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1.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 35(2): 189-194, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout rates among nurses have detrimental impact on job satisfaction, teamwork, and patient care. This costs millions of dollars in the healthcare system and challenges nurse leaders to address in order to keep up with the healthcare demands. Furthermore, burnout is especially relevant in our current healthcare climate, as frontline nurses have increased workload and multiple psychosocial stressors during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic (Sultana, Sharma, Hossain, Bhattacharya, & Purohit, 2019). Literature also suggests that mindful self-care practices need to be reinforced in order to impact burnout long term (Chamorro-Premuzic & Lusk, 2017). Project7 Mindfulness Pledge© is an accessible and voluntary mindfulness tool that nurses can utilize in their individual practice to reduce burnout and does not require significant time commitment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of intentional self-care practices on nurse burnout and workplace environment by measuring job satisfaction and teamwork among nurses. METHODS: Comparisons between inpatient units on data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) with the Practice Environment Scale (PES), specifically on job enjoyment and teamwork, were done utilizing ANOVA. RESULTS: Results show that nurses in an inpatient unit that implemented Project7 has significantly higher job satisfaction as compared to units that did not implement Project7. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that this tool provides an effective and accessible mindfulness framework managers and directors can utilize to improve job satisfaction, teamwork, and thereby reduce burnout to create healthier work environments.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Atenção Plena/métodos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado/psicologia , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Local de Trabalho
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24554, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655921

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The relationships among the self-efficacy, social support and self-care behavior in the elderly patients with chronic pain has not been reported. Therefore, we explored the relationships among self-efficacy, social support and self-care behavior in the elderly patients with chronic pain.General data questionnaire, self-efficacy scale, social support scale and self-care behavior scale were performed in 1032 elderly patients with chronic pain from Shenyang city between February and December 2017. The relationships among self-efficacy, social support and self-care behavior, and self-efficacy as a mediator between the social support and self-care behavior were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and Bootstrap method.In these elderly patients with chronic pain, the total scores of the self-efficacy, social support and self-care behavior were 35.59 ±â€Š12.38, 65.64 ±â€Š19.68 and 50.52 ±â€Š15.26, respectively. The self-efficacy was positively correlated with the self-care behavior (r = 0.414, P < .001), the self-efficacy was positively correlated with the social support (r = 0.293, P < .001) and the social support was positively correlated with the self-care behavior (r = 0.322, P < .001). The mediating effect of self-efficacy was 0.121 which accounted for 27.31% of the total effects.The self-efficacy plays a mediating effect between social support and self-care behavior in the elderly patients with chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Idoso , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(1): 30-48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550956

RESUMO

For social work practitioners in healthcare settings, self-care can be an integral tool to assuaging stressors associated with COVID-19. However, research that examines the impact of public health crises, such as COVID-19, is nominal, at best. This exploratory study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the self-care practices of self-identified healthcare social workers (N = 2,460) in one southeastern state. Primary data were collected via an electronic survey and assessed via a retrospective pre/post design. Analyses compared practices before and after COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. Overall, data suggest that participants experienced significant pre/post decreases in self-care practices across multiple domains. As well, findings indicate that participants who identified as married, financially stable, and working non-remotely, and in good physical/mental health engaged in significantly more self-care practices than other participants, at post. This study underscores the need to foster supportive professional cultures that include developing self-care practice skills, particularly during large-scale crisis, such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a context where there is no treatment for the current COVID-19 virus, the combination of self-care behaviours together with confinement, are strategies to decrease the risk of contagion and remain healthy. However, there are no self-care measures to screen self-care activities in general population and which, could be briefly in a lockdown situation. This research aims to build and validate a psychometric tool to screen self-care activities in general population. METHODS: Firstly, an exploratory factor analysis was performed in a sample of 226 participants to discover the underlying factorial structure and to reduce the number of items in the original tool into a significant pool of items related to self-care. Later a confirmatory factor analyses were performed in a new sample of 261 participants to test for the fit and goodness of factor solutions. Internal validity, reliability, and convergent validity between its score with perceived stress and psychological well-being measures were examined on this sample. RESULTS: The exploratory analyses suggested a four-factor solution, corresponding to health consciousness, nutrition and physical activity, sleep, and intra-personal and inter-personal coping skills (14 items). Then, the four-factor structure was confirmed as the best model fit for self-care activities. The tool demonstrated good reliability, predictive validity of individuals' perception of coping with COVID-19 lockdown, and convergent validity with well-being and perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: This screening tool could be helpful to address future evaluations and interventions to promote healthy behaviours. Likewise, this tool can be targeted to specific population self-care's needs during a scalable situation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autocuidado/normas
5.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 319-324, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390411

