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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 228-235, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016360

RESUMO

Manure composting is a common management practice for cattle feedlots, but gaseous emissions from composting are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and methane (CH4 ) emissions from windrow composting (turning) and static stockpiling (nonturning) of manure at a commercial feedlot in Australia. An inverse-dispersion technique using an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer gas sensor was deployed to measure emissions of NH3 , N2 O, CO2 , and CH4 over a 165-d study period, and 29 and 15% of the total data intervals were actually used to calculate the fluxes for the windrow and stockpile, respectively. The nitrogen (N) lost as NH3 and N2 O emissions represented 26.4 and 3.8% of the initial N in windrow, and 5.3 and 0.8% of that in the stockpile, respectively. The carbon (C) lost as CO2 and CH4 emissions represented 44 and 0.3% of the initial C in windrow, and 54.8 and 0.7% of that in the stockpile, respectively. Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the manure windrow were 2.7 times higher than those of the stockpiled manure. This work highlights the value that could be accrued if one could reduce emissions of NH3 -N and N2 O-N from composting, which would retain manure N content while reducing GHG emissions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Gases , Efeito Estufa , Esterco
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 14-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016364

RESUMO

The impacts of soil properties and urea fertigation on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from uncropped areas of furrow-irrigated Vertisol paddocks are unknown. We sampled soils from the head-ditch end (upslope) and sediments from the tail-drain end (downslope) of 10 Vertisols under irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in northeastern Australia. Four replicates of each sample were incubated in open-top polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chambers at 25 ± 2°C for 25 d. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured periodically after simulated irrigations on Days 0 and 15 with either water or, for soils, urea solution. Compared with the soils, sediments were enriched in silt, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium N, and dissolved organic C (DOC) but had lower pH and sand content. Sediments emitted more N2 O than soils from the same paddocks after water irrigations. Nitrous oxide fluxes varied by two orders of magnitude between paddocks, with most variation explained by baseline nitrate N, TOC, pH (inversely), and sand content. Urea solution applied to soils at 30 kg N ha-1 irrigation-1 increased N2 O emitted, but more so after the second irrigation. In irrigated cotton systems, tail-drain sediments are a potential hotspot for N2 O emissions that has not previously been documented.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Austrália , Nitrogênio , Solo
3.
J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 64(5): 668-670, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001577

RESUMO

This case report describes our early radiological experiences of middle-aged patients with COVID-19 at Westmead Hospital, Sydney. We found limited relationship between initial CT imaging appearances and progression to severe disease. The most effective use of imaging in COVID-19 is yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
4.
Global Health ; 16(1): 95, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the personal, professional and social life of Australians with some people more impacted than others. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among residents in Australia, including patients, frontline health and other essential service workers, and community members during June 2020. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10); level of fear was assessed using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S); and coping strategies were assessed using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the extent of psychological distress, level of fear and coping strategies while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 587 participants, the majority (391, 73.2%) were 30-59 years old and female (363, 61.8%). More than half (349, 59.5%) were born outside Australia and two-third (418, 71.5%) completed at least a Bachelor's degree. The majority (401, 71.5%) had a source of income, 243 (42.3%) self-identified as a frontline worker, and 335 (58.9%) reported financial impact due to COVID-19. Comorbidities such as pre-existing mental health conditions (AOR 3.13, 95% CIs 1.12-8.75), increased smoking (8.66, 1.08-69.1) and alcohol drinking (2.39, 1.05-5.47) over the last four weeks, high levels of fear (2.93, 1.83-4.67) and being female (1.74, 1.15-2.65) were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived distress due to change of employment status (4.14, 1.39-12.4), alcohol drinking (3.64, 1.54-8.58), providing care to known or suspected cases (3.64, 1.54-8.58), being female (1.56, 1.00-2.45), being 30-59 years old (2.29, 1.21-4.35) and having medium to high levels of psychological distress (2.90, 1.82-5.62) were associated with a higher level of fear; while healthcare service use in the last four weeks was associated with medium to high resilience. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified individuals who were at higher risk of distress and fear during the COVID-19 pandemic specifically in the State of Victoria, Australia. Specific interventions to support the mental wellbeing of these individuals should be considered in addition to the existing resources within primary healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019735

