Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.839
Filtrar
1.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1292-1299, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564146

RESUMO

AIMS: This study explores data quality in operation type and fracture classification recorded as part of a large research study and a national audit with an independent review. PATIENTS AND METHODS: At 17 centres, an expert surgeon reviewed a randomly selected subset of cases from their centre with regard to fracture classification using the AO system and type of operation performed. Agreement for these variables was then compared with the data collected during conduct of the World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE) cohort study. Both types of surgery and fracture classification were collapsed to identify the level of detail of reporting that achieved meaningful agreement. In the National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD), the types of operation and fracture classification were explored to identify the proportion of "highly improbable" combinations. RESULTS: The records were reviewed for 903 cases. Agreement for the subtypes of extracapsular fracture was poor; most centres achieved no better than "fair" agreement. When the classification was collapsed to a single option for "extracapsular" fracture, only four centres failed to have at least "moderate" agreement. There was only "moderate" agreement for the subtypes of intracapsular fracture, which improved to "substantial" when collapsed to "intracapsular". Subtrochanteric fracture types were well reported with "substantial" agreement. There was near "perfect" agreement for internal fixation procedures. "Perfect" or "substantial" agreement was achieved when the type of arthroplasty surgery was reported at the level of "hemiarthroplasty" and "total hip replacement". When reviewing data submitted to the NHFD, a minimum of 5.2% of cases contained "highly improbable" procedures for the stated fracture classification. CONCLUSION: The complexity of collecting fracture classification data at a national scale compromises the accuracy with which detailed classification systems can be reported. Data around type of surgery performed show similar tendencies. Data capture, reporting, and interpretation in future studies must take this into account. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1292-1299.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Hemiartroplastia/métodos , Fraturas do Quadril/classificação , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Inglaterra , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Hemiartroplastia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Reoperação/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , País de Gales
2.
Anaesthesia ; 74(10): 1332-1333, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486538
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 263: 159-170, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411161

RESUMO

Control theory is about the processes underlying the behaviour of self-regulating agents. It proposes that behaviour is regulated by a negative feedback loop, in which the agent compares the perception of its current state against a goal state and will strive to reduce perceived discrepancies by modifying its behaviour. Although studies in health informatics often do not report the use of this theory, the principle of a negative feedback loop underlies many applications in the field. This chapter describes how control theory fits within health informatics, discussing its role in the development and assessment of audit and feedback interventions in healthcare. Control theory has been used to synthesise evidence of audit and feedback, and to design and evaluate interventions to improve the quality of blood transfusion practice, cardiac rehabilitation, and intensive care. This has driven progress in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of audit and feedback for improving health care, and has helped to design better interventions.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Retroalimentação , Auditoria Médica , Transfusão de Sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos
4.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 122-128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygen is like any other medication that can cause severe consequences if administered inappropriately. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of acute oxygen therapy on regular hospital wards of a referral centre in Ilorin, Nigeria. METHODS: We reviewed 150 patients that received or had a prescription for acute oxygen therapy in three months and extracted relevant information using a proforma. RESULTS: About one-third of the patients (30%) were >65 years of age and the male to female ratio was 1:1. The commonest indication and medical condition for acute oxygen administration were hypoxemia (70.7%) and pneumonia (26.0%), respectively. Pneumonia accounted for most (41.2 %) of the oxygen therapy in childhood. The majority of patients (88.0%) had written order for oxygen prescription, 40.7% had a prescription to target oxygen saturation and only 31.3% achieved their target saturation. Oxygen prescription was adequate (documentation of delivery device, flow rate of oxygen, and target oxygen saturations) in 40.7% of patients. The assessment, monitoring and titration of oxygen therapy were adequate in 92.7%, 65.3% and 28 % of patients respectively. Overall mortality was 27.3% in patients receiving acute oxygen supplementation. Eleven patients had unstable COPD, and 63.6 %, 54.5 % and 45.6 % of them had adequate oxygen prescription, monitoring and titration respectively. The challenges to oxygen use were faulty delivery devices, emptied oxygen cylinders, inability to routinely do arterial blood gas analysis and lack of hospital oxygen protocol. CONCLUSION: The current practice of acute oxygen therapy is not satisfactory and interventions are advocated to improve the healthcare providers' administration of oxygen.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/terapia , Auditoria Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 133(8): 704-712, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence referral guidelines prompting urgent two-week referrals were updated in 2015. Additional symptoms with a lower threshold of 3 per cent positive predictive values were integrated. This study aimed to examine whether current pan-London urgent referral guidelines for suspected head and neck cancer lead to efficient and accurate referrals by assessing frequency of presenting symptoms and risk factors, and examining their correlation with positive cancer diagnoses. METHODS: The risk factors and symptoms of 984 consecutive patients (over a six-month period in 2016) were collected retrospectively from urgent referral letters to University College London Hospital for suspected head and neck cancer. RESULTS: Only 37 referrals (3.76 per cent) resulted in a head and neck cancer diagnosis. Four of the 23 recommended symptoms demonstrated statistically significant results. Nine of the 23 symptoms had a positive predictive value of over 3 per cent. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the current referral guidelines are not effective at detecting patients with cancer. Detection rates have decreased from 10-15 per cent to 3.76 per cent. A review of the current head and neck cancer referral guidelines is recommended, along with further data collection for comparison.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1658-1659, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438279