RESUMO

Maintaining good oral health is important because oral diseases are related to systemic diseases, and community pharmacies play a key role in maintaining the health of local residents. This study aimed to examine the effects of oral health check-ups and information provision at community pharmacies on oral health-associated behaviors as well as patient satisfaction. We conducted oral health check-ups and provided information about oral health self-care to 84 patients at a community pharmacy, and then asked them to complete a questionnaire survey. One month later, we sent them a follow-up questionnaire and received responses from 66.7% (56/84) of the participants. The large majority were satisfied with the salivary test (95.2%) and the information (96.4%) we provided. Most of the participants (89.3%) indicated that they wanted to use the oral health check-up service again in the future. Compared with baseline, the ratio of participants restricting their intake of sugar-rich foods and drinks significantly increased 1 month later (p = 0.021). About 60% of those who had not undergone a regular dental examination at baseline reported newly visiting or planning to visit a dental clinic. The results revealed high satisfaction with the oral health check-up and information about oral self-care they received at the community pharmacy. The results suggested that oral health check-ups had the potential to change both oral self-care habits and dental consultation behavior. Our findings indicate that community pharmacies can contribute to the maintenance and promotion of oral health by providing oral health check-ups to local residents.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 93-98, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Uncontrolled diabetes has emerged as one of the major risk factors for mortality in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Physical inactivity, alterations in dietary habits, and inability to seek guidance from the physician are some of the contributing factors. This study aims to assess the self-care practices and psychological distress during the pandemic among diabetic patients visiting the institute's out patient department. METHOD: A convenient sampling method was used to recruit subjects from a representative clinical sample using validated scales like the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). RESULT: The study enrolled a total of 108 subjects with the mean age being 56.3 years. The everyday healthy eating plan was followed by 76.85% (N = 83) subjects and daily physical activity for at least 30 min performed by 50% (54) subjects. Only 12.04% (13) subjects tested their blood sugar and 6.48% (7) respondents checked their feet daily. There was no significant difference found between the SDSCA and psychological distress based on socio-demographic variables. CONCLUSION: Participants in this study typically reported a good level of self-care behavior particularly for diet followed by exercise whereas the self-care behavior was not adequate for foot care and blood-glucose testing. People were not too anxious about COVID-19. This study highlighted the fact that people with diabetes should monitor their blood sugar levels more often along with their foot care.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Angústia Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , /psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/prevenção & controle , Pé Diabético/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado/psicologia
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e930340, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323916

RESUMO

Alterations in complex behavioral patterns during the extended period of the COVID-19 pandemic are predicted to promote a variety of psychiatric disease symptoms due to enforced social isolation and self-quarantine. Accordingly, multifaceted mental health problems will continue to increase, thereby creating a challenge for society and the health care system in general. Recent studies show that COVID-19 can directly or indirectly influence the central nervous system, potentially causing neurological pathologies such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Thus, chronic COVID-19-related disease processes have the potential to cause serious mental illnesses, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Importantly, mental health problems can foster systemic changes in functionally-linked neuroendocrine conditions that heighten a person's susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. These altered defense mechanisms may include compromised "self-control" and "self-care", as well as a "lack of insight" into the danger posed by the virus. These consequences may have serious social impacts on the future of COVID-19 survivors. Compounding the functionally related issues of altered mental health parameters and viral susceptibility are the potential effects of compromised immunity on the establishment of functional herd immunity. Within this context, mental health takes on added importance, particularly in terms of the need to increase support for mental health research and community-based initiatives. Thus, COVID-19 infections continue to reveal mental health targets, a process we must now be prepared to deal with.


