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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 94-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648607

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that providing learners with self-control over some aspect of practice enhances motor learning (for a review see Wulf, 2007). One explanation for the self-control effect is that learners engage in deeper information processing when they are allowed to make choices during practice. Recent research has supported this line of thinking by showing that the self-control effect was eliminated for learners who engaged in a cognitive load task during the interval following completion of discrete task trials (Carter & Ste-Marie, 2017). The current study tested the effects of imposing a cognitive load task during the completion of continuous task trials. Participants (N = 48) were divided into self-control (SC), self-control with load (SCL), and two corresponding yoked (YK, YKL) groups. Participants learned a continuous tracing task and then performed 24-hour retention and transfer tests. Retention and transfer test movement times were significantly faster for SC compared to YK participants within the No Load condition but did not differ between these participants within the Load condition. Errors were similar among all groups in retention and transfer. These results provide support for the importance of information processing in regards to the self-controlled learning benefit.


Assuntos
Cognição , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Movimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12861, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108017

RESUMO

Monitoring progression towards one's goals is essential for efficient cognitive control. Immature performance monitoring may contribute to suboptimal cognitive control engagement in childhood, potentially explaining why children engage control reactively even when proactive control would be more effective. This study investigated whether encouraging children to actively monitor their performance results in more mature control engagement. Electroencephalography data were collected while children and adults performed a flanker task in three conditions in which they were provided no feedback, standard feedback, or were asked to estimate their own feedback. Both age groups accurately estimated their own feedback. Critically, feedback estimation promoted online performance monitoring and proactive engagement of attention and inhibition during the flanker period in children. These findings indicate that proactive control engagement in childhood can be effectively supported by encouraging performance monitoring.


Assuntos
Autocontrole/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 405-415, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856697

