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1.
Estima (Online) ; 18(1): e0920, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1102131

RESUMO

Objetivos: Caracterizar a produção científica sobre a aplicação da teoria do autocuidado no âmbito das feridas. Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura com os artigos disponíveis na íntegra que evidenciem a temática. Foram utilizados os seguintes recursos informacionais: BVS, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed e SciELO. Foram elencados os seguintes descritores: Autocuidado, Teoria de enfermagem, Ferida e Úlcera, em suas versões em inglês e português. A amostra final constou de 10 publicações. Os dados foram coletados utilizando um instrumento validado. A avaliação e a síntese dos dados foram produzidas através de descrição e avaliações estatísticas simples. Resultados: Os estudos analisados foram desenvolvidos em quatro países, o idioma inglês predominou e as publicações tiveram início em 2004. A teoria foi aplicada na sistematização da assistência de enfermagem como estratégia de ensino para o autocuidado e como referencial teórico. Os artigos relacionaram a teoria com pé diabético, úlcera venosa, úlceras de perna/ membros inferiores (sem especificar o tipo), queimaduras e lesão por pressão. Conclusão: A teoria de Orem foi aplicada a uma diversidade de sujeitos e contextos, sua aplicabilidade no âmbito das feridas é algo concreto, independentemente do tipo de lesão.


Assuntos
Autocuidado , Ferimentos e Lesões , Teoria de Enfermagem , Úlcera da Perna
2.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(Sup10): S12-S16, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030379

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has led to considerable changes in how healthcare is delivered, as it has pushed people to think outside the box technologically. Mobile working is becoming more widespread, useful and valuable in this innovative period in the NHS. Point-of-care (POC) technology encompasses mobile devices and systems that support health professionals in their daily activities of patient care. It allows the user to safely assess and diagnose individuals at the point of care, providing actionable information to allow rapid clinical decision-making. POC technology also has the ability to support and educate patients with health needs, encouraging patients and their carers to assume greater more control of and responsibility over their health. Providing patients individual care plans to maintain their health will help realise the future of self-care. This article describe the development of a mobile app-Juzo Care-designed to enhance the management of chronic oedema and lymphoedema in mobile working settings.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Edema/enfermagem , Linfedema/enfermagem , Aplicativos Móveis , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Autocuidado , Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 48, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, people need to practice social distancing in order to protect themselves from SARS-CoV-2 infection. In such stressful situations, remote cardiac rehabilitation (CR) might be a viable alternative to the outpatient CR program. METHODS: We prospectively investigated patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) with a left ventricular ejection fraction of < 50%. As for patients who participated in the remote CR program, telephone support was provided by cardiologists and nurses who specialized in HF every 2 weeks after discharge. The emergency readmission rate within 30 days of discharge was compared among the outpatient CR, remote CR, and non-CR groups, and the EQ-5D score was compared between the outpatient CR and remote CR groups. RESULTS: The participation rate of HF patients in our remote CR program elevated during the COVID-19 pandemic. As observed in the outpatient CR group (n = 69), the emergency readmission rate within 30 days of discharge was lower in the remote CR group (n = 30) than in the non-CR group (n = 137) (P = 0.02). The EQ-5D score was higher in the remote CR group than in the outpatient CR group (P = 0.03) 30 days after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Remote CR is as effective as outpatient CR for improving the short-term prognosis of patients hospitalized for heart failure post-discharge. This suggests that the remote CR program can be provided as a good alternative to the outpatient CR program.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/reabilitação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autocuidado , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Telefone
4.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(3): 446-449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990602