Assuntos
/complicações , Saúde Mental , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/virologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , /psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Doença de Parkinson/virologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 865, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil has many people living with HIV (PLWH) who are unaware of their serostatus. The public health system has recently added HIV self-testing (HIVST) for key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM). This study estimates HIVST acceptability among Brazilian MSM and explores factors associated with acceptability among MSM who have never tested for HIV or who had a previous negative result. METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit 4176 MSM in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016 to this biological and behavioral surveillance study. We excluded from this analysis all MSM who were aware of their positive HIV serostatus. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Overall proportions were weighted with Gile's estimator in RDS Analyst software and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The analyses of HIVST acceptability were stratified by prior HIV testing (never or one or more times). RESULTS: For this analysis, 3605 MSM were included. The acceptability of HIVST was 49.1%, lower among those who had never tested for HIV (42.7%) compared to those who had a previous HIV negative test (50.1%). In the subgroup of MSM who had never tested for HIV, those who reported discrimination or who had a medical appointment in the last 12 months reported higher HIVST acceptability. Among MSM who had a previous negative HIV test, only those reporting condomless receptive anal sex reported higher HIVST acceptability. In addition, we observed that high levels of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, taking part in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender nongovernmental organizations (LGBT-NGO), or complete secondary or incomplete higher undergraduate education reported higher acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptability of HIVST was low among MSM, especially among those who never tested for HIV. Given access to HIVST in Brazil, we point to the need for programs that enhance promotion of testing addressed to MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/métodos , Adulto , Brasil , Preservativos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Autocuidado/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1232, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a huge growing problem, and causes high and escalating costs to society. Self- care practice for adults with diabetes is not well addressed in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, diabetes treatment requires a commitment to demanding self-care practice. This study aimed to assess self- care practices and its associated factors among adults with diabetes in Dire Dawa public hospitals of Eastern, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 adults with diabetes. The study participants were selected through systematic random sampling. Data were collected from February 1st to March 1st, 2018. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.3.1 and exported to SPSS version 22.0 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression with crude and adjusted odds ratios along with the 95% confidence interval was computed and interpreted accordingly. Good self-care was defined based on mean calculation; a result above the mean value had a good self-care practice, and a P-value of < 0.05 was considered to declare a result as statistically significant. RESULT: The result of the study showed that 55.9%, (95% CI: 51.4, 60.3) of participants had good self-care practices. Good self-care practice was associated with having family support, treatment satisfaction, diabetes education, having glucometer, higher educational status, duration of the disease, high economic status, and having good knowledge. Self-care practice was significantly associated with good diabetes knowledge (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.35), family support system (AOR = 2.69, 95% CI:1.56, 4.62), treatment satisfaction (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI:1.18, 3.62), diabetes education (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.35, 3.63), high economic status (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.48), having glucometer,(AOR = 2.69, 95% CI:1.57, 4.63),higher educational status (AOR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.31, 5.49), and duration of disease greater than 10 years AOR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.17, 6.26). CONCLUSION: In this study, a large number of adults had poor self-care practices which are very significant in controlling diabetes. Providing diabetes education, about self-care practices to the respondents and their families should be considerable.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797104

RESUMO

Although rurality is often treated as an aspect of diversity, researchers disagree regarding whether the traditional rural values of self-reliance, distrust of outsiders, religiosity, centrality of family, and fatalism continue to differentiate rural versus urban undergraduates. The present study examined 1) whether differences in these values exist between rural and urban college students in the United States and 2) whether these rural values might mediate the association between geographic remoteness and posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity. College undergraduates in the United States who reported experiencing traumatic and/or stressful events (N = 213) completed measures of these constructs through an online survey. T-test results indicated that rural respondents had significantly higher levels of PTSS severity and distrust of outsiders and significantly lower levels of religiosity when compared with urban participants. After controlling for gender, distrust of outsiders and religiosity also emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between geographic remoteness and PTSS severity. Thus, despite research that highlights differences based on geographic location, similarities and differences exist for rural and urban undergraduates in the United States with regard to traditionally rural values. For rural undergraduate clients presenting with trauma symptoms, our results suggest that building trust and religious and/or spiritual self-care may be particularly critical.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Religião , Autocuidado/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estudantes/classificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pflege ; 33(4): 237-245, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811328

