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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(4)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856292

RESUMO

Introduction. The evolving SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic presents a series of challenges to clinical diagnostic services. Many proprietary PCR platforms deployed outside centralised laboratories have limited capacity to upscale when public health demands increase. We set out to develop and validate an open-platform mobile laboratory for remote area COVID-19 diagnosis, with a subsequent field trial.Gap Statement. In regional Western Australia, molecular diagnostic support is limited to near point-of-care devices. We therefore aimed to demonstrate open-platform capability in a rapidly deployable format within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.Methodology. We compared, selected and validated components of a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay in order to establish a portable molecular diagnostics laboratory. The optimal combination of PCR assay equipment, reagents and consumables required for operation to national standards in regional laboratories was identified. This comprised RNA extraction and purification (QuickGene-480, Kurabo, Japan), a duplex RT-PCR assay (Logix Smart COVID-19, Co-Diagnostics, USA), a Myra liquid handling robot (Biomolecular Systems, Australia) and a magnetic induction thermal cycler (MIC, Biomolecular Systems).Results The 95 and 99% limits of detection were 1.01 copies µl-1 (5.05 copies per reaction) and 2.80 copies µl-1 (14.00 copies per reaction) respectively. The Co-Diagnostics assay amplified both SARS-CoV-1 and -2 RNA but showed no other cross reactivity. Qualitative results aligned with the reference laboratory SARS-CoV-2 assay (sensitivity 100% [95 % CI 96.48-100%], specificity 100% [95% CI 96.52-100%]). In field trials, the laboratory was operational within an hour of arrival on-site, can process up to 36 samples simultaneously, produces results in two and a half hours from specimen reception, and performed well during six consecutive runs during a 1 week deployment.Conclusion. Our mobile laboratory enables an adaptive response to increased test demand, and unlike many proprietary point-of-care PCR systems, rapid substitution with an alternative assay if gene targets change or reagent supply chains fail. We envisage operation of this RT-PCR assay as a standby capability to meet varying regional test demands under public health emergency operations guidance.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , /isolamento & purificação , /epidemiologia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807520

RESUMO

Physical activity is essential for children's healthy development, yet COVID-19 physical distancing restrictions such as school closures and staying at home, playground closures, and the cancelling of organised community sport have dramatically altered children's opportunities to be physically active. This study describes changes in levels of physical activity and screen time from February 2020 (i.e., before COVID-19 restrictions were introduced in Western Australia) to May 2020 (i.e., when COVID-19 restrictions were in place). Parents of children aged 5 to 9 years from Western Australia were eligible to participate and recruited through convenience sampling. An online survey instrument that included validated measures of their children's physical activity (unstructured, organized, home-based, indoor/outdoor active play, dog play/walking), sociodemographic, and other potential confounders was administered to parents. Paired t-tests and mixed ANOVA models assessed changes in physical activity outcomes. The analytic sample comprised parents of 157 children who were 6.9 years of age (SD = 1.7) on average. Overall, weekly minutes of total physical activity (PA) did not change from before to during COVID-19. However, frequency and duration (total and home-based) of unstructured physical activity significantly increased. Outdoor play in the yard or street around the house, outdoor play in the park or playground or outdoor recreation area, and active indoor play at home all significantly increased. Frequency and total duration of organised physical activity significantly declined during COVID-19 distancing. During Western Australian COVID-19 restrictions, there was an increase in young children's unstructured physical activity and outdoor play and a decrease in organised physical activity. It remains to be seen whether children's increased physical activity has been sustained with the easing of physical distancing restrictions.


