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1.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 30(4): 95-100, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between severe mental illness (SMI), general health symptoms, mental wellbeing, and different activity levels in patients with SMI. METHOD: Consecutive patients with SMI referred for occupational therapy were prospectively included. Their hours of activities per day during hospital stay were recorded as <1 hour, 1-3 hours, and >3 hours in three categories: basic self-care activities, interest-based activities, and role-specific activities. Patients were free to join or decline any activities. Patients' somatic and mental health were measured at admission, discharge, and 1 month after discharge using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chinese version of Short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (C-SWEMWBS), and Chinese version of General Activity Motivation Measure (GAMM). RESULTS: 84 patients (35 men and 49 women) aged 16 to 63 years were assessed at the three timepoints. The mean length of hospital stay of current admission was 74.73 days. The most common diagnosis was schizophrenia (n=35), followed by depression (n=15), psychosis (n=14), bipolar affective disorder (n=10), others (n=8), and delusional disorder (n=2). The hours of activities per day was <1 hour in 32 (38.1%) patients, 1-3 hours in 34 (40%) patients, and >3 hours in 18 (21.2%) patients. Improvement in somatic and mental health was positively associated with hours of activities per day. Activities were associated with reduced psychiatric symptoms (measured by BPRS) at discharge (Z = 5.978, p < 0.01). Activities were associated with less somatic complaints (measured by PHQ-15) [χ2 = 23.478, p < 0.01], better sleep quality (measured by PSQI) [χ2 = 14.762, p < 0.01]. The BPRS score for psychiatric symptoms at discharge was inversely associated with C-SWEMWBS score for mental wellbeing (r = -0.233, p = 0.033) and C-GAMM score for activity motivation (r = -0.258, p = 0.018). Basic self-care activities were a predictor for psychiatric symptoms (measured by BPRS) at discharge (adjusted R2 = 0.091, F = 8.496, p = 0.005), whereas a combined group of badminton and Tai Chi was a predictor for general activity motivation (measured by GAMM) at 1 month after discharge (adjusted R2 = 0.047, F = 4.697, p < 0.05), and soccer alone was a predictor for somatic health (measured by PHQ-15) at 1 month after discharge (adjusted R2 = 0.06, F = 5.784, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Participating in activities of patients' own choice and interests is positively associated with patients' psychiatric and somatic health and subjective wellbeing. Outdoor soccer has added effect on patients' somatic health. The beneficial effects are maintained at 1 month after discharge. Daily participation of activity meaningful to patients can be a non-pharmacological treatment for patients with SMI to improve somatic and mental health.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Passatempos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22924, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We developed a self-triage web application for COVID-19 symptoms, which was launched in France in March 2020, when French health authorities recommended all patients with suspected COVID-19 call an emergency phone number. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if a self-triage tool could reduce the burden on emergency call centers and help predict increasing burden on hospitals. METHODS: Users were asked questions about their underlying conditions, sociodemographic status, postal code, and main COVID-19 symptoms. Participants were advised to call an emergency call center if they reported dyspnea or complete loss of appetite for over 24 hours. Data on COVID-19-related calls were collected from 6 emergency call centers and data on COVID-19 hospitalizations were collected from Santé Publique France and the French Ministry of Health. We examined the change in the number of emergency calls before and after the launch of the web application. RESULTS: From March 17 to April 2, 2020, 735,419 questionnaires were registered in the study area. Of these, 121,370 (16.5%) led to a recommendation to call an emergency center. The peak number of overall questionnaires and of questionnaires leading to a recommendation to call an emergency center were observed on March 22, 2020. In the 17 days preceding the launch of the web application, emergency call centers in the study area registered 66,925 COVID-19-related calls and local hospitals admitted 639 patients for COVID-19; the ratio of emergency calls to hospitalizations for COVID-19 was 104.7 to 1. In the 17 days following the launch of the web application, there were 82,347 emergency calls and 6009 new hospitalizations for COVID-19, a ratio of 13.7 calls to 1 hospitalization (chi-square test: P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The self-triage web application launch was followed by a nearly 10-fold increase in COVID-19-related hospitalizations with only a 23% increase in emergency calls. The peak of questionnaire completions preceded the peak of COVID-19-related hospitalizations by 5 days. Although the design of this study does not allow us to conclude that the self-triage tool alone contributed to the alleviation of calls to the emergency call centers, it does suggest that it played a role, and may be used for predicting increasing burden on hospitals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04331171; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04331171.