RESUMO

The contributors to and consequences of disordered health are increasingly complex with sociodemographic, ecological, economic and food system change. But there are opportunities for any adversity to be mitigated by advances in the understanding of human, especially nutritional, ecobiology and in its more accessible and affordable evaluation and monitoring. Viral pandemics are on the rise with climate change and loss of ecosystems. They threaten human civilisation and planetary habitability. Human security is dependent on sustainable livelihoods of which food and water systems are a vital part. We are socioecological beings and depend for our health on biodiversity and the food diversity that ensures; and on connectedness and communication, made more difficult in pandemics. Rapid and accessible point-of-care (POC) tools are now becoming available to compliment other selfmonitoring network approaches, whether checklist or questionnaire, physical, chemical, or biological, for healthcare and nutritional health. They can provide information as several complimentary and interdependent health indices to facilitate personal, group and community action and management plans. This applies to indices of both communicable and non-communicable disease which problems separately and together are compromising health prospects. These indices include ones of physical and mental activities, dietary patterns, metabolites, blood pressure and now the presence and severity of viruses like Covid-19.Of imminent relevance and promise are optically- readable biosensor based strips for nasal, pharyngeal or salivary samples to check viral presence or finger prick blood for immunoglobulins and interleukins. These should allow less socially prohibitive measures to curb viral transmission and promote personal and societal wellbeing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado , Comportamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Pressão Sanguínea , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Exame Físico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Telemedicina
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19716, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people who experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) recover on their own. A small group of individuals develops psychological complaints, but this is often not detected in time or guidance to care is suboptimal. To identify these individuals and encourage them to seek help, a web-based self-help test called Mobile Insight in Risk, Resilience, and Online Referral (MIRROR) was developed. MIRROR takes an innovative approach since it integrates both negative and positive outcomes of PTEs and time since the event and provides direct feedback to the user. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess MIRROR's use, examine its psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity), and evaluate how well it classifies respondents into different outcome categories compared with reference measures. METHODS: MIRROR was embedded in the website of Victim Support Netherlands so visitors could use it. We compared MIRROR's outcomes to reference measures of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21), psychological resilience (Resilience Evaluation Scale), and positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum Short Form). RESULTS: In 6 months, 1112 respondents completed MIRROR, of whom 663 also completed the reference measures. Results showed good internal consistency (interitem correlations range .24 to .55, corrected item-total correlations range .30 to .54, and Cronbach alpha coefficient range .62 to .68), and convergent and divergent validity (Pearson correlations range -.259 to .665). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA+CFA) yielded a 2-factor model with good model fit (CFA model fit indices: χ219=107.8, P<.001, CFI=.965, TLI=.948, RMSEA=.065), conceptual meaning, and parsimony. MIRROR correctly classified respondents into different outcome categories compared with the reference measures. CONCLUSIONS: MIRROR is a valid and reliable self-help test to identify negative (PTSD complaints) and positive outcomes (psychosocial functioning and resilience) of PTEs. MIRROR is an easily accessible online tool that can help people who have experienced a PTE to timely identify psychological complaints and find appropriate support, a tool that might be highly needed in times like the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Aplicativos Móveis , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Resiliência Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
8.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3313, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Self-Care Confidence Scale in heart failure in the Brazilian version of the Self Care Heart Failure Index, version 6.2, using the Rasch model criteria. METHOD: secondary study, of psychometric analysis, using the Rasch model, of the six items of the scale. The sample consisted of 409 patients with heart failure undergoing outpatient treatment [mean age 57.9 (standard deviation = 11.6) years, 54.8% male]. RESULTS: of the total of six items, one ("De maneira geral, você está confiante sobre estar livre dos sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca?") presented maladjustment to the model (Infit = 1.84 and Outfit = 1.99). After the exclusion of this item, the others showed a good fit, composed one dimension and explained 55% of the variance in the data; the categories of response to the items were adequate, the values of separation and reliability of person were 2.13 and 0.82, respectively, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. Items of extreme difficulty were identified and there is no differential functioning of the items in relation to sex. CONCLUSION: with the exclusion of the first item, the Self-Care Confidence Scale showed good psychometric properties, with caution in interpreting the results of the six-item scale.


Assuntos
Autocuidado , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22425, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991477

RESUMO

Some scholars' studies have demonstrated that Pro-kin balance system training is able to promote the recovery of the balance function in stroke patients. The present study has expanded on those studies, and was not merely limited to studying balance, but also encompassed walking and self-care abilities of the patients; furthermore, the association among balance and walking and self-care abilities was also explored.A total of 40 stroke patients were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 20) and the treatment group (n = 20). Both groups underwent conventional balance training, although the treatment group also underwent visual feedback balance training with the Pro-kin system. The balance function was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Timed "Up & Go" (TUG) test, and Pro-kin system parameters. The Pro-kin system parameters included the perimeter and ellipse area, which were both tested once with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Walking ability was assessed using the Holden Walking Ability Scale, according to the Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC). The self-care abilities were assessed with the Barthel Index (BI). The tests were conducted prior to training, and 3 weeks after the end of the training programme.No significant differences were noted among the groups before the training. After 3 weeks of training, for both the groups, significant improvements in balance and the walking and self-care abilities were noted: The BBS value was significantly increased (P < .05), whereas the TUG, perimeter, and ellipse area with EO and EC measurements were significantly decreased after treatment (P < .05). The FAC and BI readings were significantly increased after treatment (P < 0.05), and the treatment group outperformed the control group (P < .05). Furthermore, the balance function was shown to be strongly correlated with the walking and self-care abilities (P < .01).The present study has demonstrated that the use of the Pro-kin visual feedback balance training system in combination with conventional training is a viable method for improving walking and self-care abilities of stroke patients.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial , Equilíbrio Postural , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado , Caminhada
10.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 107, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948188