RESUMO

National Clinical Audit (NCA) data are collected from all National Health Service providers in the UK, to measure the quality of care and stimulate quality improvement initatives. As part of a larger study we explored how NHS providers currently collect NCA data and the resources involved. Study results highlight a dependence on manual data entry and use of professional resources, which could be improved by exploring how routine clinical data could be captured more effectively.


Assuntos
Auditoria Clínica , Melhoria de Qualidade , Auditoria Médica
7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(7): 487-494, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis is a common surgical emergency. Identifying variations in presentation, incidence and management may assist standardisation and optimisation of care. The objective of the study was to document the current incidence management and outcomes of acute pancreatitis against international guidelines, and to assess temporal trends over the past 20 years. METHODS: A prospective four-month audit of patients with acute pancreatitis was performed across the Wessex region. The Atlanta 2012 classifications were used to define cases, severity and complications. Outcomes were recorded using validated systems and correlated against guideline standards. Case ascertainment was validated with clinical coding and hospital episode statistics data. RESULTS: A total of 283 patient admissions with acute pancreatitis were identified. Aetiology included 153 gallstones (54%), 65 idiopathic (23%), 29 alcohol (10%), 9 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (3%), 6 drug related (2%), 5 tumour (2%) and 16 other (6%). Compliance with guidelines had improved compared with our previous regional audit. Results were 6.5% mortality, 74% severity stratification, 23% idiopathic cases, 65% definitive treatment of gallstones within 2 weeks, 39% computed tomography within 6-10 days of severe pancreatitis presentation and 82% severe pancreatitis critical care admission. The Atlanta 2012 severity criteria significantly correlated with critical care stay, length of stay, development of complications and mortality (2% vs 6% vs 36%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acute pancreatitis in southern England has risen substantially. The Atlanta 2012 classification identifies patients with severe pancreatitis who have a high risk of fatal outcome. Acute pancreatitis management is seen to have evolved in keeping with new evidence and updated clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cálculos Biliares/terapia , Auditoria Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite/terapia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 8(2): 44-63, abr.-jun.2019. ilus, mapas, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015751

RESUMO

Objective: to analyze the results of the health audit in the area of orthoses, prostheses and special materials (OPM), multiple and sequential surgeries (CMS), performed by the State Health Department of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (SES/RS). Methodology: Descriptive quantitative study, based on secondary data from SES/RS, in the area of OPM and CMS, referring to the period of post-payment audit practice, from March 2013 to January 2017, using the case study approach. Results: 1,004 completed observations were analyzed for the period; the number of administrative processes requiring a return of financial resources did not have a tendency in the analyzed historical series, a result influenced by the presence of administrative processes that were not conclusive, especially from 2014, on the execution of the audit or even the judicialisation of the subject audited institutions. As for the financial value requested for the return of the analyzed processes, it was higher in 2014, decreasing in 2015 and decreasing considerably in the years 2016 and 2017. Considering the 30 health regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, three hospitals were highlighted, the first with 43 administrative processes requesting the return of financial resources; the second with 30; and the third with 28. Conclusion: health actions in this area can be qualified through special attention to the regions of health and hospital institutions that repeat more and have large financial volume glossed. (AU).