Assuntos
Tempo de Tela , Animais , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Humanos , Austrália Ocidental
3.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112258, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735672

RESUMO

Around the world, the development of acceptable and achievable completion criteria is a necessary part of mine closure planning and fundamental to the successful transition of mined land to a post-mining use. Without adequate completion criteria, a mining company cannot proceed to the process of relinquishment, which is the ultimate goal of most mine closure processes. Despite the central role of completion criteria, there is still a need to build capacity and understanding of how to set targets and develop measurable completion criteria that are accepted by all stakeholders involved. We investigate how completion criteria are currently developed in one of Australia's major mining jurisdictions: Western Australia. Through an industry consultation process that involved interviews and a survey with a total of 102 participants from mining companies, consulting businesses, and relevant regulators, we highlight key challenges and opportunities that the sector faces to successfully define clear, achievable, and agreed completion criteria. This is one of the few industry-wide investigations to capture and analyze the perspectives of stakeholders involved in writing and assessing mine closure completion criteria. Results show that some major challenges included inconsistent coordination within and between stakeholder groups, a lack of knowledge or data about restoration, and an overreliance on status quo practices and post-mining land uses. Our work shows that ongoing research on ecological restoration and technological innovations is necessary, but that additional organizational and regulatory barriers need to be addressed to achieve a consistent, coordinated, multi-stakeholder approach to define completion criteria and to advance successful mine rehabilitation and relinquishment.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Mineração , Humanos , Austrália Ocidental
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 636921, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692984

RESUMO

Introduction: Amidst the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the transmission dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is key to providing peace of mind for the community and informing policy-making decisions. While available data suggest that school-aged children are not significant spreaders of SARS-CoV-2, the possibility of transmission in schools remains an ongoing concern, especially among an aging teaching workforce. Even in low-prevalence settings, communities must balance the potential risk of transmission with the need for students' ongoing education. Through the roll out of high-throughput school-based SARS-CoV-2 testing, enhanced follow-up for individuals exposed to COVID-19 and wellbeing surveys, this study investigates the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and the current psychosocial wellbeing impacts of the pandemic in school communities. Methods: The DETECT Schools Study is a prospective observational cohort surveillance study in 79 schools across Western Australia (WA), Australia. To investigate the incidence, transmission and impact of SARS-CoV-2 in schools, the study comprises three "modules": Module 1) Spot-testing in schools to screen for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2; Module 2) Enhanced surveillance of close contacts following the identification of any COVID-19 case to determine the secondary attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in a school setting; and Module 3) Survey monitoring of school staff, students and their parents to assess psycho-social wellbeing following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in WA. Clinical Trial Registration: Trial registration number: ACTRN12620000922976.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , /psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 145373, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rates of tailings production and deposition around the world have increased markedly in recent decades, and have grown asynchronously with safe and environmentally suitable solutions for their storage. Tailings are often produced in regions harbouring biodiverse native plant communities adapted to old, highly-weathered soils. The highly-altered edaphic conditions of tailings compared with natural soils in these areas will likely select against many locally endemic plant species, making phytostabilisation, rehabilitation or ecological restoration of these landforms challenging. METHODS: We established four substrate cover composition treatments on a dry-stacked magnetite tailings storage facility in semi-arid Western Australia, representative of standard industry practices for rehabilitating or restoring post-mining landforms in the region. Plots were seeded with a selection of locally native plant species and monitored for five years to determine whether different substrate cover treatments yielded different edaphic conditions (soil moisture, substrate surface temperature and substrate chemistry) and influenced soil development and the success of native vegetation establishment. RESULTS: No vegetation established from seeds on unamended tailings with no surface cover, and substrate chemistry changed minimally over five years. In contrast, rock-containing surface covers allowed establishment of up to 11 native plant species from broadcast seeds at densities of ca. 1.5 seedlings m-2, and up to 3.5 seedlings m-2 of five native pioneer chenopods from capture of wind-dispersed seeds from surrounding undisturbed native vegetation. Greater vegetation establishment in rock-containing surface covers resulted from increased heterogeneity (e.g., lower maximum soil temperature, greater water capture and retention, surface microtopography facilitating seed capture and retention, more niches for seed germination). Soil development and bio-weathering occurred most rapidly under the canopy of native pioneer plants on rock-containing surface covers, particularly increases in organic carbon, total nitrogen, and organo-bound aluminium and iron. CONCLUSIONS: Seed germination and seedling survival on tailings were limited by extreme thermal and hydrological conditions and a highly-altered biogeochemical environment. The design of surface cover layers appears crucial to achieving closure outcomes on tailings landforms, and designs should prioritise increasing surface heterogeneity through the incorporation of rock or other structure-improving amendments to assist the establishment of pioneer vegetation.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Mineração , Plantas , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Austrália Ocidental
6.
J Law Med ; 28(2): 389-420, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768748