RESUMO

Self-care interventions and remote care offer innovative and equitable ways to strengthen access to sexual and reproductive health services. Self-isolation during COVID-19 provided the opportunity for obstetric facilities and healthcare providers to integrate and increase the usage of interventions for self-care and remote care for pregnant women and to improve the quality of care overall.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Pandemias , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Gestantes , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Autocuidado
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1535-1539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The outbreak of the emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency. According to the findings, women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of this virus. Due to the need for quarantine and social distancing in the current disease situation and need to receive repeated medical care in GDM patients, this review study aimed to evaluate the self-care strategies for women with GDM during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: 25 related articles from 2011 to 2020 and 3 guidelines were reviewed with the keywords of gestational diabetes mellitus, diabetes, pregnancy and COVID-19 in combination with self-care and self-management in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley Online Library and SID. RESULTS: According to the results of the studies, face-to-face visits should be limited and instead, telemedicine services recommended. Self-care throughout telemedicine services were improved maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with GDM. CONCLUSION: Although self-care program through telemedicine services is beneficial for women with GDM, performing clinical trials are recommended to assess maternal and neonatal outcomes in this condition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Autocuidado , Infecções por Coronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gravidez , Telemedicina
12.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(6): 534-538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890254

RESUMO

Women face unprecedented challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging evidence suggests that women are unduly burdened by inequitable access to economic, health, and social resources during the pandemic. For many women, COVID-19 has presented new urgency to challenges and illuminates unique issues long encountered. Gendered roles such as family caregiving and frontline occupations increase women's exposure to COVID-19 infections and critical outcomes. To increase dialogue around COVID-19's impact on women, the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health convened a moderated virtual town hall on April 25, 2020, with 2 sexual and reproductive health experts. The town hall was the second in a series to increase public awareness of COVID-19's impact on vulnerable populations. This report highlights policy and practice implications that are particularly relevant for engaging key populations and delivering information to increase public awareness of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Alabama , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Autocuidado
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1054-1058, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970554

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development and deployment of a web-based, self-triage tool for severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19 disease) aimed at preventing surges in healthcare utilization could provide easily understandable health guidance with the goal of mitigating unnecessary emergency department (ED) and healthcare visits. We describe the iterative development and usability testing of such a tool. We hypothesized that adult users could understand and recall the recommendations provided by a COVID-19 web-based, self-triage tool. METHODS: We convened a multidisciplinary panel of medical experts at two academic medical schools in an iterative redesign process of a previously validated web-based, epidemic screening tool for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We then conducted a cross-sectional usability study over a 24-hour period among faculty, staff, and students at the two participating universities. Participants were randomly assigned a pre-written health script to enter into the self-triage website for testing. The primary outcome was immediate recall of website recommendations. Secondary outcomes included usability measures. We stratified outcomes by demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A final sample of 877 participants (mean age, 32 years [range, 19-84 years]; 65.3% female) was used in the analysis. We found that 79.4% of the participants accurately recalled the recommendations provided by the website. Almost all participants (96.9%) found the website easy to use and navigate. CONCLUSION: Adult users of a COVID-19 self-triage website, recruited from an academic setting, were able to successfully recall self-care instructions from the website and found it user-friendly. This website appears to be a feasible way to provide evidence-based health guidance to adult patients during a pandemic. Website guidance could be used to reduce unnecessary ED and healthcare visits.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autocuidado/métodos , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(4): 298-305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831341

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic can have important psychosocial consequences in the population. Objective: To determine the levels of anxiety, depression and self-care symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Method: Online survey distributed over three weeks using a non-probability sampling. The PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, the GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and Visual analog scale for self-care behaviors were used. Between-group (anxiety and depression) descriptive and comparison analyses were carried out. Results: Out of 1508 included participants, 20.8% had symptoms of severe anxiety, while 27.5% showed symptoms of severe depression. Being a woman, being single, having no children, having medical comorbidities and a history of mental health care were risk factors for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression; 66 to 80 % of the population complied with self-care recommendations. A need for receiving mental health care was identified in our study population. Conclusion: A larger number of individuals with moderate to severe anxiety and depression symptoms were observed than in other pandemics. COVID-19 pandemic psychological effects are considered an emerging public health problem, and implementation of programs for their care is therefore recommended.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1232, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a huge growing problem, and causes high and escalating costs to society. Self- care practice for adults with diabetes is not well addressed in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, diabetes treatment requires a commitment to demanding self-care practice. This study aimed to assess self- care practices and its associated factors among adults with diabetes in Dire Dawa public hospitals of Eastern, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 adults with diabetes. The study participants were selected through systematic random sampling. Data were collected from February 1st to March 1st, 2018. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.3.1 and exported to SPSS version 22.0 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression with crude and adjusted odds ratios along with the 95% confidence interval was computed and interpreted accordingly. Good self-care was defined based on mean calculation; a result above the mean value had a good self-care practice, and a P-value of < 0.05 was considered to declare a result as statistically significant. RESULT: The result of the study showed that 55.9%, (95% CI: 51.4, 60.3) of participants had good self-care practices. Good self-care practice was associated with having family support, treatment satisfaction, diabetes education, having glucometer, higher educational status, duration of the disease, high economic status, and having good knowledge. Self-care practice was significantly associated with good diabetes knowledge (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.35), family support system (AOR = 2.69, 95% CI:1.56, 4.62), treatment satisfaction (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI:1.18, 3.62), diabetes education (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.35, 3.63), high economic status (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.48), having glucometer,(AOR = 2.69, 95% CI:1.57, 4.63),higher educational status (AOR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.31, 5.49), and duration of disease greater than 10 years AOR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.17, 6.26). CONCLUSION: In this study, a large number of adults had poor self-care practices which are very significant in controlling diabetes. Providing diabetes education, about self-care practices to the respondents and their families should be considerable.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pflege ; 33(4): 237-245, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811328

