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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418513

RESUMO

Background: Notification rates of gonorrhoea in Australia for heterosexual young adults rose by 63% between 2012 and 2016. In Western Australian major cities, there was a 612% increase among non-Aboriginal females and a 358% increase in non-Aboriginal males in the ten-year period 2007-2016. A qualitative public health investigation was initiated to inform appropriate action. Methods: Eighteen semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with non-Aboriginal heterosexual young adults aged 18-34 years living in Perth, Western Australia, who had recently been notified to the Department of Health with gonorrhoea, to explore the context of their sexual interactions and lifestyles which could have predisposed them to contracting gonorrhoea. Data were thematically analysed. Results: Common themes were having several casual sexual partners, limited communication between sexual partners about condom use or sexual history prior to engaging in sexual activity, inconsistent condom use, normalisation of some sexually transmissible infections amongst young people, and poor understandings and assessment of sexually transmissible infection risk. Conclusion: The findings support public health interventions that focus on communication between sexual partners and shifting of risk perceptions in sexual health education programs, ensuring accessibility of quality sexual health information, increasing condom accessibility and acceptability, and on strategies for addressing misperceptions of young people in relation to sexually transmitted infections.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110476, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250902

RESUMO

The growth of the building sector represents the progress of civilizations. There are environmental, social and economic implications, impeding the sustainability performance of buildings. A holistic life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework is inevitable to address the integrated sustainability performance of residential buildings. This paper aims to develop triple bottom line indicators to assess the sustainability performance of buildings, including sustainability objectives, impact categories and key performance indicators (KPIs) to implement in the life cycle sustainability assessment framework. The indicators have been developed through the consensus survey involving area experts from four key stakeholders' categories including, government and Engineers Australia, academia, practitioners, and structural engineers. A list of KPIs was compiled through a literature review, followed by an online census survey to collect feedback from the participants in terms of relevance and importance of initally selected KPIs. Secondly, a modified list of triple bottom line (TBL) KPIs and their weights was developed based on respondents' feedback. Finally, the threshold values were assigned to the selected KPIs and the LCSA framework was tested using a hypothetical case study. The LCSA framework using these scientifically valid KPIs would assist stakeholders to assess the sustainability performance of residential buildings and to identify the hotspots for proposing well-informed industry strategies in Western Australia.


Assuntos
Engenharia , Indústrias , Austrália , Consenso , Austrália Ocidental
3.
Zootaxa ; 4758(1): zootaxa.4758.1.6, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230158

RESUMO

We describe a new species of turtle-headed sea snake Emydocephalus orarius sp. nov. (Elapidae) from Western Australia's Coral Coast, Pilbara and Kimberley regions. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial markers places the new species as the sister lineage to the two currently recognised species in Emydocephalus: E. annulatus from the Timor Sea reefs and Coral Sea, and E. ijimae from the Ryukyu Islands. Analysis of nuclear SNP data from the new species and E. annulatus from Australia and New Caledonia provides additional independent evidence of their evolutionary distinctiveness. The new taxon is usually morphologically diagnosable from its congeners using a combination of scalation and colour pattern characters, and appears to reach greater total lengths (>1 m in the new species versus typically ~80 cm in E. annulatus/E. ijimae). The new species is known largely from soft-bottomed trawl grounds, unlike E. annulatus and E.ijimae which usually inhabit coral reefs. The discovery of this new species brings the number of sea snake species endemic to Western Australia to six.