RESUMO

Australia is obliged under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to provide decision-making support to people with cognitive impairment. While there has been considerable recent activity looking at how the law should respond to the challenges raised by the Convention, there has been little discussion in Australia of how these changes will impact upon the care of people with dementia (the largest class of person with cognitive impairment in Australia). This section examines current Australian legal approaches to decision-making for people with dementia in four jurisdictions (New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia) through an analysis of reported tribunal decisions in each of these jurisdictions. It notes the scope for informal supported decision-making and the basis for the invocation of guardianship orders, including the new Victorian supportive guardianship order, and compares the new standards raised by the Convention. The section considers legal reforms which could improve the implementation of supported decision-making for people living with dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Competência Mental , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , New South Wales , Vitória , Austrália Ocidental
7.
J Law Med ; 28(2): 503-520, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768755

RESUMO

Recent parliamentary inquiries into end-of-life choices identify the need to provide legal certainty for health practitioners working in end-of-life care. A concern identified is the lack of clarity surrounding the operation, status and application of the doctrine of double effect. This discussion clarifies these concerns. Although the doctrine is judicially recognised in several overseas jurisdictions, in Australia the doctrine of precedent means that it does not form part of the common law. In most jurisdictions, the fault element for murder includes recklessness, and application of the doctrine does not avoid criminal liability being established against orthodox criminal law principles. Although the prosecution of a medical practitioner who incidentally causes death in the proper course of medical treatment is a rare event, it remains a live issue. Legislative protection of medical practitioners, as has occurred in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia, is the means to achieve the certainty sought.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Austrália , Princípio do Duplo Efeito , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal , Queensland , Austrália Ocidental
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562413