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Software , Telefone/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most research depicts older adults as needing personal care, with limited research on older adults' contributions in the lives of others in developing countries like Ghana. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal care provision and socio-demographic correlates of personal care provision by older adult inpatients in Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based survey was conducted among 400 consecutively surveyed older adult inpatients at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in southern Ghana. Stata 15 was used to analyse the data. The relationship between personal care and older adult inpatients' socio-demographic characteristics were analysed using the chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed. RESULTS: Overall, 28% of older adult inpatients provided personal care. Participants were mostly females, married or cohabiting, completed at most junior high school, Christians, urban residents, not working and living with their immediate family. Primarily, most participants provided personal care to one person, once a week, and one-hour duration. Nearly three-quarters of participants provided personal care to someone who lives with them. After adjustment, male older adults were 50% less likely to and urban residents were 83% more likely to provide personal care. Being single, separated or divorced was statistically significantly associated with personal care provision, however, were not statistically significant after adjusting for sex and residence. A post hoc analysis testing for interaction revealed no relationship existing between sex and marital status concerning personal care provision (p = 0.106). CONCLUSION: Female and urban resident older adult inpatients in Ghana are not just passive receivers of care but also provide personal care to others with functional difficulties, independent on age. It further draws attention to the need for policies and programs that can support older adults, particularly females and urban residents, to be productive in the later life.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Pacientes Internados , Autocuidado , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , População Rural , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e19665, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clear guidelines for a patient with suspected COVID-19 infection are unavailable. Many countries rely on assessments through a national hotline or telecommunications, but this only adds to the burden of an already overwhelmed health care system. In this study, we developed an algorithm and a web application to help patients get screened. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to aid the general public by developing a web-based application that helps patients decide when to seek medical care during a novel disease outbreak. METHODS: The algorithm was developed via consultations with 6 physicians who directly screened, diagnosed, and/or treated patients with COVID-19. The algorithm mainly focused on when to test a patient in order to allocate limited resources more efficiently. The application was designed to be mobile-friendly and deployed on the web. We collected the application usage pattern data from March 1 to March 27, 2020. We evaluated the association between the usage pattern and the numbers of COVID-19 confirmed, screened, and mortality cases by access location and digital literacy by age group. RESULTS: The algorithm used epidemiological factors, presence of fever, and other symptoms. In total, 83,460 users accessed the application 105,508 times. Despite the lack of advertisement, almost half of the users accessed the application from outside of Korea. Even though the digital literacy of the 60+ years age group is half of that of individuals in their 50s, the number of users in both groups was similar for our application. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an expert-opinion-based algorithm and web-based application for screening patients. This innovation can be helpful in circumstances where information on a novel disease is insufficient and may facilitate efficient medical resource allocation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(4): 298-305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831341

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic can have important psychosocial consequences in the population. Objective: To determine the levels of anxiety, depression and self-care symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Method: Online survey distributed over three weeks using a non-probability sampling. The PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, the GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and Visual analog scale for self-care behaviors were used. Between-group (anxiety and depression) descriptive and comparison analyses were carried out. Results: Out of 1508 included participants, 20.8% had symptoms of severe anxiety, while 27.5% showed symptoms of severe depression. Being a woman, being single, having no children, having medical comorbidities and a history of mental health care were risk factors for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression; 66 to 80 % of the population complied with self-care recommendations. A need for receiving mental health care was identified in our study population. Conclusion: A larger number of individuals with moderate to severe anxiety and depression symptoms were observed than in other pandemics. COVID-19 pandemic psychological effects are considered an emerging public health problem, and implementation of programs for their care is therefore recommended.