Assuntos
Hydrophiidae , Tartarugas , Animais , Elapidae , Filogenia , Austrália Ocidental
4.
Zootaxa ; 4751(3): zootaxa.4751.3.9, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230411

RESUMO

Specimens housed in the Australian Museum assigned to the genus Stylopallene are reviewed on the basis of their questionable geographic locations in the tropical waters of north Western Australia. Re-examination of those specimens shows only a superficial resemblance to the genus Stylopallene. The new genus Labrumoides gen. nov. is erected to accommodate those specimens and a new species L. vibrissa sp. nov. is described. Cheilopallene hirta previously assigned to genus incertae sedis is provisionally reassigned to the new genus.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Austrália , Austrália Ocidental
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114974

RESUMO

The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) has continuously monitored antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from all states and territories since 1981. In 2018, there were 9,006 clinical isolates of gonococci from public and private sector sources tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility by standardised methods. This was the highest annual total of isolates tested since the inception of the AGSP. The current treatment recommendation for gonorrhoea, for the majority of Australia, remains dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ≥0.06 mg/L) was found nationally in 1.73% of isolates. The highest proportions were reported from Tasmania and non-remote Western Australia (7.3% and 2.1% respectively). In 2018 two extensively drug-resistant isolates were reported from Queensland patients. These two isolates, with ceftriaxone MIC values of 0.50 mg/L, high-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L), and resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin were identified and reported to the World Health Organization as isolates of international significance. Resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥1.0 mg/L) was found nationally in 6.2% of isolates, lower than the 9.3% reported in 2017, but more than double the proportion reported in 2015 (2.6%). The highest proportions were reported from the Australian Capital Territory (8.7%), Victoria (8.3%), and New South Wales (6.5%). High-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC value ≥256 mg/L) was reported in nine isolates nationally in 2018: four from New South Wales, three from Victoria, and two from Queensland. The proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin in non-remote Australia ranged from 8.8% in non-remote Northern Territory to 44.1% in South Australia. In remote Northern Territory penicillin resistance rates remain low (1.9%), and higher in remote Western Australia (6.5%). The proportion of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin in non-remote Australia ranged from 10.3% in non-remote Northern Territory to 48.3% in South Australia. Ciprofloxacin resistance rates remain comparatively low in remote Northern Territory (1.9%) and remote Western Australia (4.6%).


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Território da Capital Australiana , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Resistência às Penicilinas , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Queensland/epidemiologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Tasmânia/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
6.
Public Health Res Pract ; 30(1)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous Australian research has shown that following the 21% increase in patient copayments for medications on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2005, the use of lipid-lowering therapy declined by 5%. This study aimed to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals who continued, reduced or ceased their use of statin medication in 2005. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective observational study using routinely collected administrative data. METHOD: We used pharmaceutical claims, hospital separations and mortality records from 2000 to 2005 for the Western Australian population. The cohort comprised stable users of statin medication in 2004. Based on changes in statin use between 2004 and 2005, we identified individuals who: 1) continued using statins; 2) reduced their use by ≥20%; or 3) ceased therapy for at least the first 6 months in 2005. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine whether the demographic and clinical characteristics of the three groups differed. RESULTS: There were 205 924 statin users identified in Western Australia as of December 2004. After the January 2005 Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) copayment increase, 3.2% of users ceased their regular statin therapy, 12.9% reduced statin use and 83.9% continued statin use. This represented a 2.1% increase in statin users reducing or ceasing therapy compared to 2004. Predictors of cessation and reduction of statin therapy included younger age, greater socio-economic disadvantage, residing in very remote areas, having general beneficiary status, being a new statin user, having no prior history of ischaemic heart disease, having no prior history of a coronary artery revascularisation procedure, taking no other cardiovascular medication or diabetic medication, taking an increased number of medications, and having a lower level of adherence to statin medication in 2004. CONCLUSION: Compared to 2004, an additional 2.1% of statin users reduced or discontinued medication use in 2005, which may be attributed to an increase in the medication copayment. Individuals with general beneficiary status, and younger and healthier people were at particular risk of cessation or reduction in statin use in 2005.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Duração da Terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália Ocidental
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040487