RESUMO

Health behaviours and needs of people with COPD during COVID-19 pandemic: a document analysis Abstract. Background: The government's guidelines affected people with COPD on different levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to belonging to a group of particularly vulnerable persons, they had to adapt their health behaviours, in particular physical activity, to recommendations provided in order to prevent negative effects on disease progression. There is little knowledge regarding how this group of patients coped with these challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To describe the health behaviours and needs people with COPD convey during nursing phone consultations and which nursing interventions have been carried out. METHODS: A document analysis of 50 nursing phone consultations was performed. The data were summarised descriptively and analysed thematically. RESULTS: The main topics were the adaptation of physical activity, the implementation of the recommendations to the individual life situation, the detection of a COVID-19 infection and questions concerning the planning of medical appointments. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic poses additional challenges to the disease management of people with COPD. The increased need for care brought on by the pandemic was able to be met by the knowledge provided in the nursing phone consultations. What remains to be established is what role the consultations play in a sustainable change in behaviour and in dealing with negative emotions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enfermagem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1290, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviors and positive changes in lifestyle are essential for successful hypertension control. We used a behavioral model based on the theory of planned behavior to assess which factors influence self-care behaviors for controlling hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred patients with at leastaone-year history of diagnosed hypertension participated in this study. The data collection tool was designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the main parameters. RESULTS: For self-care behaviors, ninety-six (19.2%) and forty-five (9.1%) participants had good knowledge and acceptable behavior(≥8 out of 10 points). Having perceived behavioral control regarding quitting smoking and alcohol intake was associated with the patient's intention and behavior [b:1.283 ± .095 and b:1.59 ± .014 (p < .001)]. Having perceived behavioral control over the other self-care behaviors had a positive effect on the intention in female patients [b: .885 ± .442 (p = .045)]. Subjective norms had a positive effect on behavioral intention in younger patients [b:4.52 ± 2.24 (P = .04)]. CONCLUSIONS: Group-specific behavioral barriers are important when improving self-care behaviors in patients with hypertension. Perceived control over self-care behaviors is more important in vulnerable patients, such as the elderly and women.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Teoria Psicológica , Autocuidado/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Options to increase the ease of testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune response are needed. Self-collection of diagnostic specimens at home offers an avenue to allow people to test for SARS-CoV-2 infection or immune response without traveling to a clinic or laboratory. Before this study, survey respondents indicated willingness to self-collect specimens for COVID-related tests, but hypothetical willingness can differ from post-collection acceptability after participants collect specimens. METHODS: 153 US adults were enrolled in a study of the willingness and feasibility of patients to self-collect three diagnostic specimens (saliva, oropharyngeal swab (OPS) and dried blood spot (DBS) card) while observed by a clinician through a telehealth session. After the specimens were collected, 148 participants participated in a survey about the acceptability of the collection, packing and shipping process, and their confidence in the samples collected for COVID-related laboratory testing. RESULTS: A large majority of participants (>84%) reported that collecting, packing and shipping of saliva, OPS, and DBS specimens were acceptable. Nearly nine in 10 (87%) reported being confident or very confident that the specimens they collected were sufficient for laboratory analysis.There were no differences in acceptability for any specimen type, packing and shipping, or confidence in samples, by gender, age, race/ethnicity, or educational level. CONCLUSIONS: Self-collection of specimens for SARS-CoV-2 testing, and preparing and shipping specimens for analysis, were acceptable in a diverse group of US adults. Further refinement of materials and instructions to support self-collection of saliva, OPS and DBS specimens for COVID-related testing is needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Orofaringe/virologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Saliva/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
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