RESUMO

Asbestos-related diseases (ARDs)-mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis-are well known as occupational diseases. As industrial asbestos use is eliminated, ARDs within the general community from para-occupational, environmental, and natural exposures are more prominent. ARD clusters have been studied in communities including Broni, Italy; Libby, Montana; Wittenoom, Western Australia; Karain, Turkey; Ambler, Pennsylvania; and elsewhere. Community ARDs pose specific public health issues and challenges. Community exposure results in higher proportions of mesothelioma in women and a younger age distribution than occupational exposures. Exposure amount, age at exposure, fiber type, and genetic predisposition influence ARD expression; vulnerable groups include those with social and behavioral risk, exposure to extreme events, and genetic predispositions. To address community exposure, regulations should address all carcinogenic elongated mineral fibers. Banning asbestos mining, use, and importation will not reduce risks from asbestos already in place. Residents of high-risk communities are characteristically exposed through several pathways differing among communities. Administrative responsibility for controlling environmental exposures is more diffuse than for workplaces, complicated by diverse community attitudes to risk and prevention and legal complexity. The National Mesothelioma Registries help track the identification of communities at risk. High-risk communities need enhanced services for screening, diagnosis, treatment, and social and psychological support, including for retired asbestos workers. Legal settlements could help fund community programs. A focus on prevention, public health programs, particularization to specific community needs, and participation is recommended.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Montana , Pennsylvania , Saúde Pública , Turquia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 149, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing comorbidity measures predict mortality among general patient populations. Due to the lack of outcome specific and patient-group specific measures, the existing indices are also applied to non-mortality outcomes in injury epidemiology. This study derived indices to capture the association between comorbidity, and burden and readmission outcomes for injury populations. METHODS: Injury-related hospital admissions data from July 2012 to June 2014 (161,334 patients) for the state of Victoria, Australia were analyzed. Various multivariable regression models were run and results used to derive both binary and weighted indices that quantify the association between comorbidities and length of stay (LOS), hospital costs and readmissions. The new and existing indices were validated internally among patient subgroups, and externally using data from the states of New South Wales and Western Australia. RESULTS: Twenty-four comorbidities were significantly associated with overnight stay, twenty-seven with LOS, twenty-eight with costs, ten with all-cause and eleven with non-planned 30-day readmissions. The number of and types of comorbidities, and their relative impact were different to the associations established with the existing Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Elixhauser Comorbidity Measure (ECM). The new indices performed equally well to the long-listed ECM and in certain instances outperformed the CCI. CONCLUSIONS: The more parsimonious, up to date, outcome and patient-specific indices presented in this study are better suited for use in present injury epidemiology. Their use can be trialed by hospital administrations in resource allocation models and patient classification models in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Readmissão do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Maturitas ; 145: 6-11, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fractures are common and disabling health events, particularly later in life. The presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms has been associated with increased risk of fractures, and we designed the present study to clarify if this association is likely to be causal or due to the confounding effect of measures associated with both fractures and depression. METHOD: Cohort study of a community-derived sample of 4224 men aged 70 to 88 years at the start of the follow-up period of up to 17 years. Clinically significant symptoms of depression were defined as a recorded diagnosis of depressive episode in the Western Australian Data Linkage System (WADLS) or by a total score of 7 or greater on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Health contacts associated with fractures were retrieved from WADLS. Other measures included age, past history of fractures, education, smoking, frailty, poor vision, falls, medications, and the concentration of vitamin D, homocysteine, hsCRP and testosterone. Death was considered a competing risk for fractures. RESULTS: 911 (21.6%) participants had a bone fracture during follow-up. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures; respective odds ratios were 1.41 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.93) and 1.64 (95%CI = 1.20, 2.25). Parsimonious competing risk regression showed that both past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures: sub-hazard ratio = 1.29 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.63) and 1.27 (95%CI = 1.05, 1.55) respectively. Estimation of confounding due to unmeasured factors showed that a small additional effect could potentially dilute the association between depression and fractures. DISCUSSION: History of clinically significant symptoms of depression is associated with an increased risk of future fractures. This association may be due to multiple other associated risk factors, both measured and unmeasured, but nevertheless the presence of depression should alert clinicians to the need to develop a management plan that includes the management not only of depression but also of fracture risk.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557440

RESUMO

Early childhood provides an opportunity to optimize growth and development and parents play a fundamental role in forming healthy eating habits in their children. A healthy diet improves quality of life and wellbeing and reduces the risk of chronic disease. The aim of this research was to explore parents' experiences of feeding 0-5-year-old children and food literacy behaviors. This qualitative study employed a general inductive inquiry approach. Participants were recruited through community-based parenting organizations in disadvantaged areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 67 parents (92.5% female) living in socially disadvantaged areas within metropolitan Perth of Western Australia. Ten themes emerged from the preliminary analysis and were aligned with domains of relatedness, autonomy, and competence within the self-determination theory. Themes included relatedness (1) feeding is emotional, (2) variations in routine and feeding structures, (3) external influences, autonomy (4) power struggles, (5) it must be quick and easy, (6) lack of strategies for feeding autonomy, competency (7) whatever works, (8) healthy is important but for some unattainable, (9) improvements in food literacy skills, and (10) conflicting information overload. This research informed the development of a food literacy program for parents. Parents faced many challenges when trying to provide healthy food. This research has shown parents would benefit from support to achieve healthy eating practices for their families.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Populações Vulneráveis , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Qualidade de Vida , Austrália Ocidental
13.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116547, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548672