RESUMO

Production of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) by Staphylococcus aureus is mediated via the genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV which are carried on bacteriophage ϕSa2. PVL is associated with S. aureus strains that cause serious infections and clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) that have additionally disseminated widely. In Western Australia (WA) the original CA-MRSA were PVL negative however, between 2005 and 2008, following the introduction of eight international PVL-positive CA-MRSA, PVL-positive WA CA-MRSA were found. There was concern that PVL bacteriophages from the international clones were transferring into the local clones, therefore a comparative study of PVL-carrying ϕSa2 prophage genomes from historic WA PVL-positive S. aureus and representatives of all PVL-positive CA-MRSA isolated in WA between 2005 and 2008 was performed. The prophages were classified into two genera and three PVL bacteriophage groups and had undergone many recombination events during their evolution. Comparative analysis of mosaic regions of selected bacteriophages using the Alignments of bacteriophage genomes (Alpha) aligner revealed novel recombinations and modules. There was heterogeneity in the chromosomal integration sites, the lysogeny regulation regions, the defence and DNA processing modules, the structural and packaging modules and the lukSF-PV genes. One WA CA-MRSA (WA518751) and one international clone (Korean Clone) have probably acquired PVL-carrying ϕSa2 in WA, however these clones did not disseminate in the community. Genetic heterogeneity made it impossible to trace the source of the PVL prophages in the other WA clones. Against this background of PVL prophage diversity, the sequence of one group, the ϕSa2USA/ϕSa2wa-st93 group, was remarkably stable over at least 20 years and associated with the highly virulent USA300 and ST93-IVa CA-MRSA lineages that have disseminated globally.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/virologia , Linhagem da Célula , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Lisogenia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Prófagos/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Austrália Ocidental
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110876, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056652

RESUMO

Mobile marine predators, such as seabirds, are frequently used as broad samplers of contaminants that are widespread in the marine environment. The Timor Sea off remote Western Australia is a poorly studied, yet rapidly expanding area of offshore development. To provide much needed data on contamination in this region, we quantified trace element concentrations in breast feathers of three seabird species breeding on Bedout Island. While adult Masked Boobies Sula dactylatra exhibited some of the highest concentrations, values for all species were below toxicology thresholds for seabirds and were comparable to those reported in other closely related species. The low concentrations detected in the birds provide a valuable baseline and suggest that the local marine environment around Bedout is in relatively good condition. However, careful monitoring is warranted in light increasing anthropogenic activity in this region.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plumas , Oligoelementos , Animais , Cruzamento , Indonésia , Ilhas , Austrália Ocidental
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023252

RESUMO

The Kimberley region of Western Australia is one of the largest and most diverse rock art provenances in the world, with a complex stylistic sequence spanning at least 16 ka, culminating in the modern art-making of the Wunumbal people. The Gunu Site Complex, in the remote Mitchell River region of the northwest Kimberley, is one of many local expressions of the Kimberley rock art sequence. Here we report excavations at two sites in this complex: Gunu Rock, a sand sheet adjacent to rock art panels; and Gunu Cave, a floor deposit within an extensive rockshelter. Excavations at Gunu Rock provide evidence for two phases of occupation, the first from 7-8 to 2.7 ka, and the second from 1064 cal BP. Excavations at Gunu Rock provide evidence for occupation from the end of the second phase to the recent past. Stone for tools in the early phase were procured from a variety of sources, but quartz crystal reduction dominated the second occupation phase. Small quartz crystals were reduced by freehand percussion to provide small flake tools and blanks for manufacturing small points called nguni by the Wunambal people today. Quartz crystals were prominent in historic ritual practices associated with the Wanjina belief system. Complex methods of making bifacially-thinned and pressure flaked quartzite projectile points emerged after 2.7 ka. Ochre pigments were common in both occupation phases, but evidence for occupation contemporaneous with the putative age of the oldest rock art styles was not discovered in the excavations. Our results show that developing a complete understanding of rock art production and local occupation patterns requires paired excavations inside and outside of the rockshelters that dominate the Kimberley.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Arte , Cavernas , Geografia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Austrália Ocidental
10.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(2): 126053, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937424