RESUMO

Allowing learners to control the number of practice trials has been shown to facilitate motor learning (Lessa & Chiviacowsky, 2015; Post et al., 2011; 2014). However, it is uncertain the extent to which prior findings were influenced by the combined effects of allowing participants to control both the pacing- and amount-of-practice. The present study examined the independent effects of self-controlled amount- and pacing-of-practice on learning a sequential timing task. Participants were assigned to a self-controlled-amount-of-practice (SCA), self-controlled-pacing-of-practice (SCP), yoked-amount-of-practice (YKA), or a yoked-pacing-of-practice (YKP) group. Participants completed acquisition, immediate retention/transfer and delayed retention/transfer. During acquisition, SCA controlled the number of acquisition blocks completed with a fixed inter-trial interval while SCP controlled the inter-trial interval with a fixed number of blocks. Yoked groups were matched to a self-control counterpart so the amount (YKA) and pacing (YKP) were equivalent. Self-control groups demonstrated lower absolute constant error during immediate-retention and lower absolute constant error and variable error during delayed retention (p < .05). For intrinsic motivation, SCA scored significantly higher than SCP for the subscale Interest/Enjoyment (p < .05). Findings indicated that self-control, regardless of type, facilitated motor learning. Further work is needed to continue to examine the relationship between controlling the amount and pacing of practice on skill acquisition.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Autocontrole , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Prazer , Tempo de Reação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1670, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) and self-regulation skills are important for their later health. Few preschool-based interventions aiming to promote preschoolers' EBRBs and self-regulation skills, simultaneously reducing differences in EBRBs, due to children's socio-economic status (SES) background, have been conducted. This study will present the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) intervention development process applying the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework. METHODS: The development of the DAGIS intervention study, a preschool level clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT), was based on the IM framework. The protocol in IM guides the development process of an intervention through six steps: needs assessment and logic model of the problem, programme outcomes and objectives, design of the programme, production, implementation plan, and evaluation plan. RESULTS: The needs assessment, part of the step 1 in IM, yielded the base for the DAGIS logic model of change. The model includes objectives related to changes in children's EBRBs, self-regulation skills, and in psychosocial and physical environment that is determined by parents and early educators. A 22-week programme was developed, and materials for preschools and families were produced. A feasibility study of the recruitment processes, acceptability of the materials and methods, and implementation was conducted. The DAGIS intervention study was conducted September 2017-May 2018 as a clustered RCT including a comprehensive effectiveness and process evaluation. The process evaluation was run throughout the intervention targeting preschools and families. CONCLUSION: A preschool-based family-involving programme was developed in the DAGIS intervention study by applying the IM protocol. It was a time- and resource-consuming process. However, the systematic planning, development, and running of the programme have reinforced a comprehensive evaluation, which is a strength in the intervention. The results from the evaluation will enhance the knowledge of how to promote EBRBs and self-regulation skills among preschoolers, and diminish SES differences in them. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN57165350 (Prospectively registered January the 8th, 2015).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Metabolismo Energético , Família/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Autocontrole/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1483, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of low self-control as a mediator or moderator between early age at sexual debut and risky sexual behavior in young adulthood. METHODS: Data on 5734 male and female Add Health participants were used. Self-control (waves 1 & 3), age at sexual debut (wave 3) and risky sexual behavior (wave 4) were used in a structural equation modeling framework to assess the relationships of interest. RESULTS: Approximately 17% of respondents were < 15 years at first sexual intercourse. Among females only, both early age at first intercourse (Parent-report: z = 5.08, p < .001; Self-report: z = 2.05, p < .05) and low self-control at wave 3 (Parent-report: z = 2.30, p < .05; Self-report: z = 2.31, p < .05) mediated the relationship between low self-control at wave 1 and risky sexual behaviors in young adulthood. Similarly in the male-only model, both early age at first intercourse (Parent-report: z = 2.92, p < .01; Self-report: z = 3.04, p < .01) and low self-control at wave 3 (Parent-report: z = 1.99, p < .05; Self-report: z = 3.15, p < .01) mediated the relationship between low self-control and risky sexual behaviors in young adulthood. There was evidence of moderation in the male-only model (- 0.26, p < .01), such that lower impulsivity strengthened the relationship between early sex and risky sex. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the role of executive functions in sexual behaviors and suggests that interventions aimed at improving self-control may be beneficial in reducing risky sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Coito/psicologia , Função Executiva , Assunção de Riscos , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 72, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For some young persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, treatment will inevitably involve phases where hospitalization is required. Inspired by the encouraging evidence-base for outpatient family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa, clinicians and program developers have started to incorporate outpatient family-based treatment principles into higher levels of care. During family-based inpatient treatment, collaborative efforts are largely directed toward the parents of the adolescent. Consequently, the therapeutic focus on the young person is more of an indirect one. With this study we aimed to understand how young persons with lived experience from a family-based inpatient treatment setting, where the adolescents were admitted together with their parents, viewed therapeutic aspects related to staff-patient collaboration and staff-related behaviors. METHODS: Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews of former adolescent inpatients were conducted. Participants' post-treatment reflections were inductively analyzed by applying a thematic analytic framework. RESULTS: Based upon user perspectives from a treatment setting highly influenced by a family therapeutic approach, findings revealed that former inpatients prefer tailored treatment and a collaborative approach. Eight subthemes constituting two main themes emerged: 1) There are no ready-made solutions. Staff should facilitate collaboration by tailoring treatment toward the young person's perspectives, and 2) Emphasizing skills that matter. Staff should display a non-judgmental stance, educate patients, stimulate motivation, enable activities and prevent iatrogenic effects during the stay. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds valuable user perspectives to the ongoing work with adapting family-based frameworks into higher levels of care. Clinicians could benefit from viewing their practice from the standpoint of the young person's post-treatment reflections. From their unique perspectives as having lived experience and hence, "insider knowledge" with a specific treatment situation, clinicians are reminded of the importance of being mindful on the young persons' views.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Atenção Plena , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Masculino , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Social
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105281, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590094

RESUMO

The present study aims to identify, study, and develop typologies based on cases of elderly pedestrian collisions with vehicles where the pedestrians subjectively ascribe the collision at least in part to their own self-regulation failures. Semistructured interview surveys were conducted with 18 elderly people who had experienced a crash with a vehicle as a pedestrian aged 65 years or older. Personal construct theory is adopted as the theoretical underpinning, and it is assumed that pedestrians have their own subjective ways of making sense of the crashes they are involved in. It was found that 11 of the 18 participants ascribed the crashes at least in part to their own self-regulation failures. Cognitive maps of the 11 participants had a common structure, and the associated 11 incidents were classified with respect to the following dimensions: (a) self-regulation type, (b) self-regulation motivation, (c) cause of self-regulation failure, and (d) characteristics of the collisions that occurred after the self-regulation failure. Based on these findings, practical implications are found, and corresponding interventions that may reduce elderly pedestrian-vehicle crashes of this type are discussed. Specifically, this study demonstrates the necessity of education or other intervention that goes beyond informing elderly pedestrians of what is right and wrong in traffic environments. Another critical result-the need to motivate elderly pedestrians to respect and adhere to their own highly personal self-regulation, even if it is not against the social norms-is also presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pedestres/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569711