RESUMO

A growing body of literature recognises the profound impact of adversity on mental health outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas. With the cumulative effects of persistent drought, record-breaking bushfires, limited access to quality health services, the COVID-19 pandemic and ongoing economic and social challenges, there is much to understand about the impact of adversity on mental health and wellbeing in rural populations. In this conceptual paper, we aim to review and adapt our existing understanding of rural adversity. We undertook a wide-ranging review of the literature, sought insights from multiple disciplines and critically developed our findings with an expert disciplinary group from across Australia. We propose that rural adversity be understood using a rural ecosystem lens to develop greater clarity around the dimensions and experiences of adversity, and to help identify the opportunities for interventions. We put forward a dynamic conceptual model of the impact of rural adversity on mental health and wellbeing, and close with a discussion of the implications for policy and practice. Whilst this paper has been written from an Australian perspective, it has implications for rural communities internationally.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Mental , População Rural , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 957, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010839
7.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(10): 1199-1203, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002152

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: The burden of chronic kidney disease in Indigenous Australians is 7.3 times higher than that of non-Indigenous Australians. If chronic kidney disease is detected early and managed, deterioration in kidney function can be reduced. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio is a key marker of early renal damage. OBJECTIVE.­: To report on 16 years of analytic quality of urine albumin to creatinine ratio testing on Siemens DCA devices enrolled in the national Quality Assurance for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Medical Services point-of-care testing program. DESIGN.­: Quality Assurance for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Medical Services participants are required to test 2 quality assurance samples each month across two 6-monthly testing cycles per year. Participants also test 2 quality control samples monthly. RESULTS.­: The percentage of urine albumin, creatinine, and albumin to creatinine ratio results for quality assurance point-of-care testing that were within assigned allowable limits of performance averaged 96.9%, 95.9%, and 97.5%, respectively. The percentage acceptable quality control results for urine albumin and creatinine averaged 93.5% and 86.8%. The median imprecision for urine albumin, creatinine, and albumin to creatinine ratio quality assurance testing averaged 5.5%, 4.1%, and 3.3%, respectively, and the median within-site imprecision for quality control testing averaged 5.4%, 4.3%, and 5.7%, respectively, for the low sample and 4.0%, 4.1%, and 4.5%, respectively, for the high sample. CONCLUSIONS.­: For 16 years the DCA system has proven to be reliable and robust and operators at Aboriginal medical services have demonstrated they are able to conduct point-of-care testing for urine albumin to creatinine ratio that consistently meets analytic performance standards.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/urina , Creatinina/urina , Testes Imediatos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Austrália , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Controle de Qualidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Urinálise
8.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(10): 625-629, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine is being heralded as the solution to control the current COVID-19 pandemic, reduce the number of infections and deaths and facilitate resumption of our previous way of life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide a framework for primary care of what will be needed to optimise COVID-19 vaccine confidence and uptake in Australia once the vaccine prioritisation schedule and key target groups are known. DISCUSSION: While a number of vaccines are currently under development, with at least seven undergoing phase III trials (28 August 2020), it is hoped that an effective COVID-19 vaccine will become available to the public in 2021. Ensuring public confidence in vaccine safety and effectiveness will be crucial to facilitate uptake. General practitioners are at the forefront of public health, and one of the most trusted sources for patients. In this article, the authors discuss the expedited vaccine development process for COVID-19 vaccines; the likely vaccine prioritisation schedule and anticipated key target groups; the behavioural and social drivers of vaccination acceptance, including the work required to facilitate this; and the implications for general practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública/métodos , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Grupos Focais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Autoimagem , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/psicologia
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 682, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030635