RESUMO

Bradyrhizobium are N2-fixing microsymbionts of legumes with relevant applications in agricultural sustainability, and we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of conserved and symbiotic genes of 21 bradyrhizobial strains. The study included strains from Western Australia (WA), isolated from nodules of Glycine spp. the country is one genetic center for the genus and from nodules of other indigenous legumes grown in WA, and strains isolated from forage Glycine sp. grown in South Africa. The 16S rRNA phylogeny divided the strains in two superclades, of B. japonicum and B. elkanii, but with low discrimination among the species. The multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) with four protein-coding housekeeping genes (dnaK, glnII, gyrB and recA) pointed out seven groups as putative new species, two within the B. japonicum, and five within the B. elkanii superclades. The remaining eleven strains showed higher similarity with six species, B. lupini, B. liaoningense, B. yuanmingense, B. subterraneum, B. brasilense and B. retamae. Phylogenetic analysis of the nodC symbiotic gene clustered 13 strains in three different symbiovars (sv. vignae, sv. genistearum and sv. retamae), while seven others might compose new symbiovars. The genetic profiles of the strains evaluated by BOX-PCR revealed high intra- and interspecific diversity. The results point out the high level of diversity still to be explored within the Bradyrhizobium genus, and further studies might confirm new species and symbiovars.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/classificação , Bradyrhizobium/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bradyrhizobium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Genes Essenciais/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , África do Sul , Simbiose/genética , Austrália Ocidental
11.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(1): 41-55, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912421

RESUMO

Four new species of Rugopharynx Mönnig, 1927 are described from macropodid marsupials in Australia, some identified initially using molecular methods. Rugopharynx thetidis n. sp. from Thylogale thetis (Lesson) was initially included within R. sigma Chilton, Beveridge & Andrews, 1993 but was identified as being distinctive using molecular methods and is differentiated morphologically from R. sigma by the more anterior position of the deirid and by the distinctive curvature of the spicule tips. Rugopharynx thylogale n. sp., also from Thylogale thetis, is distinguished by the extreme elongation of the dorsal lobe of the bursa and spicule length (1.07-1.23 mm). Rugopharynx solitarius n. sp., again from Thylogale thetis, was initially included within Rugopharynx zeta (Johnston & Mawson, 1939) but differs morphologically in the features of the bursa. Rugopharynx disiunctus n. sp. from Macropus fuliginosus (Desmarest) was initially included within Rugopharynx rho Beveridge & Chilton, 1999 but was identified as distinctive based on DNA sequence differences. The new species differs from R. rho in the pattern of striations on the buccal capsule and in the lengths of the spicules. Additional records of species of Rugopharyx in M. fuliginosus in Western Australia are provided.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/classificação , Animais , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Estômago/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Strongyloidea/genética , Austrália Ocidental
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899786

RESUMO

The discovery of hepaciviruses in non-human hosts has accelerated following the advancement of high-throughput sequencing technology. Hepaciviruses have now been described in reptiles, fish, birds, and an extensive array of mammals. Using metagenomic sequencing on pooled samples of field-collected Culex annulirostris mosquitoes, we discovered a divergent hepacivirus-like sequence, named Jogalong virus, from the Kimberley region in northern Western Australia. Using PCR, we screened the same 300 individual mosquitoes and found just a single positive sample (1/300, 0.33%). Phylogenetic analysis of the hepacivirus NS5B protein places Jogalong virus within the genus Hepacivirus but on a distinct and deeply rooted monophyletic branch shared with duck hepacivirus, suggesting a notably different evolutionary history. Vertebrate barcoding PCR targeting two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b, indicated that the Jogalong virus-positive mosquito had recently fed on the tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides), although it is currently unknown whether this bird species contributes to the natural ecology of this virus.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Genoma Viral , Hepacivirus/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Animais , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/genética , Austrália Ocidental
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 136: 105430, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927451