RESUMO

This study assessed the efficacy of an educational program focused on the promotion of school engagement in children with Cerebral Palsy. A 9 weeks, narrative-based intervention program, with a pre-post neuropsychological and self-report evaluation, was developed with a dual focus: a self-regulation theoretical model and executive function stimulation. Fifteen children with Cerebral Palsy participated in the study. Results showed a significant main effect of time (F(2.82) = 6.04, p = 0.0066, partial η2 = 0.30; F(2.82) = 9.91, p = 0.0006, partial η2 = 0.41; F(2.82) = 26.90, p < 0.0001, partial η2 = 0.66) in the three dimensions of school engagement. Findings indicate that the program to train self-regulated competences and executive function skills was efficacious in promoting school engagement in children with Cerebral Palsy. Educational implications were discussed.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Função Executiva , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Autocontrole , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Br J Health Psychol ; 24(4): 970-981, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: What happens when people see others making progress toward a goal that they also hold? Is it motivating or could it undermine goal pursuit because people feel that they have made progress themselves (i.e., they experience vicarious goal satiation)? METHODS: We investigated these questions in a longitudinal field context - a group weight loss programme. N = 132 participants who were overweight or obese and attended weekly weight loss classes completed questionnaires over 11 weeks to investigate the consequences of observing other people making progress toward their goal of losing weight RESULTS: Observing others making good progress was associated with participants holding stronger intentions to lose weight themselves (B = 0.04, p = .012), positive goal-related affect (B = 0.27, p = .017), and feeling that they were also making progress themselves (B = 0.22, p < .001). However, observing others making good progress was also associated with losing a smaller amount of weight over the following week (B = .13, p = .005). Mediation analyses showed a significant indirect effect of observing others making good progress, via feelings about their own progress, on changes in weight, B = .02, 95% CI [.00, .04]. CONCLUSIONS: People who view others making progress tend to be less successful at losing weight themselves over the following week. The findings suggest that this is, in part, explained by the person feeling as if they have made progress themselves; thereby providing the first demonstration of vicarious goal satiation in a field context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Many people strive toward health goals (e.g., try to lose weight) with other people. However, research into vicarious goal satiation (VGS) suggests that seeing someone else achieve their goal may lead people to believe that they have made progress themselves and undermine goal pursuit. What does this study add? A longitudinal test of VGS in a field context, namely weight loss groups. Observing other people do well was motivating for the observer. They also believed that they had made progress themselves and were less successful at losing weight.


Assuntos
Metas , Motivação , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Perda de Peso
10.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(8): 572-581, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with eating disorders tend to internalise their anger and aggression excessively. However, an evidence-based intervention, targeted on this persistent issue, was missing until now. Therefore, a body and movement oriented intervention was developed, which supports patients to reframe and redirect anger and aggression against the destructive influence of the eating disorder.
AIM: To study the effectiveness of the aggression regulation intervention.
METHOD: The intervention was tested in a first randomised controlled trial (RCT) in an outpatient setting and in a two-center RCT in a multidisciplinary day hospital setting. Coping with anger was measured by the Self-Expression and Control Scale (SECS). Eating disorder pathology was measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q).
RESULTS: Both RCTs delivered first evidence for the brief body and movement oriented intervention to reduce excessive anger internalisation in individuals with eating disorders. Moreover, in the outpatient trial the eating disorder pathology was significantly more reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group.
CONCLUSION: There is first evidence for the effectiveness of a body and movement oriented approach of reducing excessive anger internalisation in individuals with eating disorders.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Ira , Humanos , Psicoterapia Breve , Autocontrole
11.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(7): 626-636, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497986