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As marijuana use becomes more common, it is essential clinicians understand the relationship between marijuana use and health behaviors. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort of adolescents and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) stratified into a young (<25 years) and older cohort (> = 25 years), we conducted multiple linear regression examining relationship of marijuana use (independent variable) on each dependent variable (SCD self-management score and pain management). RESULTS: Among young cohort, 16.9% used marijuana compared to 21.8% of older cohort. The younger cohort reporting marijuana use had lower mean self-care scores (ß = -2.74;p = 0.009) and were more likely to have admissions to the hospital for pain (ß = 0.87;p = 0.047) compared to non-users. In contrast, the older cohort reporting marijuana use had more days treating pain at home (ß = 0.44;p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Only a minority of patients with SCD reported lifetime marijuana use. Among those reporting marijuana use, there were different associations with self-care and health-related behaviors by age. The older cohort who endorsed marijuana use reported more days of treating pain at home, although this did not translate into increased acute care visits for pain crisis. Among youth, endorsing marijuana use was associated with worse SCD self-care.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e207961, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543700

RESUMO

Importance: Although leadership behavior of physician supervisors is associated with the occupational well-being of the physicians they supervise, the factors associated with leadership behaviors are poorly understood. Objective: To evaluate the associations between burnout, professional fulfillment, and self-care practices of physician leaders and their independently assessed leadership behavior scores. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study of physicians and physician leaders at Stanford University School of Medicine (n = 1924) was conducted from April 1 to May 13, 2019. The survey included assessments of professional fulfillment, self-valuation, sleep-related impairment, and burnout. Physicians also rated the leadership behaviors of their immediate physician supervisors using a standardized assessment. Leaders' personal well-being metrics were paired with their leadership behavior scores as rated by the physicians they supervised. All assessment scores were converted to a standardized scale (range, 0-10). Data were analyzed from October 20, 2019, to March 10, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between leaders' own well-being scores and their independently assessed leadership behavior. Results: Of 1924 physicians invited to participate, 1285 (66.8%) returned surveys, including 67 of 117 physician leaders (57.3%). Among these respondents, 651 (50.7%) were women and 729 (56.7%) were 40 years or older. Among the 67 leaders, 57 (85.1%) had their leadership behaviors evaluated by at least 5 physicians (median, 11 [interquartile range, 9-15]) they supervised. Overall, 9.8% of the variation in leaders' aggregate leadership behavior scores was associated with their own degree of burnout. In models adjusted for age and sex, each 1-point increase in burnout score of the leaders was associated with a 0.19-point decrement in leadership behavior score (ß = -0.19; 95% CI, -0.35 to -0.03; P = .02), whereas each 1-point increase in their professional fulfillment and self-valuation scores was associated with a 0.13-point (ß = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.01-0.26; P = .03) and 0.15-point (ß = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-0.29; P = .03) increase in leadership behavior score, respectively. Each 1-point increase in leaders' sleep-related impairment was associated with a 0.15-point increment in sleep-related impairment among those they supervised (ß = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-0.29; P = .03). The associations between leaders' well-being scores in other dimensions and the corresponding well-being measures of those they supervised were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, burnout, professional fulfillment, and self-care practices of physician leaders were associated with their independently assessed leadership effectiveness. Training, skill building, and support to improve leader well-being should be considered a dimension of leadership development rather than simply a dimension of self-care.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Liderança , Médicos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(7): 613-618, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366180

RESUMO

The sexual health services in the Birmingham and Solihull area of the United Kingdom, called Umbrella, has been offering home-based testing for sexually transmitted infections to patients since August 2015. The aim of this service evaluation was to evaluate the uptake, return rate and new diagnosis rates of home-based testing in comparison with clinic-based testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis (STS) and hepatitis B. Home-based testing, although popular, had low uptake amongst high-risk groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), compared to the clinic-based group (1% versus 11%, p < 0.001). This resulted in low positivity rates for HIV (0.02%) and STS (0.17%) and no new cases of hepatitis B in the home-based group. Therefore, our results show that home-based testing is not a cost-effective method of testing for HIV and likely this is also the case for hepatitis B and STS. Our recommendation would be to encourage uptake of home-based testing in high-risk groups such as MSM and Black Africans to improve the diagnosis rates of HIV, STS and hepatitis B. Alternatively, the continuation of home-based blood testing in the Birmingham and Solihull area will need to be reviewed by Umbrella as a cost-saving strategy for the service in the future.