RESUMO

Wetland snakes, as top predators, are becoming globally recognised as bioindicators of wetland contamination. Livers are the traditional test organ for contaminant exposure in organisms, but research is moving towards a preference for non-lethal tissue sampling. Snake scales can be used as an indicator of exposure, as many metals bind to the keratin. We used laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to quantify the concentrations of 19 metals and metalloids (collectively referred to 'metals' hereafter) in Western tiger snake (Notechis scutatus occidentalis) scales from four wetlands along an urban gradient, and compared them to concentrations measured in captive tiger snake scales. We conducted repeat measures to determine the concentration accuracy of each metal using LA-ICP-MS. Concentrations in wild Western tiger snake scales were significantly higher than in reference tiger snake scales for most metals analysed, suggesting accumulation from environmental exposure. We compared the scale concentrations to sediment concentrations of sampled wetlands, and found inter-site differences between mean concentrations of metals in scales parallel patterns recorded from sediment. Four metals (Mn, As, Se, Sb) had strong positive correlations with liver tissue contents suggesting scale concentrations can be used to infer internal concentrations. By screening for a larger suite of metals than we could using traditional digestive methods, we identified additional metals (Ti, V, Sr, Cs, Tl, Th, U) that may be accumulating to levels of concern in tiger snakes in Perth, Western Australia. This research has progressed the use of LA-ICP-MS for quantifying a suite of metals available in snake scales, and highlights the significance of using wetland snake scales as a non-lethal indicator of environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais , Animais , Metais/análise , Serpentes , Austrália Ocidental , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1101, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597520

RESUMO

It is widely hypothesised that primeval life utilised small organic molecules as sources of carbon and energy. However, the presence of such primordial ingredients in early Earth habitats has not yet been demonstrated. Here we report the existence of indigenous organic molecules and gases in primary fluid inclusions in c. 3.5-billion-year-old barites (Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia). The compounds identified (e.g., H2S, COS, CS2, CH4, acetic acid, organic (poly-)sulfanes, thiols) may have formed important substrates for purported ancestral sulfur and methanogenic metabolisms. They also include stable building blocks of methyl thioacetate (methanethiol, acetic acid) - a putative key agent in primordial energy metabolism and thus the emergence of life. Delivered by hydrothermal fluids, some of these compounds may have fuelled microbial communities associated with the barite deposits. Our findings demonstrate that early Archaean hydrothermal fluids contained essential primordial ingredients that provided fertile substrates for earliest life on our planet.


Assuntos
Archaea/química , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Metano/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Sulfato de Bário/análise , Planeta Terra , Ecossistema , Microbiologia Ambiental , Evolução Química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Fatores de Tempo , Austrália Ocidental
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108089, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639135

RESUMO

The morphological, biological, and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 7 from red-eye tetras (Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium abrahamseni n. sp. is proposed. Histological analysis of intestinal tissue identified large numbers of Cryptosporidium organisms along the epithelial lining of the intestine. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis at 18S rRNA (18S) and actin loci conducted on intestinal scrapings revealed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. was genetically distinct from other Cryptosporidium species. At the 18S locus, it was most closely related to C. huwi (3.2% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances ranging from 5.9 to 6.5% (C. molnari) to 14.9% (C. scolpthalmi) from all other Cryptosporidium species. At the actin locus, the genetic distances were larger and C. abrahamseni n. sp. exhibited 10.3% genetic distance from C. huwi, and 17.6% (C. molnari) to 28% (C. canis) genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences confirmed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. shares the closest genetic relationship with C. huwi (6.7% genetic distance), while the genetic distance between C. abrahamseni n. sp. and other Cryptosporidium spp. ranged from 12.1% (C. molnari) to 20.4% (C. canis). Based on genetic and histological data, C. abrahamseni n. sp. is validated as a separate species.