RESUMO

In this paper, we examine the relationship between traffic enforcement (in the form of roadside breath testing for alcohol) and traffic outcomes (alcohol-related traffic crashes) to identify an optimal point of traffic enforcement. In Western Australia (WA), Police are authorised to stop any driver and measure their blood alcohol concentration via a sample of their breath. Using a metric employed by Ferris et al. (2013) and a methodology analogous to that utilised by Cameron (2013), we model the relationship between alcohol related traffic crashes and the saturation of breath testing in WA from January 2008 to April 2018. Our analysis suggests that given the saturation of breath testing in 2018 (1.2 tests per licenced driver), a 10 % increase in breath testing would be associated with a decline of 0.34 alcohol related traffic crashes (ARTC) per 100,000 drivers per month, equating to six fewer crashes per month, state-wide. In addition, using 'willingness to pay' and human capital cost metrics to approximate the social costs of ARTC, we employ a cost-benefit analysis to estimate the point at which the social costs of ARTC equal the economic costs of breath tests. Our analysis suggests that an increase in the number of tests to 143 % of all licensed WA drivers (an increase of 450,000 breath tests from the 2017/18 financial year) would be anticipated to save the state AUD$13.3 million annually in the human capital costs of ARTC. Our findings suggest that a further increase in breath tests to 154% of all licensed WA drivers (an increase of 650,000 breath tests from 2017/18) may save the state AUD$31.0 million annually in willingness to pay costs. The analytics below present a novel combination of methods to approximate the relative economic merits of increases in traffic enforcement. Furthermore, the findings outlined here have practical applications for operational policing, while providing an analytical perspective for policy makers faced with making recommendations regarding the volume and saturation of breath tests.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Testes Respiratórios , Dirigir sob a Influência/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Polícia/economia , Austrália Ocidental
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 136: 105407, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869695

RESUMO

Faced with the current growth and change to Western Australia's road network as well as the promotion and increased uptake of cycling, further investigation into crash, injury and road infrastructure characteristics is necessary. An in-depth study was conducted of 100 cyclists who were injured due to involvement in a crash that occurred on-road and resulted in an admission to a hospital. Information collected included a researcher-administered questionnaire, crash details from the Integrated Road Information System (IRIS), injury information from the State Trauma Registry and a virtual on-line site inspection. Overall, 42 % of crashes involved a motor vehicle and 58 % did not involve a motor vehicle. Twenty-one percent of all crashes involved cyclist loss of control, 18% were crashes with another cyclist, 18% involved hitting an object and 1% involved a pedestrian. . Bicycle crashes were severely under-reported with only 40 percent reported to the Police. Approximately half of crashes occurred at intersections (51 %) and half at midblock (non-intersection) sites (49 %). Fifty-seven percent of crashes that occurred at intersections involved a motor vehicle, whereas only 27% of crashes that occurred at midblocks involved a motor vehicle. The majority of cyclists' injuries were classified as minor according to the Injury Severity Score with the mean number of body regions injured being 4.5 (SD = 2.2). The mean number of days in hospital care was 5.2 days (SD = 5.6, range: 1-33). These findings can be used to guide road infrastructure treatments that reduce the risk of bicycle crashes in Western Australia and insights may inform action in other jurisdictions where cycling is increasing in popularity.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/lesões , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Austrália Ocidental , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
15.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 22 Suppl 1: 103-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556244

RESUMO

The study of climate-driven effects on seed traits such as germination has gained momentum over the past decade as the impact of global warming becomes more apparent on the health and survival of plant diversity. Seed response to warming was evaluated in a suite of short-range endemic species from the biodiverse Greenstone Belt of southern Western Australia. The temperature dimensions for germination in 20 woody perennials were identified using small unreplicated samples over 6 weeks on a temperature gradient plate (constant and fluctuating temperatures between 5 and 40 °C). These data were subsequently modelled against current and forecast (2070) mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures to illustrate seasonal changes to germination timing and final percentage germination. All but one species attained full germination in at least one cell on the gradient plate. Modelling of the data suggested only minimal changes to percentage germination despite a forecast rise in diurnal temperatures over the next 50 years. Nine species were predicted to experience declines of between <1% and 7%, whilst 11 species were predicted to increase their germination by <1% to 3%. Overall, the speed of germination is predicted to increase but the timing of germination for most species shifts seasonally (both advances and delays) as a result of changing diurnal temperatures. The capacity of this suite of species to cope with warmer temperatures during a critical early life stage shows a degree of adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Predicting the effects of global change on terrestrial plant communities is crucial to managing and conserving plant diversity.