RESUMO

Sanitary waste disposal and site selection for establishing landfills are challenging problems for environmental planners. This paper aims to take environmental, socio-economic, geological, geomorphological, hydrological and ecological factors into consideration to provide a decision support framework for landfill siting. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) are coupled to develop an efficient multi-criteria decision-making method to be utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment for evaluating the suitability for landfill siting. As the first attempt to employ DEMATEL effectively in a landfill site selection problem, the proposed method is tested with landfill siting scenarios in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Regional analysis is also performed to identify the potentially most suitable statistical divisions for landfill siting in NSW. The top two ranked zones covering 0.7% and 22% of the study area, respectively, are considered as the optimal areas for establishing landfills, while the bottom two ranked zones are not recommended for further consideration. Further detailed analysis is also conducted on the existing landfills, which shows that 1.0% and 37.0% of them are ranks 1 and 2, respectively. The scenario-based analysis implies that, among the contributing factors; geological and economic factors are highly important.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Resíduos Sólidos , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , New South Wales , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
10.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 11-18, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034171

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of the work is a spectroscopic investigation and comparison of the molecular composition of dentine and gingival fluids as well as of their diagnostic potential for the preventive screening of dentin caries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Applying infrared spectroscopy including synchrotron radiation the samples of biological fluids taken from the oral cavity (dentine fluid, fluid from the gingival sulcus and blood) were studied for the patients with the progressive dentine caries. The part of this research was undertaken with the infrared microspectroscopy beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. RESULTS: Dentine and gingival fluids were shown to have no less complicated composition than the blood serum. Having all this in mind, in spite that these two fluids are derivatives of the blood serum, and a majority of the molecular groups observed in all of the three fluids can be detected in their IR-spectra, it follows that there is a number of signature modes that are in fact present in the IR spectra of only dentine and gingival fluids. This fact indicates at the molecular exchange between them under certain conditions. It means the high diagnostic potential in the study of the pathologic processes occurring in the oral fluid of a human. We have observed and fixed an increase of thiocyanates and esters in the samples of both dentine and gingival fluids under the development of dentin caries. CONCLUSION: Utilization of the gingival fluid for screening taking into account that its sampling is not such a complicated challenge as dentine fluid sampling will promote a transition to the personalized medicine, the development of high-technology healthcare and technology of the health preservation as a whole.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Dentina , Austrália , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengiva , Humanos , Análise Espectral
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007054

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus COVID-19 arrived on Australian shores around 25 January 2020. This paper presents a novel method of dynamically modeling and forecasting the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia with a high degree of accuracy and in a timely manner using limited data; a valuable resource that can be used to guide government decision-making on societal restrictions on a daily and/or weekly basis. The "partially-observable stochastic process" used in this study predicts not only the future actual values with extremely low error, but also the percentage of unobserved COVID-19 cases in the population. The model can further assist policy makers to assess the effectiveness of several possible alternative scenarios in their decision-making processes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 523-531, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046923

RESUMO

A lack of human and material resources can limit effective responses to animal disease emergencies. Drawing upon examples from Australia and New Zealand, this paper proposes a framework for identifying human and material resources and securing the necessary personnel and materials before or during an animal disease emergency. This staged process involves: a) assessing the nature of the risks to be managed, b) identifying the types of resources required, c) assessing available resources and identifying gaps and d) developing arrangements to ensure availability of resources. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies to secure access to human and material resources, including whole-of-government arrangements to access other government resources, national and international reserve models for responders, just-in-time employment and purchase of materials, and purchase of stockpiles.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Animais , Austrália , Emergências/veterinária , Governo , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4774(1): zootaxa.4774.1.1, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055596