RESUMO

Exerting self-control depletes capacity for future self-control, which can promote greater alcohol use. However, certain populations may be more susceptible to these effects of depleted self-control capacity. For example, individuals with lower alcohol sensitivity (i.e., requiring more drinks to experience the effects of alcohol) are a high-risk group who are likely to engage in hazardous alcohol use and develop an alcohol use disorder. Those lower in alcohol sensitivity also exhibit heightened motivational reactivity in response to alcohol-related cues, which may be enhanced following exertion of self-control. However, whether drinkers lower in alcohol sensitivity are at higher risk for exhibiting greater motivations toward alcohol-related cues after exerting self-control is unclear. The current research examined the role of alcohol sensitivity in predicting approach motivation following exertion of self-control. It was expected drinkers exerting self-control would exhibit greater orientation toward rewarding cues, particularly after viewing alcohol-related cues. However, we predicted this pattern would be most prominent among drinkers lower in alcohol sensitivity. Experiment 1 supported these hypotheses, with lower alcohol sensitivity predicting greater approach motivation among drinkers required to exert self-control prior to viewing alcohol-related compared to neutral cues. Experiment 2 aimed to replicate these findings by assessing asymmetrical frontal cortical activation, an index of approach motivation. Drinkers with lower alcohol sensitivity exhibited greater relative left frontal cortical activation, consistent with approach motivation, while viewing alcohol-related cues following exertion of self-control. Results have implications for interventions aimed at identifying those at risk for greater alcohol motivations during states of mental exhaustion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Etanol/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 554-563, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many people present excessive patterns of social networking site (SNS) use and try to self-regulate it. However, little is known regarding the strategies employed by young adult SNS users and their role in preventing the emergence of addiction-like symptoms in relation to SNS use. METHODS: In Study 1, we employed a naturalistic-qualitative approach for finding commonly employed self-control strategies in relation to SNS use. In Study 2, we examined differences between the frequency and difficulty of the strategies identified in Study 1 and tested the process through which trait self-control exerts influence on reducing SNS addiction symptomology. RESULTS: Study 1 revealed six families of self-control strategies, some reactive and some proactive. Study 2 pinpointed the most commonly used and most difficult to enact ones. It also showed that the difficulty to enact self-control strategies in relation to SNS use partially mediates the effect of trait self-control via SNS use habit on SNS addiction symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the present findings revealed that strategies for self-controlling SNS use are common and complex. Their theoretical and clinical significance stems from their ability to prevent the translation of poor trait self-control and strong SNS use habit to the emergence of excessive use as manifested in SNS addiction-like symptoms.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Mídias Sociais , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Structure ; 27(8): 1185-1187, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390542

RESUMO

In this issue of Structure, Liess et al. (2019) demonstrate that the cell cycle regulator UBE2S shuts itself off through autoubiquitination at a conserved lysine residue. Since E2s are at the center of the ubiquitination cascade, this presents a possible regulatory mechanism in a multitude of cellular processes.


Assuntos
Autocontrole , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina , Lisina , Ubiquitinação
14.
Br J Health Psychol ; 24(4): 764-786, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested unique contribution of trait self-control, implicit self-control, and lay beliefs in self-control beliefs to the prediction of health-related behaviours. We also tested whether relations between trait self-control and health-related behaviour, and between implicit self-control and health-related behaviours, were moderated by self-control beliefs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, correlational. METHODS: Students (N = 176) completed self-report measures of trait self-control, lay beliefs that self-control is limited or non-limited, non-planning, participation in health-related behaviours (impulsive eating, impulsive drinking, exercise avoidance, watching diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity participation), and demographic variables. Participants also completed a measure of implicit self-control using an implicit association test. RESULTS: Analyses indicated significant negative relations between implicit self-control and impulsive drinking and alcohol consumption. We also found a positive relationship between implicit self-control and exercise behaviour, and a negative relationship between implicit self-control and impulsive eating, both of which fell marginally short of statistical significance. Trait self-control significantly predicted all behavioural measures and attenuated relations between implicit self-control and health-related behaviour. We found no relations between lay beliefs in self-control and health-related behaviour. Moderated path analyses revealed that lay beliefs in self-control moderated relations between trait self-control and impulsive drinking, implicit self-control and exercise avoidance, and implicit self-control and physical activity participation. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that trait self-control was a consistent correlate of health-related behaviour, while the effect sizes of relationships between implicit self-control and health-related behaviours were small. Strength of relations between trait self-control and health-related behaviours may depend on whether or not individuals believe self-control is limited. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-control represents individuals capacity to override impulses, break habits, and avoid temptations. Trait self-control is consistently and positively related to uptake of health-promoting behaviours (e.g., physical activity, healthy eating). Trait self-control is consistently and negatively related to health-compromising behaviours (e.g., alcohol consumption, unhealthy snacking). What does this study add? Proposes that self-control can also be measured implicitly, beyond individuals' awareness. Examined effects of implicit measures of self-control and self-reported trait self-control on multiple health behaviours. Effects of implicit self-control on health behaviours were small and subsumed by trait self-control. Effects of lay beliefs in self-control moderated effects of implicit and trait self-control on some health behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430293

RESUMO

Smoking cigarettes and low socioeconomic status (SES) are both related to impaired cognition. However, it is unknown whether people of lower SES, who comprise most tobacco smokers worldwide, are more susceptible to cognitive impairment associated with smoking. In this non-randomized, cross-sectional study we investigated the effects of cigarette smoking, SES and their interaction on dissociable executive or "cool" and "hot" measures of behavioural self-regulation. Participants (n = 80) were selected among young physically and mentally healthy smokers and non-smokers who had graduated high school and were from different SES backgrounds. Cool self-regulation was measured by executive function tasks that tap inhibition, updating, shifting, dual tasking, planning, access to long-term memory (semantic fluency), and working memory capacity. Hot measures assessed self-reported impulsivity, delay discounting and risk taking. Exposure to tobacco (cotinine, exhaled carbon monoxide, tobacco dependence, cigarette consumption) was assessed to determine to what extent it mediated the cognitive effects of smoking. Nicotine abstinence and its acute effects were controlled, as were sex, age, schooling, and psychiatric symptoms despite the fact that smokers and non-smokers were selected as being as similar as possible in these demographic characteristics. Lower SES (less years of parental schooling) was associated with worse performance on tasks that measured all cool domains except dual tasking and fluency, while smoking status was related to impaired delayed discounting and impulsivity (hot domains), effects that were not mediated by tobacco exposure. Smoking and SES, however, did not interact. In short, impaired performance in measures of most cool skills was associated with SES irrespective of smoking status; in contrast, regardless of SES, smokers showed specific impairment in hot self-regulation domains (more difficulty resisting immediate temptations and weighing future consequences of actions). Possible explanations for the lack of mediation of tobacco exposure on hot skills of smokers are discussed.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Autocontrole , Classe Social , Adulto , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(7): 603-615, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448930

RESUMO

Alcohol use is highly comorbid with depression, especially among college students, whose rates of both phenomena are higher than in the general population. The self-medication hypothesis (i.e., alcohol use is negatively reinforced via the alleviation of negative affect) has dominated explanatory models of comorbidity. However, self-regulation has also demonstrated cross-sectional relationships with both depression and alcohol problems and may contribute to the development of alternative comorbidity models. Self-regulation introduces three alternative models that can be tested empirically: (a) a depressed regulation model, (b) a central nervous system depressant model, and (c) a self-regulatory failure model. The purpose of this study was to test the utility of these models (in addition to the self-medication hypothesis) by examining the temporal precedence in the relations between self-regulation, depressive symptoms, and alcohol problems among heavy-drinking college students (N = 393) over 5 assessment points (baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 16 months) using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Lower self-regulation, and higher alcohol problems and depressive symptoms, prospectively predicted higher depressive symptoms. Higher alcohol problems and lower self-regulation prospectively predicted higher alcohol problems. Only self-regulation prospectively predicted self-regulation. These results were consistent across multiple time points. Findings are consistent with a self-regulatory failure model of depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Therefore, self-regulation may be an important etiological variable and potential intervention target to reduce both alcohol problems and depressive symptoms among college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1178-1194, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422740

RESUMO

Allowing learners to control feedback has been an effective strategy in motor skills learning. However, most studies of self-controlled (SC) feedback have used simple tasks that may be dissimilar to sports skills that generally demand more degrees of freedom and cognition. Thus, this study investigated the effects of SC knowledge of results (KR) on learning a complex Taekwondo skill. Twenty-four undergraduate volunteers of both sexes, aged 18-35 years, practiced a specific serial Taekwondo skill that was novel to them. We divided participants randomly into SC and yoked groups and compared their performance after they learned a specific displacement sequence, finishing with a lateral kick (bandal-tchagui) at a punching bag within a target time span. During acquisition, all participants performed 48 trials divided into six blocks and, on a retention test 24 hours later, they performed 10 more trials. We found that both groups reduced their errors from the first to the last block of the acquisition phase and that the SC group showed a better performance on the retention test, relative to the yoked control group. SC KR participants requested KR mainly after good trials, though they showed no statistically significant differences between trials with and without KR. Their inefficiency in estimating their own errors may have been due to task complexity, since many aspects of the task beyond its temporal requirement demanded the learners' attention. Our results, using a novel Taekwondo serial skill, confirm and extend the benefits of SC KR from just simple motor learning in past studies to learning complex motor skills.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Destreza Motora , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Cognição , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Glicoesfingolipídeos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 39: 100681, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404858

RESUMO

According to Dual Systems models (Casey et al., 2008; Luna and Wright, 2016; Steinberg, 2008), a rapidly-developing socioemotional system and gradually-developing cognitive control system characterize adolescent brain development. The imbalance hypothesis forwarded by Dual Systems models posits that the magnitude of the imbalance between these two developing systems should predict the propensity for engaging in a variety of risk behaviors. The current integrative review argues that the excitement generated by the imbalance hypothesis and its implications for explaining adolescent risk behaviors has not been meet with equal efforts to rigorously test this hypothesis. The goal of the current review is to help guide the field to consider appropriate and rigorous methods of testing the imbalance hypothesis. First, we review the analytic approaches that have been used to test the imbalance hypothesis and outline statistical and conceptual limitations of these approaches. Next, we discuss the utility of two longitudinal analytic approaches (Latent Difference Scores and Growth Mixture Modeling) for testing the imbalance hypothesis. We utilize data from a large community adolescent sample to illustrate each approach and argue that Latent Difference Scores and Growth Mixture Modeling approaches enhance the specificity and precision with which the imbalance hypothesis is evaluated.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Assunção de Riscos , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382589

RESUMO

Research has repeatedly highlighted the important influence of parental socialization styles on children's psychosocial adjustment. However, previous studies about their effects on school adjustment have traditionally addressed a limited set of indicators, such as academic achievement or self-concept, which should be broadened in order to increase our level of knowledge about this topic. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between parenting styles and other relevant school adjustment criteria (self-regulated learning and academic stress) in adolescence. The study participants were 437 Spanish adolescents (44.7% men) from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.55, SD = 1.80) who were enrolled in high school. A multivariate factorial design (parenting × sex × educational level) was used for each set of criteria. The results are consistent with previous research, showing that the indulgent style was related to better school adjustment during adolescence, evaluated through self-regulated learning and academic stress, thus increasing the available evidence about the influence of parenting styles in this setting. Additionally, this relationship remains invariant with regard to sex and the educational level of the participants in the study. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of parenting practices related to high acceptance/involvement for the adequate school adjustment of Spanish adolescents.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autocontrole , Socialização , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Ajustamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Sleep Health ; 5(5): 466-469, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether school start time changes impact adolescents' mood, self-regulation, safety, and health. METHODS: In September 2015, two school start time changes were implemented in Fairfax County (VA) Public Schools: a 50-minute delay (to 8:10 am) for high schools and secondary schools and a 30-minute advance (to 7:30 am) for middle schools. We conducted cross-sectional surveys of students' sleep, mood, self-regulation, health, and safety before (2017 students) and after (1180 students) these changes. RESULTS: Adjusted for confounders, a 50-minute delay was associated with a decreased prevalence of low mood (-4.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.2%, -1.2%), drowsy driving, (-8.4%; 95% CI: -15.9%, -0.9%), and skipping breakfast (-4.2%; 95% CI: -8.1%, -0.2%) but no other significant changes. There were no significant changes associated with a 30-minute advance. CONCLUSIONS: A 50-minute delay in school start time in high schools and secondary schools was associated with a decreased prevalence of low mood, drowsy driving, and skipping breakfast. A 30-minute advance in start time in middle schools was not associated with any appreciable changes.


Assuntos
Afeto , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocontrole , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Fatores de Tempo , Virginia , Vigília
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