects on some inflammatory/immune (IL-1ß, IL-10, and immunoglobulin A) and stress (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol) biomarkers were evaluated, determined by flow cytometer and ELISA. The effects on metabolic profile and physical activity, as well as on various parameters that could affect physical and mental health, were also evaluated via the use of accelerometry and validated questionnaires. The participants were professional soccer players in the Second Division B of the Spanish League and sedentary students of the same sex and age range. Both study groups were randomly divided into two groups: a control group-administered with placebo, and an experimental group-administered with the synbiotic. Each participant was evaluated at baseline, as well as after the intervention, which lasted one month. Only in the athlete group did the synbiotic intervention clearly improve objective physical activity and sleep quality, as well as perceived general health, stress, and anxiety levels. Furthermore, the synbiotic induced an immunophysiological bioregulatory effect, depending on the basal situation of each experimental group, particularly in the systemic levels of IL-1ß (increased significantly only in the sedentary group), CRH (decreased significantly only in the sedentary group), and dopamine (increased significantly only in the athlete group). There were no significant differences between groups in the levels of immunoglobulin A or in the metabolic profile as a result of the intervention. It is concluded that synbiotic nutritional supplements can improve anxiety, stress, and sleep quality, particularly in sportspeople, which appears to be linked to an improved immuno-neuroendocrine response in which IL-1ß, CRH, and dopamine are clearly involved.


Assuntos
Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/microbiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Acelerometria , Adulto , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Atletas/psicologia , Bifidobacterium animalis , Bifidobacterium longum , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/sangue , Dopamina/sangue , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Masculino , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci ; 39(17): 1969-1979, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818303

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns on athlete burnout and two key indicators of overtraining syndrome (training distress and subjectively perceived sports performance) using cross-sectional (N = 228), short-term (a 3-month interval, N = 93) and long-term (a 1-year interval, N = 83) longitudinal designs on a sample of adolescent athletes. In the cross-sectional analyses, sequential regressions revealed that perfectionism was a significant predictor of athlete burnout and both indicators of overtraining. In the three-month longitudinal perspective, both dimensions of perfectionism (strivings and concerns) contributed to the prediction of change in burnout and sports performance, but not training distress. When the one-year longitudinal relationships were regarded, only perfectionistic strivings significantly predicted decrease in burnout, and, for sports performance, the predictive power of both dimensions of perfectionism was even more pronounced when compared to the three-month longitudinal data.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826672

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether a difference exists in reactive and proactive control for sport considered open or closed skills dominated. Sixteen young (11-12 years) athletes (eight soccer players and eight swimmers) were asked to be engaged into two games competitions that required either a reactive and a proactive type of control. By means of kinematic (i.e. movement time and duration) and dynamic analysis through the force platform (i.e. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments, APAs), we evaluated the level of ability and stability in reacting and anticipating actions. Results indicated that soccer players outperformed swimmers by showing higher stability and a smaller number of falls during the competition where proactive control was mainly required. Soccer players were able to reach that result by anticipating actions through well-modulated APAs. On the contrary, during the competition where reactive control was mainly required, performances were comparable between groups. Therefore, the development of specific action control is already established at 11-12 years of age and is enhanced by the training specificity.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Desempenho Psicomotor , Futebol , Esportes , Natação , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
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