RESUMO

This research presents 17 new species of carnivorous sponges from the family Cladorhizidae sampled at bathyal and abyssal depths off the east coast of Australia during the RV Investigator 2017 Abyss Expedition. The species are comprised of six genera: Abyssocladia escheri sp. nov., A. annae sp. nov., A. gliscofila sp. nov., Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) maxisigma sp. nov., Cladorhiza australis nov. sp., C. poritea sp. nov., C. investigator sp. nov., C. moniqueae sp. nov., C. pentaeiros sp. nov., Chondrocladia (Chondrocladia) freycinetensis sp. nov., Ch. (Ch.) callistemonex sp. nov., Ch. (Ch.) zygainadentonis sp. nov., Lycopodina nikitawimandi sp. nov., L. helios sp. nov., L. cassida sp. nov., L. brochidodroma sp. nov. and Euchelipluma claudochela sp. nov. Only three carnivorous species, A. desmophora, As. (As.) desmophora and C. (Meliiderma) tasmaniensis, have been recorded from Australia previously. This expedition also recovered two described species commonly recorded from the Southern Hemisphere Ch. (Ch.) clavata and L. calyx. This paper also redescribes two species from the South Pacific i.e. C. mirabilis and C. similis.


Assuntos
Carnivoridade , Poríferos , Animais , Austrália , Expedições
14.
Zootaxa ; 4770(1): zootaxa.4770.1.1, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055632

RESUMO

Originally the genus Entomobrya (Collembola: Entomobryidae) comprised 25 species names in Australia including 7 subspecies of which 13 were exotic (50%) and the rest native. All native species had been either described by H. Schött or H. Womersley and had not been examined since 1942. Specific characters they used were few, mainly colour pattern and gross morphological features such as unguis, unguis teeth and mucronal form. Chaetotaxic characters have now been developed. We now here recognise 47 species of Australian Entomobrya and Hymalanura based on a large collection made over 50 years. Six species (12%) are now recognised as introduced, 37 are new and three unresolved because of lack of specimens in good condition. Detailed descriptions and figures are supplied. Several new species are short-range endemics of conservation significance, others are specialised as to habitat, but most are widespread. Entomobrya is now the most species rich genus of Australian Collembola. A phylogenetic tree based on morphological and biological characters revealed clusters of exotic and montane habitat specialists, indicating that the genus is paraphyletic and so confirms other authors' work based on molecular characters. A key is supplied to Australian genera of Entomobryomorpha. A new genus record, Himalanura, is recognised extending its range to the Southern Hemisphere and 5,000 km further southeast.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Austrália , Cor , Filogenia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4816(2): zootaxa.4816.2.4, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055704

RESUMO

The Australian Acacia-thrips lineage comprises at least 250 species in 30 genera of Phlaeothripinae, all of them known only from Acacia species in Australia. Two new species from two of these genera are described here as the first recorded instances of host-shifting within this diverse thrips lineage, with the host shifts being between unrelated angiosperm orders, from Fabales to Proteales and Myrtales. Brakothrips eucalypti sp. n. is described from the branches of a species of Eucalyptus, and Katothrips banksiae sp. n. is described forming substantial colonies within lepidopterous leaf mines on a species of Banksia. Previously these thrips genera were known only from Acacia species, and comprised seven described species of Brakothrips and 35 described species of Katothrips.


Assuntos
Acacia , Eucalyptus , Tisanópteros , Animais , Austrália , Folhas de Planta
16.
Zootaxa ; 4779(3): zootaxa.4779.3.9, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055783

RESUMO

The identity of Chelodina oblonga has been unclear because it has been variously defined to include populations of snake-necked chelid turtle from the southwest of Western Australia, across northern Australia, Cape York and southern New Guinea in its broadest conception, from just the northern part of this range (northern Australia and New Guinea), or restricted to the southwest corner of Western Australia in its narrowest conception. Uncertainty over the identity of the type specimens has added to the confusion. In this paper, we review the historical data on the extent of the type series of Chelodina oblonga, and its potential provenance, and find evidence that resolves some of the inconsistencies in previous literature on the identification of the type. Our analysis casts doubt on the northern Australian provenance of the type material. Hence, we return the name C. oblonga to the south-western species, in accordance with the genetic evidence for the provenance of the type in the Natural History Museum, London, and the external morphology of the type series. We designate a lectotype for the species, and redefine the subgeneric names that apply to the Australasian genus Chelodina, providing a new subgeneric name for one lineage.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Austrália
17.
Zootaxa ; 4834(2): zootaxa.4834.2.5, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056123