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hepatite B/psicologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sífilis/psicologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Treponema pallidum , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 779, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many southern African countries are nearing the global goal of diagnosing 90% of people with HIV by 2020. In 2016, 84 and 86% of people with HIV knew their status in Malawi and Zimbabwe, respectively. However, gaps remain, particularly among men. We investigated awareness and use of, and willingness to self-test for HIV and explored sociodemographic associations before large-scale implementation. METHODS: We pooled responses from two of the first cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys to include HIV self-testing (HIVST) questions in Malawi and Zimbabwe in 2015-16. We investigated sociodemographic factors and sexual risk behaviours associated with previously testing for HIV, and past use, awareness of, and future willingness to self-test using univariable and multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the sample design and limiting analysis to participants with a completed questionnaire and valid HIV test result. We restricted analysis of willingness to self-test to Zimbabwean men, as women and Malawians were not systematically asked this question. RESULTS: Of 31,385 individuals, 31.2% of men had never tested compared with 16.5% of women (p < 0.001). For men, the likelihood of having ever tested increased with age. Past use and awareness of HIVST was very low, 1.2 and 12.6%, respectively. Awareness was lower among women than men (9.1% vs 15.3%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-1.75), and at younger ages, and lower education and literacy levels. Willingness to self-test among Zimbabwean men was high (84.5%), with greater willingness associated with having previously tested for HIV, being at high sexual risk (highest willingness [aOR = 3.74; 95%CI: 1.39-10.03, p < 0.009]), and being ≥25 years old. Wealthier men had greater awareness of HIVST than poorer men (p < 0.001). The highest willingness to self-test (aOR = 3.74; 95%CI: 1.39-10.03, p < 0.009) was among men at high HIV-related sexual risk. CONCLUSIONS: In 2015-16, many Malawian and Zimbabwean men had never tested for HIV. Despite low awareness and minimal HIVST experience, willingness to self-test was high among Zimbabwean men, especially older men with moderate-to-high HIV-related sexual risk. These data provide a valuable baseline against which to investigate population-level uptake of HIVST as programmes scale up. Programmes introducing, or planning to introduce, HIVST should consider including relevant questions in population-based surveys.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
10.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 34(4): 199-209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404723

RESUMO

One of the most critical disorders among patients with colorectal cancer is a change in their body image. This study aimed to examine the effect of a self-care program based on the modeling and role-modeling theory on nurturing body image of patients with colorectal cancer. In 2018, a 2-group randomized clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad, Iran. According to the modeling and role-modeling theory, 27 patients allocated in the experimental group received five 30- to 45-minute sessions at the hospital and 4 sessions of phone counseling within 2 weeks. Twenty-seven patients randomly allocated in the control group received the routine care. Data were collected by demographic and body image scales 3 times with the patients. The mean age of the patients in experimental and control groups was not significantly different (P = .46). The mean scores of the body image at the admission time were 26.8 ± 2.6 in the experimental and 27.9 ± 3.1 in control groups (P = .12). However, the mean scores of body image of the experimental group were 24.3 ± 4.6 at the discharge time and 28.1 ± 2.1 during the follow-up phase. In the control group, the body image scores were 21.0 ± 5.6 at discharge time and 22.9 ± 6.1 during the follow-up phase. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the 2 groups (P ≤ .001). Application of the self-care program based on the modeling and role-modeling theory can play a critical role in nurturing the body image of patients with colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has recommended HIV self-testing (HIVST) as an alternative testing strategy given the limitations of facility-based testing. While the benefits of HIV self-testing have been demonstrated at the individual level among men who have sex with men (MSM), limited data exist on if this testing approach can be effectively diffused through individuals' social or sexual networks. The objectives of this study were to examine patterns and correlates of HIVST distribution within Chinese MSM's sexual networks. METHODS: Data used for this analysis was a part of the process evaluation of an HIVST intervention trial among MSM in Nanjing, China. Between May and October 2017, we enrolled 400 men into the trial. Participants assigned to the intervention group (N = 200) were given three HIVST kits at baseline and could request more during the follow-up periods. We incorporated measures for process evaluation in the self-administered online follow-up surveys. This analysis reported findings from the three-month follow-up survey in the intervention group. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe characteristics of participants who distributed kits to their sexual partners as well as patterns of distribution. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify independent correlates of participants who distributed the kits. RESULTS: Of the 177 participants retained (88.5%) at the three-month follow-up, 72 (40.7%) distributed one or more kits to either primary or casual partners. About half of distributors (51.4%) gave one HIVST kit to their sexual partners while 15.3% distributed 3 or more. Over half gave these kits (58.3%) to primary sexual partners while 27.8% reported giving the kits to both primary and casual partners. About half (54.2%) of distributors used the kits together with their partners. Compared to participants who had an HIV test in the past six months, those who tested over six months ago or never tested had significantly lower odds of distributing the kits (AOR = 0.484, 95% CI: 0.250-0.983, p = 0.032). Compared to those who had not used the kits themselves, participants who did had significantly higher odds of distributing the kits (AOR = 3.345, 95% CI: 1.488-7.517, p = 0.003). Participants who reported higher HIV testing efficacy had 2.051 fold greater odds (95% CI: 1.062-3.961, p = 0.033) of distributing the kits compared to those who had lower efficacy. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that a sexual network-based approach to distributing HIVST among Chinese MSM is feasible and can be a promising strategy to improve the effectiveness of HIVST programs including its reach to untested men. Such approach should be complimented by intervention components that enhance HIV testing efficacy and improve experiences of HIVST.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 83, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease, leading to many complications and substantial decrease in patients' Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). HRQoL among diabetic patients could affect by concurrent various factors. Therefore, analysis of these concomitant factors using generalized structural equation model (GSEM) that takes account the complex network of relationship could be a more utilitarian approach to better understand factor affecting HRQoL. The present study aimed to assesses the level of HRQoL and its associated factors among adults with and without diabetes. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March 13 to April 4, 2019 in Adama Hospital and Medical College and Adama city Kebele 2, 4 and 5, East Shewa Ethiopia. Data related to socio-demographics, behavioral, clinical factors and HRQoL were collected from 359 adults with diabetes & 415 adults without diabetes through face to face interviews. Data was entered to Epi-data 3.1 then it was exported to STATA 14 for further analysis. GSEM was employed to verify relationships and association among exogenous, mediating and endogenous variable concurrently. RESULTS: Diabetic groups had a significant lower mean score in all domains of HRQoL than non- diabetic group (p-value< 0.0001). Depression had a direct negative effect on all domains of HRQoL in both groups. Fasting blood sugar also had a direct negative effect on all domains of HRQoL except social relation. Diabetes mellitus complication had a direct negative effect on both physical and psychological health. Low Medication adherence and poor diabetic self-care activity had a negative direct, indirect and total effect on physical and environmental health through fasting blood sugar. CONCLUSION: Diabetic patients had lower HRQoL in all the domains of quality of life. Socio-demographic factor (Age, residence and marital status), clinical factor (Depression & Diabetes mellitus complication) and behavioral factor (diabetic self-care activity and medication adherence) mediated by fasting blood sugar were factor associated HRQoL among the diabetic group. Thus, we recommend that integration of screening for depression and give counseling on medication adherences and diabetic self-care activity along with the already existing DM treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado/psicologia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(2): 72-81, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193274

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de autocuidados en la población con diabetes y determinar el riesgo de padecer lesiones de pie diabético mediante el uso de 3 sistemas de estratificación, así como establecer el grado de concordancia entre estos sistemas. Método: Estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo realizado en la Zona básica de salud de Santa Brígida (Gran Canaria, Islas Canarias, España) en personas diagnosticadas de diabetes (DM tipo 1/DM tipo 2) (n = 182). Se realizaron entrevista, exploración física, revisión de la historia clínica y cumplimentación del cuestionario Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga. Tras ello se calculó la estratificación del riesgo con 3 sistemas (sistema del National Institute for Health Care Excellence, clasificación del International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot y High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© 2012). Se calculó el índice kappa para estudiar la concordancia entre sistemas, se estimaron el riesgo relativo de screening negativo de un método frente a otro y el test exacto de Fisher para establecer si existían diferencias. Resultados: Un 30,2% de los diabéticos tenían un nivel bajo de autocuidados, un 45,1% un nivel medio y un 24,7% nivel alto. Los niveles de riesgo calculados fueron: fueron clasificación National Institute for Health Care Excellence (riesgo negativo 71,4%; riesgo positivo 28,6%), clasificación del International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (riesgo negativo 67,0%; riesgo positivo 33,0%) y High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© (riesgo negativo 62,6%; riesgo positivo 37,4%). Conclusiones: Los 3 sistemas poseen una buena concordancia entre sí. El High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© solo distingue 2 niveles de riesgo pero detecta mayor porcentaje de personas en situación de riesgo. El cuestionario Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga puede ser útil en el contexto de Atención Primaria para evaluar el nivel de autocuidados de las personas con diabetes