Assuntos
Germinação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Temperatura , Germinação/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Austrália Ocidental
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(5): 1929-1937, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively new herbicides that target 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are now available for use on the world's great grain crops (rice, wheat, corn and soybean) and for other uses. With widespread and persistent use of HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, the evolution of HPPD-inhibiting herbicide resistant weeds is inevitable. Currently, resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides is known in two weed species, waterhemp and Palmer amaranth. Here, we report a HPPD-inhibiting herbicide resistant wild radish population from the Western Australia grain belt. This population was not selected with HPPD-inhibiting herbicides, rather it evolved resistance to earlier used herbicides with different modes of action and exhibits cross-resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides. RESULTS: Dose-response experiments showed the resistant (R) population exhibits 4 to 6.5-fold resistance to the HPPD-inhibiting herbicides mesotrione, tembotrione and isoxaflutole, compared to the susceptible (S) population. This resistance is not target-site based as cloning of full coding sequences of the HPPD genes from S and R plants did not reveal resistance-endowing single nucleotide polymorphisms. The HPPD gene expression levels are similar in S and R plants. In addition, no differences in [14 C]-mesotrione uptake and translocation were observed in the S and R plants. However, the time required for R plants to metabolise 50% [14 C]-mesotrione is 7.7-fold faster than for the S plants. CONCLUSION: We confirm resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides exists in a population of the economically damaging global weed wild radish. The resistance in this population is due to a non-target-site based enhanced rate of herbicide metabolism. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Raphanus , 4-Hidroxifenilpiruvato Dioxigenase , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas , Austrália Ocidental
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861766

RESUMO

Fresh fruits and vegetables are a cornerstone of a balanced diet; their consumption has health, environmental, ethical, and economic implications. This pilot study aimed to: (i) measure fruit and vegetable consumption; (ii) understand consumer perceptions of the perceived importance of regionally grown fresh fruit and vegetables (RGFFV); and (iii) identify the barriers and enablers of access and consumption of RGFFV. The study took place in Tasmania (TAS) and South Western Australia (SWA). A 54-item survey included questions relating to purchasing and consumption patterns; barriers and enablers related to access and consumption of RGFFV; and sociodemographic information. Survey data were analyzed using Chi-square test and binary logistic regression. A total of n = 120 TAS and n = 123 SWA adult respondents participated. SWA respondents had higher intakes of fruit (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p < 0.001). Almost all respondents (97%) rated purchasing of RGFFV as important. Top enablers included produce freshness (97%), and to financially support local farmers (94%) and the local community (91%). Barriers included limited seasonal availability of the produce (26%), the belief that RGFFV were expensive (12%) and food budgetary constraints (10%). Recommendations include broader marketing and labelling of seasonal RGFFV; increasing 'buy local' campaigns; consumer information about how RGFFV benefits producers and communities; and pricing produce according to quality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/provisão & distribução , Verduras/provisão & distribução , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Frutas/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tasmânia , Verduras/economia , Austrália Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 998, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficits in the rural medical workforce is an international issue. In Australia, The Rural Clinical School intervention is effective for initial recruitment of rural doctors. However, the extent of survival is not yet established. This paper summarises rural survival over a 10-year period. METHODS: Rural Clinical School graduates of Western Australia were surveyed annually, 2006-2015, and post Graduate Years (PGY) 3-12 included. Survival was described as "tours of service", where a tour was either a period of ≥1 year, or a period of ≥2 weeks, working rurally. A tour ended with a rural work gap of ≥52 weeks. Considering each exit from urban as an event, semi-parametric repeated measures survival models were fitted. RESULTS: Of 468 graduates, using the ≥2 weeks definition, 239 PGY3-12 graduates spent at least one tour rurally (average 61.1, CI 52.5-69.7 weeks), and a total length of 14,607 weeks. Based on the tour definition of ≥1 year, 120 graduates completed at least one tour (average 1.89, 1.69-2.10 years), and a total of 227 years' rural work. For both definitions, the number of tours increased from one to four by PGY10/11, giving 17,786 total weeks (342 years) across all PGYs for the ≥2 weeks tour definition, and 256 years total for ≥1 year. Significantly more graduates exited from urban work for the 2007-09 middle cohort compared with 2010-11 (HR 1.876, p = 0.022), but no significant difference between 2002 and 06 and 2010-11. Rural origin, age and gender were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: PGY3-12 RCS graduates contributed substantially to the rural workforce: 51% did so by short rotations, while 26% contributed whole years of service. There was an apparent peak in entry and survival for the middle cohort and decline thereafter, likely attributable to lack of advanced/specialist vocational training. These data indicate a real commitment to rural practice by RCS graduates, and the need for rural vocational training as a key element of a successful rural survival strategy.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
19.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(4): 518-524, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680210