Objetivo: analisar os resultados da auditoria em saúde na área de órteses, próteses e materiais especiais (OPM) e cirurgias múltiplas e sequenciais (CMS), realizada pela Secretaria Estadual de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul (SES/RS). Metodologia: estudo quantitativo descritivo, baseado em dados secundários da SES/RS, na área de OPM e CMS, referente ao período da prática de auditoria de pós-pagamento, de março de 2013 a janeiro de 2017, utilizando a abordagem estudo de caso. Resultados: foram analisadas 1.004 observações concluídas para o período; o número de processos administrativos com solicitação de devolução de recursos financeiros não teve uma tendência na série histórica analisada, resultado influenciado pela presença de processos administrativos não conclusos, em especial a partir de 2014, relativos à execução da auditoria ou até mesmo a judicialização do assunto pelas instituições auditadas. Quanto ao valor financeiro solicitado para devolução dos processos analisados, foi maior em 2014, decrescendo em 2015 e diminuiu consideravelmente nos anos 2016 e 2017. Considerando as 30 regiões de saúde do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, três instituições hospitalares tiveram destaque, a primeira com 43 processos administrativos com solicitação de devolução de recursos financeiros; a segunda com 30; e a terceira com 28. Conclusão: as ações em saúde, nessa área, podem ser qualificadas por meio de atenção especial para as regiões de saúde e instituições hospitalares que mais reincidem e tem grandes volumes financeiros glosados. (AU).


Objetivo: analizar los resultados de la auditoría de salud en el área de ortesis, prótesis y materiales especiales (OPM), cirugías múltiples y secuenciales (CMS), realizadas por el Departamento de Salud del Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (SES / RS). Metodología: estudio cuantitativo descriptivo, basado en datos secundarios de SES / RS, en el área de OPM y CMS, en referencia al período de la práctica de auditoría posterior al pago, desde marzo de 2013 hasta enero de 2017, utilizando el enfoque de estudio de caso. Resultados: se analizaron 1,004 observaciones completas para el período; el número de procesos administrativos que requirieron un retorno de los recursos financieros no tuvo una tendencia en las series históricas analizadas, un resultado influenciado por la presencia de procesos administrativos que no fueron concluyentes, especialmente a partir de 2014, en la ejecución de la auditoría o incluso la judicialización del sujeto Instituciones auditadas. En cuanto al valor financiero solicitado para el retorno de los procesos analizados, fue mayor en 2014, disminuyó en 2015 y disminuyó considerablemente en los años 2016 y 2017. Considerando las 30 regiones de salud del estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, se destacaron tres hospitales, el primero con 43 procesos administrativos solicitando la devolución de recursos financieros; el segundo con 30; y el tercero con 28. Conclusión: las acciones de salud en esta área se pueden calificar a través de una atención especial a las regiones de salud y las instituciones hospitalarias que repiten más y tienen grandes volúmenes financieros. (AU).