Objective: To assess the level of self-care in the population with diabetes and determine the risk of diabetic foot lesions through the use of 3 stratification systems as well as to establish the degree of concordance between these systems. Method: Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out in the Basic Health Area of Santa Brígida (Gran Canaria-Canary Islands-Spain) in people diagnosed with diabetes (DM Type 1/DM Type 2) (n = 182). Interview, physical examination, review of clinical history and completion of the Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga were carried out. The risk stratification was then calculated using 3systems (System of the National Institute for Health Care Excellence, Classification of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool©-2012). The Kappa index was calculated to study the concordance between systems, the relative risk of negative screening of one method against another was estimated and the exact Fisher test to establish whether there were differences. Results: 30.2% of diabetics had a low level of self-care, 45.1% a medium level and 24.7% a high level. The risk levels calculated were: National Institute for Health Care Excellence Classification (Negative Risk 71.4%-Positive Risk 28.6%), International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot Classification (Negative Risk 67.0%-Positive Risk 33.0%) and High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© (Negative Risk 62.6%-Positive Risk 37.4%). Conclusions: All 3 systems have good concordance with each other. The High-Risk Diabetic Foot-60-Second Tool© only distinguishes 2 levels of risk but detects a higher percentage of people at risk. The Diabetic Foot Self-Care questionnaire of the University of Malaga may be useful in the context of Primary Care to assess the level of self-care of people with diabetes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Pé Diabético/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Transversais
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 309, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasingly become a serious global public health concern in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. It imposes significant burden of care on the individual, health care professionals and health system. As the result, immense need of self-care behaviors in multiple domains like food choices, physical activity, foot care, and blood glucose monitoring is required. However, there is no national study on diabetic self-care practices in Ethiopia. This meta-analysis, therefore, aims to estimate the pooled level of self-care practice among individuals living with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia. METHODS: The systematic review was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. We systematically searched the databases: PubMed /MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Science Direct for studies conducted in Ethiopia about self-care practice of diabetes patients. We have included all cross-sectional studies, which were published until August 20th,2019. Data were analyzed using STATA™ version 14.1 software, and the pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented using tables and forest plots. The presence of statistical heterogeneity within the included studies was evaluated using I-squared statistic. We used Higgins and Egger's test to identify evidence of publication bias. The random-effects meta-analysis model was employed to estimate the pooled proportion of good diabetic self-care practices. RESULTS: We included 35 studies (with 11,103 participants) in this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of good diabetes self-care behavior among diabetic patients was 49% (95% CI:43, 56%). When categorized by the major domains of diabetes self-care, the pooled estimate of dietary practice was 50% (95% CI:42, 58%), for self- monitoring of blood glucose was 28% (95% CI:19, 37%), for recommended physical activity was 49% (95% CI:38, 59%), and for diabetic foot-care was 58% (95% CI: 41, 74%). CONCLUSION: More than half of diabetic patients in Ethiopia had poor diabetes self-care practice. High percentage of diabetic patients also had poor dietary practice, self- monitoring of blood glucose, physical activity, and diabetic foot care. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on improving the knowledge level of diabetic patients to improve the self-care practice of diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Humanos