RESUMO

East Timor is an island located to the south of the Indonesian Archipelago and to the north of Australia, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is included in the Coral Triangle and houses an amazing quantity of marine biodiversity. However, only two species of Syllidae (Annelida) have been reported up to now: Trypanosyllis migueli and T. devae. Based on a small collection from the Australian Museum, we have identified nine genera and 17 species: Brevicirrosyllis mariae, Opisthodonta morena, Sphaerosyllis densopapillata, Branchiosyllis australis, B. exilis, B. maculata, B. verruculosa, Haplosyllis djiboutiensis, Opisthosyllis brunnea, Syllis alternata, S. broomensis, S. corallicola, S. erikae, S. gerlachi, S. hyalina, S. setoensis and Trypanosyllis luzonensis. This is the first record of S. gerlachi outside the Indian Ocean, and B. mariae, O. morena, S. densopapillata, H. djiboutiensis, S. corallicola and S. erikae have not been previously reported in tropical Asia. A specimen of Parahaplosyllis sp. could not be identified due to its poor condition. Three species belonging to Syllis are herein described as new: S. cambuk n. sp. has a large size body, with anterior segments much wider and shorter than posterior ones, long whip-shaped dorsal cirri and bidentate midbody and posterior chaetae, with both teeth equal in size and shape; Syllis hampirmenyatu n. sp. has three chaetae per posterior parapodium, with short and wide blades appearing to be fused with shafts, but still clearly distinguishable from each other, bidentate, with proximal tooth clearly smaller and thinner than distal one; and S. maganda n. sp. is easily recognizable because of its spectacular orange and blue colouration, only observable in living specimens, with broad transverse red stripes on the dorsum forming a distinctive pattern and red spots on the cirri and prostomium observable in both living and fixed specimens. Additionally, Philippine samples from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid have been examined corresponding to S. maganda n. sp. A Philippine specimen of S. maganda n. sp. had a small unidentified specimen of Haplosyllis attached to a posterior dorsal cirrus, which is the first documented case of such an interaction between two species of Syllidae. This provisionally called Haplosyllis sp. is characterized by its simple chaetae with short spur and two very long, distinct curved teeth, very close to each other. A regenerated prostomium and a stolon were also found in other Philippine specimens of S. maganda n. sp.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Animais , Austrália , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Timor-Leste
18.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.4, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056132

RESUMO

A new species of freshwater sponges is described from Australia. The new species Radiospongilla fungosa is characterized by the following traits 'megascleres microspiny stout oxeas with scattered, small, simple spines except tips', and by having 'gemmuloscleres long, slim, spiny strongyles with scattered simple spines and hooked spines clustered at tips', 'gemmular theca with 2 layers of gemmuloscleres radially and tangentially arranged', 'pneumatic layer irregularly filamentous network (near inner layer) and thin laminae irregularly arranged (towards outer layer)'. We discuss the relationships of the new species to other members of the genus both from Australia, particularly North-Western Australia, and from other biogeographic regions on the basis of diagnostic morphotraits. An overview on the taxonomy, biogeographic pattern and phylogeny of the genus is supplied and updated to present, together with an updated identification key for Australia species. The diagnosis of the genus Radiospongilla is emended.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Animais , Austrália , Água Doce , Filogenia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4831(1): zootaxa.4831.1.1, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056139