Assuntos
Economia Médica , Auditoria Médica
10.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 91-94, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of an index case of child abuse necessitates risk assessment of other children who could be vulnerable to abuse from the same perpetrator/s. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of the addition of a prompt to the standard clinical pro forma used for the assessment of new referrals to a child and adolescent sexual assault treatment service in terms of impact upon detection of other at risk children. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: All referrals to a Child and Adolescent Sexual Assault Treatment Service, Galway, West Ireland. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all children assessed between September 2016 and March 2017. Intervention initiated on September 1st, 2017. Prospective chart review of all children assessed between September 2017 and March 2018. Chart reviews established whether potential risk to siblings, and other close child contacts, of the index case had been adequately considered. RESULTS: Comparing pre and post intervention groups, documentation of children at risk significantly increased from 70% to 96% (p = 0.0124). Cases in which a letter was sent to social services regarding other "at risk" children also significantly increased from 50% to 92% (p = 0.0005). There was a change in the percentage of "at risk" children examined or planned for examination, from 66% to 84%, however that was not statistically significant (p = 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a simple prompt within the standard clinical pro forma had a significant positive impact upon clinicians' consideration of other "at risk" children. We suggest that other services consider including a similar section in their own pro forma documents.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Controle de Formulários e Registros , Medição de Risco , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Documentação , Humanos , Irlanda , Auditoria Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 101(8): 552-557, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical significance of isolated free fluid on abdominal computed tomography (CT) in patients with blunt abdominal trauma is unclear. This audit reviews our unit's experience with isolated free fluid and attempts to refine our clinical algorithms for the assessment of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who sustained blunt abdominal trauma between December 2012 and December 2017 who were subjected to multidetector CT of the abdomen as part of their initial investigation were included in this study. RESULTS: During the five-year period under review, a total of 1066 patients underwent abdominal CT following blunt poly trauma. A total of 84 (7.9%) patients died. There were 148 (14%) patients with CT finding of isolated free fluid. Of these, 128 (67%) were selected for non-operative management, which included a period of serial abdominal examinations. In this non-operative group, five patients failed their abdominal observations and underwent laparotomy. Findings in these five cases were negative (1), non-therapeutic (1), splenic injury (1), Pancreatic and splenic injury (1) and bladder injury (1). Thirteen patients (10%) died, none of whom had surgery. The causes of death were exsanguination from a major traumatic lower limb injury (1), multiple organ failure (1), traumatic brain injury (10) and spinal cord injury (1). The remaining 20 patients underwent laparotomy. The indications were failed non-operative management (5), abdominal distension (1) and suspicion of a missed hollow viscus injury (14). In this group there were 11 therapeutic and 6 non-therapeutic surgeries and three negative laparotomies. For the 15 patients selected for operative management, the findings were as follows: hollow viscus injury (3), mesenteric bleeds (2), splenic and pancreatic injury (1), liver and bladder injury (1), splenic and bladder injury (1), non-therapeutic (4), negative (3). The finding of isolated free fluid on CT is 98% sensitive and 96% specific for true isolated free fluid (chi square 331.598; P = 0.000). This finding predicts successful non-operative management with a positive predictive value of 93% and a negative predictive value of 96%. DISCUSSION: In patients with blunt abdominal trauma, the finding of isolated free fluid on abdominal CT alone is no longer an indication for laparotomy. Other clinical factors must be taken into account when deciding on the need for laparotomy, such as haemodynamic status, clinical abdominal findings and the ability to reliably assess the abdomen. In the absence of a clinical indication for urgent laparotomy, patients with isolated free fluid may be observed.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Líquidos Corporais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ascite/diagnóstico por imagem , Ascite/etiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1100): 20190051, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review inferior vena cava (IVC) filter retrieval practice at our institution, the Royal London Hospital, and measure changes following a quality improvement intervention. IVC filters are a preventive treatment for pulmonary embolism when anticoagulation is ineffective/contraindicated. Unless permanent filtration is required, all filters should undergo attempted retrieval within manufacturer's recommendations with a success rate of ≥80 %. METHODS: Retrospective audit of filters inserted between 2011 and 2014, followed by a quality improvement intervention and a second audit between 2015 and 2017. Clinical-radiological data were analysed using the Picture Archiving and Communication System and electronic patient records. RESULTS: During the first audit, filter retrieval was attempted in 92% of cases, of which 82% underwent the procedure within manufacturer's recommendations and 86% were successful. During the second audit, an improvement across indicators was seen. Retrieval increased by 3% and was attempted in 95% of cases (92% of which were within manufacturer's guidelines). Rate of retrievals within manufacturer's guidelines increased by 10%. Filter retrieval success rate increased by 11% - to 97%. CONCLUSIONS: IVC filter retrieval practice at a single institution can be improved by implementing a simple audit intervention. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Filter retrieval practice has clinical and medicolegal implications. A simple quality intervention can substantially improve overall practice.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Auditoria Médica/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Filtros de Veia Cava , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1101): 20181053, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcomes of stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of inoperable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) that are unsuitable for, or refractory to other liver-directed therapies. METHODS: Between March 2015 and June 2018, patients with primary HCCs refractory to or unsuitable for treatment with other liver-directed therapies were treated with SBRT. Patients of Child status A5-B7 and with normal liver reserve ≥ 700 cc were preferred. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and effect of prognostic factors were analysed. RESULTS: 21 patients with inoperable HCCs were treated. The median tumour diameter was 9.6 cm (5-21) and median tumour volume was 350 cc (32.9 - 2541). The median SBRT dose prescription was 42 Gy/6 fractions (25 - 54 Gy/6#). The 1- and 2-year LC rate was 88 and 43 % respectively. Overall rate of > grade III toxicity was 14 %. Patients with Child A5 liver function had a better median OS than A6 and B7 patients [21 vs 11 vs 8 months]. Also, tumours with GTV < 350 cc volumes had a better OS compared to GTV of greater than 350 cc [24 months vs 8 months, p value = 0.004]. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that SBRT can be used safely and effectively to treat inoperable HCCs with or without prior loco-regional therapies, resulting in good local control and survival with acceptable toxicity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Use of SBRT in inoperable HCC is safe and effective.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Auditoria Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acute Med ; 18(2): 76-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127796