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 32, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-treatment is a common and widespread behaviour, of which the risks are multiplied in old age. However, the determinants of self-treatment among elders in rural China remain unclear. This study aims to explore the prevalence and associated factors of self-treatment among elders in rural China, trying to discover the vulnerable groups as well as the service gaps among the rural elders. METHODS: Based on a multi-stage stratified random sampling method, a cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 30 villages in Sinan County, an impoverished county in western China. Data were collected through a household-individual combined questionnaires. The analysis was restricted to elders who reported illness within the last 2 weeks, and the final sample size was 330 (individuals). Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed in the whole sample group and four subgroups to obtain the prevalence ratios regarding the associated factors. RESULTS: In the present study, 35.2% of the elders with illness within the last 2 weeks reported self-treatment. The variables associated with self-treatment in the whole sample group were health status (OR 6.75, 95%CI 1.93-23.60), recent alcohol consumption (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.21-0.83) and the utilisation of family practice services (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.36-0.96); the same predictors were found in the subgroup of elders with chronic diseases. No significant predictors were found in the subgroup of elders without chronic diseases. Empty-nest elders with higher affinity to traditional Chinese medicine (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.18-0.86) or drinking alcohol recently (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.09-0.82) were less likely to self-treat, while the non-empty-nest elders who were no less than 75 years old (OR 3.10, 95%CI 1.33, 7.22) or at better health status (OR 9.20, 95%CI 1.73-48.75) were more likely to self-treat. CONCLUSION: Self-treatment was prevalent among the elders in rural China. Better health status, no recent alcohol consumption and no utilisation of family practice are associated with self-treatment among rural elders. Older elders in the non-empty nest group were more likely to self-treat, while the empty-nest elders with self-care habits in traditional Chinese medicine were less likely to self-treat. Deeper understanding of the self-treatment behaviour among rural elders may provide insights for identifying the potential service gaps and developing improvement strategies in the health care delivery system for the elderly in China.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Nível de Saúde , População Rural , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Família , Características da Família , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 27, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart Failure (HF) results in an immense impact on the patients' Health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Heart failure patients HRQOL is dependent on the patients' level of engagement in self-care behaviors. Therefore this study aimed to determine HF patients' health-related quality of life and its relationship with self-care behaviors. METHODS: An institutional-based study was conducted on 284 heart failure patients at the University of Gondar referral hospital. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire-based interview. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Both descriptive and analytical statistical tests were utilized. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between HRQOL and different independent variables. Variables with a p-value< 0.05 were considered as a significant predictor of the outcome variable. RESULTS: The finding of this study showed that more than sixty-six percent of the study population were females. The overall mean score of HF patients' quality of life was 46.4 ± 22.4 and the physical and emotional subscale mean score was 20.2 ± 9.8 and 10.5 ± 6.8 respectively. The majority of the study participants 147(51.8%) had poor quality of life. The multinomial logistic regression analysis result showed that rural residence (odds ratio 2.41, 95% CI, 1.23 to 4.71) and inadequate level of self-care practice (odds ratio 2.61, 95% CI, 1.43 to 4.78) were independent predictors of poor HRQOL. The correlation analysis also showed that there was a significant negative relationship between HF patients' HRQOL score and Self-care practice score (r = - 0.127, P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Overall, the majority of HF patients had poor HRQOL. Heart failure patients' HRQOL was significantly associated with place of residence and patients' level of self-care practice. Therefore, patients with HF are required to learn the benefit of self-care behaviors to improve their quality of life and to decrease the disease progression. Furthermore, HF patients who come from rural areas need special emphasis in each follow-up evaluation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Autocuidado/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eRW4686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of pharmaceutical care-based interventions on type 2 diabetes mellitus . METHODS: PubMed®, Cochrane and Web of Science data bases were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials. Studies evaluating pharmaceutical care-based interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus published between 2012 and 2017 were included. Glycated hemoglobin was defined as the primary endpoint; blood pressure, triglycerides and cholesterol as secondary endpoints. The random effects model was used in meta-analysis. RESULTS: Fifteen trials involving 2,325 participants were included. Meta-analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity (I2>97%; p<0.001), reduction in glycated hemoglobin (-1.07%; 95%CI: -1.32; -0.83; p<0.001), glucose (-29.91mg/dL; 95%CI: -43.2; -16.6; p<0.001), triglyceride (19.8mg/dL; 95%CI: -36.6; -3.04; p=0.021), systolic blood pressure (-4.65mmHg; 95%CI: -8.9; -0.4; p=0.032) levels, and increased HDL levels (4.43mg/dL; 95%CI: 0.16; 8.70; p=0.042). CONCLUSION: Pharmaceutical care-based clincal and education interventions have significant impact on type 2 diabetes mellitus . The tools Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale may be useful to monitor patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(6): 651-659, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909434