RESUMO

Health behaviours and needs of people with COPD during COVID-19 pandemic: a document analysis Abstract. Background: The government's guidelines affected people with COPD on different levels during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to belonging to a group of particularly vulnerable persons, they had to adapt their health behaviours, in particular physical activity, to recommendations provided in order to prevent negative effects on disease progression. There is little knowledge regarding how this group of patients coped with these challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To describe the health behaviours and needs people with COPD convey during nursing phone consultations and which nursing interventions have been carried out. METHODS: A document analysis of 50 nursing phone consultations was performed. The data were summarised descriptively and analysed thematically. RESULTS: The main topics were the adaptation of physical activity, the implementation of the recommendations to the individual life situation, the detection of a COVID-19 infection and questions concerning the planning of medical appointments. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic poses additional challenges to the disease management of people with COPD. The increased need for care brought on by the pandemic was able to be met by the knowledge provided in the nursing phone consultations. What remains to be established is what role the consultations play in a sustainable change in behaviour and in dealing with negative emotions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/enfermagem
14.
Value Health ; 23(7): 870-879, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing (HIVST) is a promising approach to improve HIV testing coverage. We aimed to understand HIV testing preferences of men who have sex with men (MSM) to optimize HIVST implementation. METHODS: Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) were conducted among HIV-negative MSM living in Australia and aged ≥18 years. Men completed 1 of 2 DCEs: DCETest for preferred qualities of HIV testing (price, speed, window period, test type, and collector of specimen) and DCEKits for preferred qualities of HIVST kits (price, location of access, packaging, and usage instructions). Latent class conditional logit regression was used to explore similarities (or "classes") in preference behavior. RESULTS: Overall, the study recruited 1606 men: 62% born in Australia, who had an average age of 36.0 years (SD 11.7), and a self-reported median of 4 (interquartile range 2-8) sexual partners in the last 6 months. The respondents to DCETest was described by 4 classes: "prefer shorter window period" (36%), "prefer self-testing" (27%), "prefer highly accurate tests" (22%), and "prefer low prices" (15%). Respondents to DCEKits were described by 4 classes: "prefer low prices" (48%), "prefer retail access (from pharmacy or online stores)" (29%), "prefer access at sex venues" (15%), and "prefer to buy from healthcare staff" (12%). Preferences varied by when someone migrated to Australia, age, frequency of testing, and number of sexual partners. CONCLUSION: A subset of MSM, particularly infrequent testers, value access to HIVST. Expanding access to HIVST kits through online portals and pharmacies and at sex venues should be considered.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel interventions are needed to reach young people and adult men with HIV services given the low HIV testing rates in these population sub-groups. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led oral HIV self-testing (HIVST) intervention in Kasensero, a hyperendemic fishing community (HIV prevalence: 37-41%) in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: This study was conducted among young people (15-24 years) and adult men (25+ years) between May and August 2019. The study entailed distribution of HIVST kits by trained "peer-leaders," who were selected from existing social networks and trained in HIVST distribution processes. Peer-leaders received up to 10 kits to distribute to eligible social network members (i.e. aged 15-24 years if young people or 25+ years if adult man, not tested in the past 3 months, and HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status at enrolment). The intervention was evaluated against the feasibility benchmark of 70% of peer-leaders distributing up to 70% of the kits that they received; and the acceptability benchmark of >80% of the respondents self-testing for HIV. RESULTS: Of 298 enrolled into the study at baseline, 56.4% (n = 168) were young people (15-24 years) and 43.6% (n = 130) were adult males (25+ years). Peer-leaders received 298 kits and distributed 296 (99.3%) kits to their social network members. Of the 282 interviewed at follow-up, 98.2% (n = 277) reported that they used the HIVST kits. HIV prevalence was 7.4% (n = 21). Of the 57.1% (n = 12) first-time HIV-positives, 100% sought confirmatory HIV testing and nine of the ten (90%) respondents who were confirmed as HIV-positive were linked to HIV care within 1 week of HIV diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that a social network-based, peer-led HIVST intervention in a hyperendemic fishing community is highly