Assuntos
Characidae/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Actinas/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Genótipo , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/patologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535674

RESUMO

Drought is thought to impact upon the mental health of agricultural communities, but studies of this relationship have reported inconsistent results. A source of inconsistency could be the aggregation of data by a single spatiotemporal unit of analysis, which induces the modifiable areal and temporal unit problems. To investigate this, mental health-related emergency department (MHED) presentations among residents of the Wheat Belt region of Western Australia, between 2002 and 2017, were examined. Average daily rainfall was used as a measure of drought. Associations between MHED presentations and rainfall were estimated based on various spatial aggregations of underlying data, at multiple temporal windows. Wide variation amongst results was observed. Despite this, two key features were found: Associations between MHED presentations and rainfall were generally positive when rainfall was measured in summer months (rate ratios up to 1.05 per 0.5 mm of daily rainfall) and generally negative when rainfall was measured in winter months (rate ratios as low as 0.96 per 0.5 mm of daily rainfall). These results demonstrate that the association between drought and mental health is quantifiable; however, the effect size is small and varies depending on the spatial and temporal arrangement of the underlying data. To improve understanding of this association, more studies should be undertaken with longer time spans and examining specific mental health outcomes, using a wide variety of spatiotemporal units.


Assuntos
Secas , Saúde Mental , Agricultura , Estações do Ano , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(5): 2568-2575, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate is routinely used in Australia to control the Arctotheca species Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns (referred hereinafter as capeweed). This study identifies the first global case of field-evolved glyphosate-resistant capeweed, collected from the grainbelt of Western Australia. RESULTS: In 2020, a capeweed biotype that was collected from Borden in the southern Western Australian grainbelt was confirmed to be glyphosate-resistant (referred hereinafter as Spence population). When compared to the pooled mortality of six field-collected, glyphosate susceptible capeweed populations (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6), the Spence population was found > 11-fold more resistant to glyphosate than the pooled results of the susceptible populations (S1-S6) at the lethal dose of 50% (LD50 ) level. The growth of the Spence population was also less affected, requiring > 13-fold more glyphosate to reduce growth than the pooled susceptible populations at the growth reduction of 50% (GR50 ) level. Sequencing of the plastidic 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene indicated no known single gene mutation imparting glyphosate resistance. This study, however, did not investigate any other known mechanisms that impart glyphosate resistance. When screened at the field-applied rate, this Spence population was also found to survive an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS) (metosulam) and an inhibitor of phytoene desaturase (diflufenican). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first confirmation of glyphosate resistance evolution in a capeweed population globally. With capeweed resistance already confirmed to photosystem-I inhibiting herbicides (paraquat and diquat), this study emphasizes the importance of using integrated measures that do not depend only on the use of non-selective herbicides for controlling herbicide resistance-prone capeweed populations. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Calendula , Herbicidas , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/genética , Austrália , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Austrália Ocidental
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043836, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408213

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Western Australia (WA) Acute TeleStroke Programme commenced incrementally across regional WA during 2016-2017. Since the introduction of the TeleStroke Programme, there has been monitoring of service outputs, including regional patient access to tertiary stroke specialist advice and reperfusion treatment; however, the impact of consultation with a stroke specialist via telehealth (videoconferencing or telephone) on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stroke care and the drivers of cost-effectiveness has not been systematically evaluated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The aim of the case study was to examine the impact of consultation with a stroke specialist via telehealth on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stroke and transient ischaemic attack care using a mixed methods approach. A categorical decision tree model will be constructed in collaboration with clinicians and programme managers. A before and after comparison using state-wide administrative datasets will be used to run the base model. If sample size and statistical power permits, the cases and comparators will be matched by stroke type and presence of CT scan at the initial site of presentation, age category and presenting hospital. The drivers of cost-effectiveness will be explored through stakeholder interviews. Data from the qualitative analysis will be cross-referenced with trends emerging from the quantitative dataset and used to guide the factors to be involved in subgroup and sensitivity analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval for this case study has been granted from the Western Australian Country Health Service Human Research and Ethics Committee (RGS3076). Reciprocal approval has been granted from Curtin University Human Research Ethics Office (HRE2019-0740). Findings will be disseminated publicly through conference presentation and peer-review publications. Interim findings will be released as internal reports to inform the service development.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Consulta Remota/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Austrália Ocidental
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244616, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395419