RESUMO

The chemical and anti-nutritional, antioxidative and anti-microbial properties of seeds from Acacia cyclops, Acacia microbotrya and Acacia victoriae(which are legumes) traditionally consumed by indigenous Western Australians were studied for the first time for their potential as commercial food components. A. microbotrya (2.7 CIU/g) (α < 0.05) had the highest α-chymotrypsin inhibitor activity, while A. victoriae (0.3 ± 0.03) had the highest trypsin inhibitor activity. Both A. microbotrya (0.2 ± 0.02) and A. victoriae (0.2 ± 0.08) had significantly higher oxalate content than A. cyclops. The anti-microbial properties of wattle seed extracts against the foodborne pathogens Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. A. cyclops demonstrated the greatest anti-microbial activity against all the microorganisms studied. A. microbotrya had significantly higher amounts of protein (27.2%), fat (3.4%), fibre (49.2 mg/100 g), iron (5.2 mg/100 g), potassium (1275.5 mg/100 g) and zinc (3.8 mg/100 g) than the other two Acacia species. A. victoriae had the highest DPPH equivalent antioxidant activity (37.1%). The wattle seeds studied are higher in protein, dietary fiber, zinc and potassium compared to some commonly consumed legumes such as lentils and chickpeas. Incorporation of wattle seed in to food may provide additional health benefits to consumers. Their ability to inhibit foodborne bacteria means they may have potential as a natural food additive.


Assuntos
Acacia , Sementes , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Austrália , Minociclina , Valor Nutritivo , Austrália Ocidental
20.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(22): 1578-1584, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689253

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review with qualitative phone interview. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the factors leading to delayed diagnosis or referral to a spinal surgeon in patients who subsequently require surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: AIS can be effectively treated with bracing to prevent curve progression in skeletally immature patients. Australia currently has in place a national self-detection screening program to diagnose AIS. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for patients who underwent surgery for scoliosis at Princess Margaret Hospital for Children and Royal Perth Hospital between June 1, 2010 and May 27, 2014. Data were retrieved from the digital medical record and a semistructured phone interview was used to determine path to diagnosis and referral. RESULTS: Mean Cobb angle at first specialist review was 49.5°â€Š±â€Š14.0° for patients who subsequently required surgery for AIS. These patients experienced an average interval of 20.7 months from detection of symptoms to review in a specialist clinic. CONCLUSION: In a condition in which early detection and intervention may halt progression of disease, AIS is detected relatively late and there are specific delays to diagnosis and referral to specialist clinics. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Assuntos
Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Escoliose , Adolescente , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escoliose/diagnóstico , Escoliose/epidemiologia , Escoliose/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Austrália Ocidental
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