RESUMO

SAMBA18 took place on Thursday 28th June 2018 with follow up data at 7 days. Acute medical teams from 127 Acute Medical Units (AMUs) across the UK collected data relating to operational performance, clinical quality indicators and standards from NHS Improvement. Data was collected from 6114 patients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Auditoria Médica , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Reino Unido
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 270, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long length of stays (LOS) in emergency departments (ED) negatively affect quality of care. Ordering of inappropriate diagnostic tests contributes to long LOS and reduces quality of care. One strategy to change practice patterns is to use performance feedback dashboards for physicians. While this strategy has proven to be successful in multiple settings, the most effective ways to deliver such interventions remain unknown. Involving end-users in the process is likely important for a successful design and implementation of a performance dashboard within a specific workplace culture. This mixed methods study aimed to develop design requirements for an ED performance dashboard and to understand the role of culture and social networks in the adoption process. METHODS: We performed 13 semi-structured interviews with attending physicians in different roles within a single public ED in the U.S. to get an in-depth understanding of physicians' needs and concerns. Principles of human-centered design were used to translate these interviews into design requirements and to iteratively develop a front-end performance feedback dashboard. Pre- and post- surveys were used to evaluate the effect of the dashboard on physicians' motivation and to measure their perception of the usefulness of the dashboard. Data on the ED culture and underlying social network were collected. Outcomes were compared between physicians involved in the human-centered design process, those with exposure to the design process through the ED social network, and those with limited exposure. RESULTS: Key design requirements obtained from the interviews were ease of access, drilldown functionality, customization, and a visual data display including monthly time-trends and blinded peer-comparisons. Identified barriers included concerns about unintended consequences and the veracity of underlying data. The surveys revealed that the ED culture and social network are associated with reported usefulness of the dashboard. Additionally, physicians' motivation was differentially affected by the dashboard based on their position in the social network. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of designing a performance feedback dashboard using a human-centered design approach in the ED setting. Additionally, we show preliminary evidence that the culture and underlying social network are of key importance for successful adoption of a dashboard.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Auditoria Médica , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Melhoria de Qualidade
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 282, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical care is the pharmacist's contribution to the care of individuals to optimize medicines use and improve health outcomes. The primary tool of pharmaceutical care is medication review. Defining and classifying Drug-Related Problems (DRPs) is an essential pillar of the medication review. Our objectives were to perform a pilot of medication review in Hungarian community pharmacies, a DRP classification was applied for the first time. Also, our goal was the qualitative and quantitative description of the discovered DRPs, and of the interventions for their solution in order to prove the safety relevance of the service and to map out the competence limits of GPs and community pharmacists to drug therapy. METHODS: The project took place in Hungarian community pharmacies. The study was performed with patients taking vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and/or ACE inhibitor and NSAID simultaneously (ACEI-NSAID). 61 pharmacists and 606 patients participated in the project. Pharmacists reviewed the medication for 3 months and the classification of DRPs was performed (category of DRP1 - DRP6). Patient data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Patients consumed on average 7.9 ± 3.1 medications and other products. 571 DRPs were detected in 540 patients, averaging 1.06 DRPs per patient (SD = 1.07). The highest frequency category was DRP5 (non-quantitative safety problem; 51.0%). The most common root cause was an interaction (42.0%) and non-adherence (19.4%.). The most commonly used intervention was education (25.4%) and medication replacement by the pharmacist (20.1%). The changing of the frequency and dosage in any direction were negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Patients are struggling with many DRPs that can be assessed and categorized by this system and which remain unrecognizable without pharmacists. Further projects need to be developed to assist in the development of physician-pharmacist cooperation and the widespread dissemination of pharmaceutical care.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Idoso , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Br J Nurs ; 28(8): S4-S12, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002548