RESUMO

AIMS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are advised to undertake diabetes self-care behavior (DSCB) in order to avoid complications of T2DM. However, comorbidities, such as insomnia symptoms which are commonly reported in people with T2DM, may limit the ability to engage in DSCB. Insomnia and the common sequelae accompanying insomnia such as pain, depression, and anxiety may negatively influence the performance of DSCB. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the DSCB of people with T2DM with and without insomnia symptoms. METHODS: Sixty participants with T2DM were divided into two groups based on the presence of insomnia symptoms: T2DM-only group and T2DM+ insomnia group. Insomnia symptoms were identified using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). DSCB was assessed using the Diabetic Care Profile (DCP). A standardized composite score was established to account for all of the DCP domains. Chi-square and independent sample t tests were used to assess between-group differences in categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Stepwise linear regression analysis used the ISI score to predict standardized DCP composite score, while controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Significant between-group differences were found in age, symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. The total DCP composite score was significantly lower in the T2DM+ insomnia group compared to the T2DM-only group (- 0.30 ± 0.46 vs. 0.36 ± 0.48, respectively, p < 0.001) with large effect size (g = 1.40). Stepwise linear regression results showed that a 1-point increase in ISI score significantly predicted a .03-point decrease in standardized DCP composite score, after controlling for age, symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety (ß = - 0.03, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that people with T2DM and insomnia symptoms had worse scores on the majority of the DSCB domains and a worse DCP composite score compared to people with T2DM only. The data suggest a negative association between insomnia severity and DSCB among people with T2DM. Further research using a larger sample size and more rigorous research design is required to examine the causal relationship between insomnia symptoms and DSCB.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Autocuidado , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações
20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e254-e263, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative solutions are required to provide mental health support at scale in low-resource humanitarian contexts. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a facilitator-guided, group-based, self-help intervention (Self-Help Plus) to reduce psychological distress in female refugees. METHODS: We did a cluster randomised trial in rural refugee settlements in northern Uganda. Participants were female South Sudanese refugees with at least moderate levels of psychological distress (cutoff ≥5 on the Kessler 6). The intervention comprised access to usual care and five 2-h audio-recorded stress-management workshops (20-30 refugees) led by briefly trained lay facilitators, accompanied by an illustrated self-help book. Villages were randomly assigned to either intervention (Self-Help Plus or enhanced usual care) on a 1:1 basis. Within 14 villages, randomly selected households were approached. Screening of women in households continued until 20-30 eligible participants were identified per site. The primary outcome was individual psychological distress, assessed using the Kessler 6 symptom checklist 1 week before, 1 week after, and 3 months after intervention, in the intention-to-treat population. All outcomes were measured at the individual (rather than cluster) level. Secondary outcomes included personally identified problems, post-traumatic stress, depression symptoms, feelings of anger, social interactions with other ethnic groups, functional impairment, and subjective wellbeing. Assessors were masked to allocation. This trial was prospectively registered at ISRCTN, number 50148022. FINDINGS: Of 694 eligible participants (331 Self-Help Plus, 363 enhanced usual care), 613 (88%) completed all assessments. Compared with controls, we found stronger improvements for Self-Help Plus on psychological distress 3 months post intervention (ß -1·20, 95% CI -2·33 to -0·08; p=0·04; d -0·26). We also found larger improvements for Self-Help Plus 3 months post-intervention for five of eight secondary outcomes (effect size range -0·30 to -0·36). Refugees with different trauma exposure, length of time in settlements, and initial psychological distress benefited similarly. With regard to safety considerations, the independent data safety management board responded to six adverse events, and none were evaluated to be concerns in response to the intervention. INTERPRETATION: Self-Help Plus is an innovative, facilitator-guided, group-based self-help intervention that can be rapidly deployed to large numbers of participants, and resulted in meaningful reductions in psychological distress at 3 months among South Sudanese female refugees. FUNDING: Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) Programme.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Refugiados/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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