RESUMO

Foraminifera are a group of mostly marine protists with high taxonomic diversity. Species identification is often complex, as both morphological and molecular approaches can be challenging due to a lack of unique characters and reference sequences. An integrative approach combining state of the art morphological and molecular tools is therefore promising. In this study, we analysed large benthic Foraminifera of the genus Amphisorus from Western Australia and Indonesia. Based on previous findings on high morphological variability observed in the Soritidae and the discontinuous distribution of Amphisorus along the coast of western Australia, we expected to find multiple morphologically and genetically unique Amphisorus types. In order to gain detailed insights into the diversity of Amphisorus, we applied micro CT scanning and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We identified four distinct morphotypes of Amphisorus, two each in Australia and Indonesia, and showed that each morphotype is a distinct genotype. Furthermore, metagenomics revealed the presence of three dinoflagellate symbiont clades. The most common symbiont was Fugacium Fr5, and we could show that its genotypes were mostly specific to Amphisorus morphotypes. Finally, we assembled the microbial taxa associated with the two Western Australian morphotypes, and analysed their microbial community composition. Even though each Amphisorus morphotype harboured distinct bacterial communities, sampling location had a stronger influence on bacterial community composition, and we infer that the prokaryotic community is primarily shaped by the microhabitat rather than host identity. The integrated approach combining analyses of host morphology and genetics, dinoflagellate symbionts, and associated microbes leads to the conclusion that we identified distinct, yet undescribed taxa of Amphisorus. We argue that the combination of morphological and molecular methods provides unprecedented insights into the diversity of foraminifera, which paves the way for a deeper understanding of their biodiversity, and facilitates future taxonomic and ecological work.


Assuntos
Foraminíferos/genética , Biodiversidade , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Foraminíferos/classificação , Foraminíferos/fisiologia , Foraminíferos/ultraestrutura , Indonésia , Metagenômica , Simbiose , Austrália Ocidental
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109054, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465549

RESUMO

Foodborne exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing global health concern. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is well recognised as an indicator of food contamination with faecal materials. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli in table eggs sold at retail supermarkets in Western Australia (WA). A total of 2172 visually clean and intact retail eggs were purchased between October 2017 and June 2018. A single carton containing a dozen eggs was considered as a single sample resulting a total of 181 samples. The shells and contents of each sample were separately pooled and tested using standard culture-based methods. Overall, generic E. coli was detected in 36 (19.8%; 95% confidence interval: 14.3; 26.4) of the 181 tested retail egg samples. We characterised 100 of the recovered E. coli isolates for their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A subset of E. coli isolates (n = 14) were selected on the basis of their MIC patterns, and were further characterised using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Fifty-seven (57%) of the recovered generic E. coli isolates (n = 100) were resistant to at least one of the 14 antimicrobials included in the MIC testing panel, of which 22 isolates (22%) showed multi-class resistance. The highest frequencies of non-susceptibility of E. coli isolated from WA retailed eggs were against tetracycline (49%) and ampicillin (36%). WGS revealed that tet(A) and blaTEM-1B genes were present in most of the isolates exhibiting phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin, respectively. The majority (98%) of the characterised E. coli isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, and none were resistant to the cephalosporin antimicrobials included in the MIC panel. Two isolates demonstrated reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, with MICs of 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, and WGS revealed the presence of plasmid mediated qnrs1 gene in both isolates. This is the first report on detection of non-wild-type resistance to fluoroquinolones in supermarket eggs in Australia; one of the two isolates was from a cage-laid eggs sample while the other was from a barn-laid retail eggs sample. Fluoroquinolones have never been permitted for use in poultry farms in Australia. Thus, the detection of low-level ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in the absence of local antimicrobial selection pressure at the Australian layer farms warrants further research on the potential role of the environment or human-related factors in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance. The results of this study add to the local and global understanding of antimicrobial resistance spread in foods of animal origin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Ovos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Resistência a Tetraciclina , Austrália Ocidental
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