RESUMO

This article reports on the findings of a repeat audit of vascular access devices (VADs) in a district general hospital undertaken 4 years after a previous audit. The first demonstrated poor standards of care and low compliance with evidence-based guidelines, indicating that a change in practice was necessary. A strategy of training, education and standardisation for intravenous devices was introduced, with the goal of transforming practice to raise standards and improve compliance. The findings of the follow-up audit show that the strategy has been successful in raising standards of care and reducing infections.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/normas , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Seguimentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Distrito , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Auditoria Médica , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reino Unido
18.
Anaesthesia ; 74(9): 1121-1129, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963555

RESUMO

Unplanned intensive care admission is a devastating complication of lung resection and is associated with significantly increased mortality. We carried out a two-year retrospective national multicentre cohort study to investigate the influence of anaesthetic and analgesic technique on the need for unplanned postoperative intensive care admission. All patients undergoing lung resection surgery in 16 thoracic surgical centres in the UK in the calendar years 2013 and 2014 were included. We defined critical care admission as the unplanned need for either tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation or renal replacement therapy, and sought an association between mode of anaesthesia (total intravenous anaesthesia vs. volatile) and analgesic technique (epidural vs. paravertebral) and need for intensive care admission. A total of 253 out of 11,208 patients undergoing lung resection in the study period had an unplanned admission to intensive care in the postoperative period, giving an incidence of intensive care unit admission of 2.3% (95%CI 2.0-2.6%). Patients who had an unplanned admission to intensive care unit had a higher mortality (29.00% vs. 0.03%, p < 0.001), and hospital length of stay was increased (26 vs. 6 days, p < 0.001). Across univariate, complete case and multiple imputation (multivariate) models, there was a strong and significant effect of both anaesthetic and analgesic technique on the need for intensive care admission. Patients receiving total intravenous anaesthesia (OR 0.50 (95%CI 0.34-0.70)), and patients receiving epidural analgesia (OR 0.56 (95%CI 0.41-0.78)) were less likely to have an unplanned admission to intensive care after thoracic surgery. This large retrospective study suggests a significant effect of both anaesthetic and analgesic technique on outcome in patients undergoing lung resection. We must emphasise that the observed association does not directly imply causation, and suggest that well-conducted, large-scale randomised controlled trials are required to address these fundamental questions.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Administração Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/cirurgia , Auditoria Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Reino Unido
19.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 140(2): 107-115, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The clinical benefits of use of secondary preventive pharmacotherapy in ischemic stroke/TIA have been previously demonstrated. A potential target for facilitating the use of recommended medications is primary care physicians. Therefore, we carried out an audit and feedback intervention aimed at primary care centers. The aim was to improve the use of secondary preventive stroke medications and diagnosis recording in ischemic stroke/TIA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The intervention consisted of structured, healthcare database-derived quality reports on secondary preventive medication use and diagnosis recording, sent in 2015 to half of the primary care centers in Stockholm County, with information specific to each primary care center. Medication dispensation (primary outcome) for statins, antihypertensives, antiplatelets, and anticoagulants, as well as diagnosis recording (secondary outcome), was compared between intervention centers and control centers in the 18 months following the intervention. Outcome data were derived from the healthcare databases of Stockholm County (VAL). RESULTS: Dispensation of medications to the 12 766 patients analyzed in the study was high. Over 77% of patients used antihypertensives and antithrombotics, and 65%-68% used statins. After the intervention, no differences in medication dispensation were seen between the intervention and control centers, even after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: A simple audit and feedback intervention directed toward physicians in primary care did not improve medication dispensation to ischemic stroke/TIA patients 18 months later. Any future audit and feedback intervention aimed at improving adherence to guidelines for secondary prevention in primary care should consider multiple and continuous reminders, the graphical appeal, and widening the recipients to include patients.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Secundária/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA