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1.
Occup Ther Int ; 2021: 6658786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688309

RESUMO

Background: Sensory processing supports children's development and abilities to participate in activities across contexts. Self-regulation skills may influence how children process various sensory experiences in daily life activities. The Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC) is a 130-item caregiver-reported checklist, covering children's essential sensory processing and self-regulation performance in daily activities. Objectives: This study examines the psychometric properties of the SPSRC (English version) in measuring the sensory processing and self-regulation abilities of children. Methods: A preliminary field testing of the SPSRC-English was conducted in a sample of n = 194 children (164 without disability and 30 with a disability) to evaluate its reliability and validity properties. Results: The SPSRC-English was shown to have high internal consistency and test-retest reliability; and good discriminant, structural, and criterion validity in the sensory processing and self-regulation abilities of children with and without disability ages 4-12 years. Conclusion: The current study provides initial evidence on the reliability and validity of SPSRC-English in measuring the sensory processing and self-regulation abilities in children with and without a disability. The SPSRC-English may provide salient information supporting the understanding of sensory processing difficulties among children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem/normas , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocontrole , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Am J Surg ; 221(2): 331-335, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The regulatory focus theory (RFT) posits that people can pursue goals with a promotion or prevention focus. Greater alignment of RFT motivational styles between faculty and residents may enhance resident operative autonomy. This study establishes a set of faculty behaviors residents can identify to infer faculty motivational styles. METHODS: 10 behaviors associated with promotion and prevention motivational styles were identified. General surgery residents rated faculty on how strongly they exhibit these behaviors. Faculty conducted a self-assessment of how strongly they exhibit these behaviors. RESULTS: There is a positive correlation between resident and faculty ratings for the promotion-associated behaviors of "works quickly," "high energy," and "mostly provides broad oversight," and for the prevention-associated behaviors of "works slowly and deliberately," "quiet and calm," and "preference for vigilant strategies." CONCLUSION: Residents can observe faculty operative behaviors to infer faculty motivational styles. Residents may use this knowledge to adjust to faculty motivational styles and enhance operative interactions.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Salas Cirúrgicas/métodos , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Competência Clínica/normas , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Autonomia Profissional , Autocontrole , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e23894, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the effect of music-based intervention on the aggressive behavior in children and adolescents, and made a comparison of music medicine and music therapy. METHODS: We searched PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid-Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify relevant studies. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were estimated with random-effect model. RESULTS: We included 10 studies and found a significant decrease of aggressive behavior (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI = -1.42 to -0.56) and a significant increase of self-control (SMD = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.93) in the music-based intervention group compared with the control group. The aggressive behavior was significantly decreased in the music therapy group compared with the control group (SMD = -1.79; 95% CI = -3.23 to -0.35); while, no difference was observed between music medicine group and control group. Sub-group analyses exhibited a more efficacious in reducing aggressive behavior in the children received ≥2 sessions per week, the children with a mean age > 10 years, the children whose behavior were reported by teachers, and the children with aggressive behavior before intervention. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Music-based intervention seemed to be more efficacious for reducing aggression and increasing self-control in children and adolescents, especially music therapy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Musicoterapia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humanos , Autocontrole
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the effects of the lockdown on lifestyle behaviors may help to guide the public health response to COVID-19 at a national level and to update the global strategy to respond COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on device-measured physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep and self-regulation; and to determine whether PA and sleep are related to self-regulation problems during the lockdown. METHODS: PA, sedentary time and sleep were assessed using accelerometry in the week in which the Spanish national state of alarm was declared (n = 21). Parents reported preschooler's self-regulation difficulties (internalizing and externalizing) before (n = 268) and during the lockdown (n = 157) by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Preschoolers showed a decrease in total PA (mean difference [MD] = -43.3 min per day, 95% CI -68.1 to -18.5), sleep efficiency (MD = -2.09%, 95% CI -4.12 to -0.05), an increase in sedentary time (MD = 50.2 min per day, 95% CI 17.1 to 83.3) internalizing (MD = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.28) and externalizing (MD = 0.33, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.44) problems. Preschoolers who met the World Health Organization recommendations for PA had lower internalizing scores than non-active peers (MD = -1.28, 95% CI -2.53 to -0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of meeting PA recommendations to reduce psychosocial difficulties during a lockdown situation.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Autocontrole , Sono , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Espanha
6.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 10, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals tend to avoid effortful tasks, regardless of whether they are physical or mental in nature. Recent experimental evidence is suggestive of individual differences in the dispositional willingness to invest cognitive effort in goal-directed behavior. The traits need for cognition (NFC) and self-control are related to behavioral measures of cognitive effort discounting and demand avoidance, respectively. Given that these traits are only moderately related, the question arises whether they reflect a common core factor underlying cognitive effort investment. If so, the common core of both traits might be related to behavioral measures of effort discounting in a more systematic fashion. To address this question, we aimed at specifying a core construct of cognitive effort investment that reflects dispositional differences in the willingness and tendency to exert effortful control. METHODS: We conducted two studies (N = 613 and N = 244) with questionnaires related to cognitive motivation and effort investment including assessment of NFC, intellect, self-control and effortful control. We first calculated Pearson correlations followed by two mediation models regarding intellect and its separate aspects, seek and conquer, as mediators. Next, we performed a confirmatory factor analysis of a hierarchical model of cognitive effort investment as second-order latent variable. First-order latent variables were cognitive motivation reflecting NFC and intellect, and effortful self-control reflecting self-control and effortful control. Finally, we calculated Pearson correlations between factor scores of the latent variables and general self-efficacy as well as traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality for validation purposes. RESULTS: Our findings support the hypothesized correlations between the assessed traits, where the relationship of NFC and self-control is specifically mediated via goal-directedness. We established and replicated a hierarchical factor model of cognitive motivation and effortful self-control that explains the shared variance of the first-order factors by a second-order factor of cognitive effort investment. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results integrate disparate literatures on cognitive motivation and self-control and provide a basis for further experimental research on the role of dispositional individual differences in goal-directed behavior and cost-benefit-models.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Individualidade , Motivação , Personalidade , Autocontrole , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(1): e25018, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The classic Marshmallow Test, where children were offered a choice between one small but immediate reward (eg, one marshmallow) or a larger reward (eg, two marshmallows) if they waited for a period of time, instigated a wealth of research on the relationships among impulsive responding, self-regulation, and clinical and life outcomes. Impulsivity is a hallmark feature of self-regulation failures that lead to poor health decisions and outcomes, making understanding and treating impulsivity one of the most important constructs to tackle in building a culture of health. Despite a large literature base, impulsivity measurement remains difficult due to the multidimensional nature of the construct and limited methods of assessment in daily life. Mobile devices and the rise of mobile health (mHealth) have changed our ability to assess and intervene with individuals remotely, providing an avenue for ambulatory diagnostic testing and interventions. Longitudinal studies with mobile devices can further help to understand impulsive behaviors and variation in state impulsivity in daily life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate an impulsivity mHealth diagnostics and monitoring app called Digital Marshmallow Test (DMT) using both the Apple and Android platforms for widespread dissemination to researchers, clinicians, and the general public. METHODS: The DMT app was developed using Apple's ResearchKit (iOS) and Android's ResearchStack open source frameworks for developing health research study apps. The DMT app consists of three main modules: self-report, ecological momentary assessment, and active behavioral and cognitive tasks. We conducted a study with a 21-day assessment period (N=116 participants) to validate the novel measures of the DMT app. RESULTS: We used a semantic differential scale to develop self-report trait and momentary state measures of impulsivity as part of the DMT app. We identified three state factors (inefficient, thrill seeking, and intentional) that correlated highly with established measures of impulsivity. We further leveraged momentary semantic differential questions to examine intraindividual variability, the effect of daily life, and the contextual effect of mood on state impulsivity and daily impulsive behaviors. Our results indicated validation of the self-report sematic differential and related results, and of the mobile behavioral tasks, including the Balloon Analogue Risk Task and Go-No-Go task, with relatively low validity of the mobile Delay Discounting task. We discuss the design implications of these results to mHealth research. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential for assessing different facets of trait and state impulsivity during everyday life and in clinical settings using the DMT mobile app. The DMT app can be further used to enhance our understanding of the individual facets that underlie impulsive behaviors, as well as providing a promising avenue for digital interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03006653; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03006653.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Comportamento Impulsivo , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Autocontrole
8.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 711-728, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403533

RESUMO

A growing number of individuals using online forums are attempting to abstain from pornography (colloquially termed "rebooting") due to self-perceived pornography-related problems. The present qualitative study explored phenomenological experiences of abstinence among members of an online "rebooting" forum. A total of 104 abstinence journals by male forum members were systematically analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of four themes (with a total of nine subthemes) emerged from the data: (1) abstinence is the solution to pornography-related problems, (2) sometimes abstinence seems impossible, (3) abstinence is achievable with the right resources, and (4) abstinence is rewarding if persisted with. Members' primary reasons for initiating "rebooting" involved desiring to overcome a perceived addiction to pornography and/or alleviate perceived negative consequences attributed to pornography use, especially sexual difficulties. Successfully achieving and maintaining abstinence was typically experienced to be very challenging due to habitual behavior patterns and/or cravings triggered by a multiplicity of cues for pornography use, but a combination of internal (e.g., cognitive-behavioral strategies) and external (e.g., social support) resources made abstinence attainable for many members. A range of benefits attributed to abstinence by members suggest that abstaining from pornography could potentially be a beneficial intervention for problematic pornography use, although future prospective studies are needed to rule out possible third variable explanations for these perceived effects and to rigorously evaluate abstinence as an intervention. The present findings shed light on what the "rebooting" experience is like from members' own perspectives and provide insights into abstinence as an approach for addressing problematic pornography use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Personalidade , Autocontrole/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Estudos Prospectivos , Recompensa , Autoimagem , Apoio Social
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445427

RESUMO

Trauma exposure and low self-control are robustly associated with youth antisocial/criminal problems, but the interrelation of these constructs is unclear when taking into account both traumatic events and reactions. The objective of the present study is to examine self-control mediation effects related to trauma and juvenile delinquency, conduct disorder, crime seriousness, and aggression outcomes. The sample consisted of N = 388 male youth from Portugal (age, M = 16.01 years, SD = 1.03, age range = 13-18 years). Path analysis procedures revealed that self-control partially mediates the relation between trauma events and the examined outcomes and fully mediates the relation between trauma reactions and the examined outcomes. Research on youth trauma should examine both trauma events and trauma reactions because they have differential effects on low self-control and antisocial/criminal outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Delinquência Juvenil , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445592

RESUMO

There is limited research exploring the perceptions of people who gamble on the self-control strategies used to limit their gambling. This qualitative study examines self-control strategies used to limit money spent gambling, frequency of gambling, and time spent gambling. A total of 56 people who gamble (27 males and 29 females) participated in nine focus groups and five individual interviews in Montreal, Calgary, and Toronto (Canada). Self-control strategies used to limit their gambling expenditure were more common than frequency or time limiting strategies. Strategies to limit expenditure included: restricting access to money; keeping track of money allocated to gambling activities; and avoiding certain types of gambling activities. Various contextual factors were identified to influence those strategies, including social influences; winning or losing; using substances. Findings from this study emphasize the importance of communicating clear gambling limits to people who gamble, as well as the value of developing individual self-control strategies to limit frequency, time and money spent gambling.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Autocontrole , Canadá , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e930340, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323916

RESUMO

Alterations in complex behavioral patterns during the extended period of the COVID-19 pandemic are predicted to promote a variety of psychiatric disease symptoms due to enforced social isolation and self-quarantine. Accordingly, multifaceted mental health problems will continue to increase, thereby creating a challenge for society and the health care system in general. Recent studies show that COVID-19 can directly or indirectly influence the central nervous system, potentially causing neurological pathologies such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Thus, chronic COVID-19-related disease processes have the potential to cause serious mental illnesses, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Importantly, mental health problems can foster systemic changes in functionally-linked neuroendocrine conditions that heighten a person's susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. These altered defense mechanisms may include compromised "self-control" and "self-care", as well as a "lack of insight" into the danger posed by the virus. These consequences may have serious social impacts on the future of COVID-19 survivors. Compounding the functionally related issues of altered mental health parameters and viral susceptibility are the potential effects of compromised immunity on the establishment of functional herd immunity. Within this context, mental health takes on added importance, particularly in terms of the need to increase support for mental health research and community-based initiatives. Thus, COVID-19 infections continue to reveal mental health targets, a process we must now be prepared to deal with.


Assuntos
/complicações , Saúde Mental , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/virologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , /psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Doença de Parkinson/virologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322157

RESUMO

Self-regulation (SR) in pre-schoolers is a strong predictor of different aspects of mental health and wellbeing. However, SR only recently has been examined concerning physical activity and its effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, 49 preschool children aged 4-5 years were submitted to classroom movement breaks (CMBs) of 15-min with different degrees of difficulty. Before beginning the intervention, SR (i.e., head, toes, knees and shoulders test, HTKS) and skill levels were assessed for tasks demand adjustment to individual resources and the counterbalanced assignment of the participants to the groups. Similarly, after the intervention, the performance on the HTKS was re-evaluated. There was a general intervention effect on the SR of pre-schoolers, regardless of the difficulty level of the task [F (3) = 11.683, p-value < 0.001, η2p = 0.438]. Nevertheless, it seems that only when CMBs stimulate the children cognitively with optimal difficulty, is it possible to obtain benefits. We recommend providing teachers with professional support when implementing physical activity breaks in their daily program to generate an individualized level of cognitive load that would allow children to reach the optimal challenge point.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Autocontrole , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315882

RESUMO

Economic inequality is a collective issue that affects all citizens. However, people often fail to support redistribution strategies aimed at redressing inequality. In this work we investigated personal optimism and collective pessimism as psychological processes that contribute to hampering vs. promoting the demand for redistribution. Our prediction was that support for redistribution would require both a pessimistic economic outlook at the collective level and the perception of being economically disadvantaged. In two studies, one of which pre-registered, Italian participants (Study 1: N = 306; Study 2: N = 384) were led to feel relatively poor or rich, rated their perceived control over either their personal or the nation's future and estimated either personal or national economic and general future risks. To measure support for redistribution, participants were invited to allocate their desired level of taxation to each of the five tax brackets included in the Italian personal income tax. Results showed that participants were optimistic about their personal future, but pessimistic about the fate of their nation. This difference was explained by respondents' greater perceived control over personal future than over the nation's future. Importantly, greater pessimism about national economic risks led to greater support for progressive taxation only for participants who felt relatively poor.


Assuntos
Pessimismo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otimismo , Risco , Autocontrole , Classe Social
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based programs hold promise for improving cardiovascular health (e.g. physical activity, diet, blood pressure). However, despite theoretical frameworks proposed, no studies have reported qualitative findings on how study participants themselves believe mindfulness-based programs improved their cardiovascular health. With an emphasis on in-depth, open-ended investigation, qualitative methods are well suited to explore the mechanisms underlying health outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the mechanisms through which the mindfulness-based program, Mindfulness-Based Blood Pressure Reduction (MB-BP), may influence cardiovascular health. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted as part of a Stage 1 single arm trial with one-year follow-up. The MB-BP curriculum was adapted from Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction to direct participants' mindfulness skills towards modifiable determinants of blood pressure. Four focus group discussions were conducted (N = 19 participants), and seven additional participants were selected for in-depth interviews. Data analysis was conducted using the standard approach of thematic analysis. Following double-coding of audio-recorded transcripts, four members of the study team engaged in an iterative process of data analysis and interpretation. RESULTS: Participants identified self-awareness, attention control, and emotion regulation as key mechanisms that led to improvements in cardiovascular health. Within these broader themes, many participants detailed a process beginning with increased self-awareness to sustain attention and regulate emotions. Many also explained that the specific relationship between self-awareness and emotion regulation enabled them to respond more skillfully to stressors. In a secondary sub-theme, participants suggested that higher self-awareness helped them engage in positive health behaviors (e.g. healthier dietary choices). CONCLUSION: Qualitative analyses suggest that MB-BP mindfulness practices allowed participants to engage more effectively in self-regulation skills and behaviors lowering cardiovascular disease risk, which supports recent theory. Results are consistent with quantitative mechanistic findings showing emotion regulation, perceived stress, interoceptive awareness, and attention control are influenced by MB-BP.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Adulto , Conscientização , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Currículo , Emoções , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Autoimagem , Autocontrole
15.
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22962-22966, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868418

RESUMO

Gonadal hormones are linked to mechanisms that govern appetitive behavior and its suppression. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by the enzyme aromatase, highly expressed in the ovaries of reproductive-aged women and in the brains of men and women of all ages. We measured aromatase availability in the amygdala using positron emission tomography (PET) with the aromatase inhibitor [11C]vorozole in a sample of 43 adult, normal-weight, overweight, or obese men and women. A subsample of 27 also completed personality measures to examine the relationship between aromatase and personality traits related to self-regulation and inhibitory control. Results indicated that aromatase availability in the amygdala was negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) (in kilograms per square meter) and positively correlated with scores of the personality trait constraint independent of sex or age. Individual variations in the brain's capacity to synthesize estrogen may influence the risk of obesity and self-control in men and women.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Androgênios , Aromatase/análise , Inibidores da Aromatase , Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipogênese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Autocontrole
17.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 313-319, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192068

RESUMO

The quality of learning in Higher Education is particularly dependent on students' skills in regulating their cognition. This regulation requires cognitive and metacognitive skills as well as motivational dimensions. Due to its relevance in explaining students' academic achievement and developing lifelong learning skills, it´s important to increase research in the area. This study aims to adapt and validate a short version of the Regulation of Cognition of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to first-year Portuguese university students. A sample of 360 students was considered and was identified a three-dimensional structure (Planning, 4 items; Strategies, 7 items; and Monitoring and evaluation, 7 items) with a second-order factor (Regulation of Cognition). The internal consistency values of the reduced scale are within the acceptable parameters for a self-report scale and the correlations with academic achievement at the end of the first year of the university guarantee the predictive validity of the scale. This short version of regulation of cognition measure allows its use in research with other instruments in larger studies and can function as a diagnostic / screening tool to help students in higher education learning challenges


La calidad del aprendizaje en la Educación Superior depende, especialmente, de las habilidades de los estudiantes para regular su cognición. Esta regulación requiere habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas, así como dimensiones motivacionales. Dada su relevancia en el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de habilidades para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, es importante aumentar la investigación en el campo. Este estudio pretende adaptar y validar una versión abreviada de la dimensión Regulación de la Cognición del Metacognitive Awareness Inventory para estudiantes universitarios portugueses de primer año. Se empleó una muestra de 360 estudiantes y se identificó una estructura tridimensional (Planificación, 4 ítems; Estrategias, 7 ítems; y Monitoreo y evaluación, 7 ítems) con un factor de segundo orden (Regulación de la cognición). Los valores de consistencia interna de la escala reducida son aceptables para una escala de auto-informe y las correlaciones con el logro académico al final del primer año de la universidad garantizan su validez predictiva. Esta versión abreviada para medir la regulación de la cognición puede usarse en investigación junto con otros instrumentos en estudios más amplios y puede funcionar como una herramienta de diagnóstico para ayudar a los estudiantes en los desafíos del aprendizaje en la enseñanza superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição , Estudantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autorrelato , Portugal , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822379

RESUMO

The present study aims to develop and validate an Italian version of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). A large sample of Italian-speaking participants (N = 1139) completed the BSCS and measures of personality and individual dispositions. A clinical sample (N = 217) was administered the Italian version and an English-speaking sample (N = 274) completed the original version to test measurement invariance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the best fit was observed for a shortened two-factor model (i.e., impulse control and self-discipline). Metric invariance across languages and partial strong invariance across genders, ages, and clinical status were demonstrated. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the total scale were adequate, and validity was established based on its correlations with related constructs and confirming that males and young individuals are more likely to have lower self-control. Results support the use of the shortened BSCS version to assess self-control in Italian-speaking individuals.


Assuntos
Autocontrole , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Itália , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(4): 697-700, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of NBI assisted white light transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in the treatment of bladder urothelial carcinoma and to summarize the experience of narrow band imaging (NBI) operation. METHODS: Patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma were selected, and TURBT was performed after anesthesia. First of all, the bladder tumor was found and resected under white light. Then we replaced with NBI, looked for suspicious lesions and resected them, The specimens excised under white light and NBI were collected separately. The number, location and pathological results of the lesions under white light were recorded, and the residual lesions under NBI were also recorded. To evaluate the effect of NBI, the ratio of residual bladder tumor was calculated. The cases were divided into three groups according to the time sequence. The clinical data of each group were collected and the learning curve of TURBT under NBI assisted white light was observed. RESULTS: A prospective study of 45 patients with bladder tumor from April 2018 to January 2020, including 32 males and 13 females, aged from 23 to 89 years, with an average age of 65.2 years. All the operations were successfully completed, without obvious complications after operation. Nine cases were single and 36 cases were multiple. The maximum diameter of the tumors was 0.5 to 4.0 cm, with an average of 2.2 cm. The histopathology of the resected tissue under white light was urothelial carcinoma, and 19 cases (42.2%) were pathologically positive by NBI resection. The 45 cases were divided into three groups according to the time sequence, 15 cases in each group. The true positive rate of NBI was 33.3%, 46.7% and 46.7%, respectively, and the false positive rate was 60.0%, 46.7% and 26.7%, respectively in the three groups. CONCLUSION: TURBT is an effective way to treat bladder urothelial cancer, NBI is an effective supplement of white light, which can increase the detection rate of bladder cancer and reduce post-operative recurrence. The NBI light source has a certain learning curve. With the increase of cases, the false-positive rate of NBI is gradually reduced. After the NBI operator has rich experience, the recognition degree of flat tumor is gradually improved under white light, and the residual rate of NBI is reduced after the removal under white light.


Assuntos
Autocontrole , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cistoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Banda Estreita , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-regulation comprises a series of important competencies, such as the ability to control inner states or responses toward thoughts, attention, emotions, or even performance. The relationship between self-regulation and different healthy lifestyle behaviors among children has not been examined in depth to date. The aim of this study was to explore the association between physical activity, screen time levels, and/or Mediterranean Diet adherence and self-regulation in Chilean children. METHODS: A total of 1561 children aged 8-12 years from eight public schools with low socioeconomic status were included. Physical activity, screen time, Mediterranean Diet, and self-regulation were assessed with validated questionnaires. RESULTS: Children who were classified as active or those who reported less than 2 h per day of screen time had higher self-regulation than those who were classified as inactive or counterparts with 2 h per day or more of screen time, respectively. Using joint categories, active children both with low and high screen time showed higher self-regulation compared to inactive/high screen time peers. Additionally, active groups with adherence or non-adherence to the Mediterranean Diet had higher self-regulation compared to inactive and non-adherence peers. CONCLUSION: Having a greater number of healthy habits, mainly regular physical activity, was associated with higher self-regulation, which might be one potential strategy to promote child social-emotional development.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Autocontrole , Criança , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários
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