RESUMO

The Australian Scirtidae genus Pseudomicrocara Armstrong, previously shown to be polyphyletic, is revised using both morphology and sequence data from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and two nuclear genes, elongation factor 1-alpha and topoisomerase. Twenty-three genera, 16 of which are new, are recognised based on morphology, primarily of the mandibles and maxillary palpi, and male and female genitalia. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were used to examine relationships among species from 21 of the 23 recognised genera. Fifteen of the genera were recovered as distinct lineages. A further six, Accolabass Watts, Anocyphon gen. nov., Copiacyphon gen. nov., Nasutuscyphon gen. nov., Pseudomicrocara and Saprocyphon gen. nov. were considered to be genera based on both morphology and phylogenetic analysis but their species composition is uncertain and will require more work to confirm. The 17 new genera are fully described, keys are provided to all the genera in the Pseudomicrocara group, and to all the species in the genera Copiacyphon gen. nov., Spilotocyphon gen. nov., Accolabass Watts, Saltuscyphon gen. nov. and Vadumcyphon gen. nov. The male aedeagi of all new genera and species are illustrated, as are the female prehensors of some species.                The following genera are described as new: Alpestriscyphon gen. nov., Anthocara gen. nov., Anocyphon gen. nov., Copiacyphon gen. nov., Furcacyphon gen. nov., Latuscara gen. nov., Pictacara gen. nov., Nasutuscyphon gen. nov., Nektriscyphon gen. nov., Pumiliocara gen. nov., Ruborcara gen. nov., Saltuscyphon gen. nov., Saprocyphon gen. nov., Sisyracyphon gen. nov., Spilotocyphon gen. nov., Tenebriocyphon gen. nov. and Vadumcyphon gen. nov. A total of 45 new combinations are proposed. The following species are described as new: Accolabass monteithi sp. nov.; Alpestriscyphon bartlefrere sp. nov., Al. spurgeon sp. nov.; Anocyphon lepus sp. nov.; Copiacyphon brindaleensis sp. nov., C. cardinalis sp. nov., C. dytikos sp. nov.; Pumiliocara peneparva sp. nov.; Ruborcara saintae sp. nov.; Saltuscyphon montanus sp. nov., Sal. teraniaensis sp. nov.; Saprocyphon bithongensis sp. nov.; Sisyracyphon brisbanensis sp. nov., S. bulburinensis sp. nov.; Spilotocyphon occidentalis sp. nov., Sp. orientalis sp. nov., Sp. zwicki sp. nov.; Vadumcyphon centralis sp. nov., V. rugosus sp. nov. A checklist of all Australian taxa in the redefined Pseudomicrocara group is included.                Sequence data of the Argentinian species Pseudomicrocara antarctica (Fairmaire) is included. Phylogenetic analyses place this species as a distinct lineage within the Pseudomicrocara group.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4833(1): zootaxa.4833.1.1, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056141

RESUMO

In this study, the clearwing moths (Sesiidae) of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands are reviewed. A total of 58 species belonging to 18 genera are recognized as native to this region. This includes the following new species and genera: Lophocnema mackeyi spec. nov. (Australia), Oligophlebia insurgia spec. nov. (New Guinea), Micrecia capillaria spec. nov. (New Guinea), Micrecia kuukuyau spec. nov. (Australia), Micrecia hawkei spec. nov. (Australia), Lamellisphecia sanguinea spec. nov. (New Guinea), Specodoptera hiltoni spec. nov. (New Guinea), Specodoptera hiltoni hibernia spec. nov., ssp. nov. (New Guinea), Aegerosphecia rufea spec. nov. (New Guinea), Melittia flanneryi spec. nov. (New Guinea), Melittia pyroptella spec. nov. (Australia), Archaeosesia milleri gen. nov. et spec. nov. (New Guinea), Nokona kungkay spec. nov. (Australia), Nokona bipora spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia muyuae spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia sumoensis spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia sepikensis spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella terminalia spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella brandti spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella lelatensis sp. nov. (New Guinea). Furthermore, 35 new combinations and each four new generic and species synonyms are introduced, while two genera and three species are resurrected from synonymy. Each 4 taxa at the species and genus levels are considered new synonyms. Six species are listed that originally derive from Africa, Europe, Northern Africa or Central America and were introduced into Australia or some of the Pacific Islands accidentally or deliberately.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Austrália , Nova Guiné , Ilhas do Pacífico
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