feasible and acceptable, and achieves high linkage to HIV care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Endêmicas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Seguimentos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Masculinidade , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/instrumentação , Autocuidado/métodos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 265, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with diabetes mellitus have difficulty solving problems in meaningful occupations and have similar difficulties with self-care regimens. We examined the effects of an occupation-based intervention supported with problem-solving therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus on participation in and satisfaction with meaningful occupations, diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy, preferred coping strategies and individual well-being. METHODS: This study was planned as a single-blind, randomised controlled study with a 3-month follow-up involving 67 adults with type 2 diabetes. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Diabetes Empowerment Scale, Brief COPE and five-item World Health Organisation Well-Being Index were used. This programme included evaluations, diabetes education, and problem-solving therapy. The intervention was conducted for 6 weeks, and each weekly session lasted approximately 60 min. Differences between groups were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Friedman test was used to calculate group-time interaction differences (i.e., baseline, after 6 weeks and after 3 months). RESULTS: All participants identified the most significant occupational performance problems in self-care as personal care. Significant improvement was reported in the intervention group compared to the control group regarding participation in meaningful occupation, satisfaction with performance, psychosocial self-efficacy, and well-being results (p < 0.001) after the programme and 3 months of follow-up. Participant use of effective coping strategies, active coping and acceptance strategies, and self-efficacy, as revealed by the results, suggested improvement in favour of the intervention group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Occupation-based problem-solving therapy encourages participation in meaningful occupations and improves psychosocial self-efficacy, effective coping styles, and well-being in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Problem-solving therapies that incorporate individuals' priorities via meaningful occupation can be used to lead to a meaningful and quality life for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03783598 . Retrospectively Registered. First Posted-December 21, 2018, Last Update Posted-February 18, 2020.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Método Simples-Cego
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 168: 108379, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853692
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1290, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviors and positive changes in lifestyle are essential for successful hypertension control. We used a behavioral model based on the theory of planned behavior to assess which factors influence self-care behaviors for controlling hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred patients with at leastaone-year history of diagnosed hypertension participated in this study. The data collection tool was designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the main parameters. RESULTS: For self-care behaviors, ninety-six (19.2%) and forty-five (9.1%) participants had good knowledge and acceptable behavior(≥8 out of 10 points). Having perceived behavioral control regarding quitting smoking and alcohol intake was associated with the patient's intention and behavior [b:1.283 ± .095 and b:1.59 ± .014 (p < .001)]. Having perceived behavioral control over the other self-care behaviors had a positive effect on the intention in female patients [b: .885 ± .442 (p = .045)]. Subjective norms had a positive effect on behavioral intention in younger patients [b:4.52 ± 2.24 (P = .04)]. CONCLUSIONS: Group-specific behavioral barriers are important when improving self-care behaviors in patients with hypertension. Perceived control over self-care behaviors is more important in vulnerable patients, such as the elderly and women.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Teoria Psicológica , Autocuidado/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As marijuana use becomes more common, it is essential clinicians understand the relationship between marijuana use and health behaviors. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort of adolescents and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) stratified into a young (<25 years) and older cohort (> = 25 years), we conducted multiple linear regression examining relationship of marijuana use (independent variable) on each dependent variable (SCD self-management score and pain management). RESULTS: Among young cohort, 16.9% used marijuana compared to 21.8% of older cohort. The younger cohort reporting marijuana use had lower mean self-care scores (ß = -2.74;p = 0.009) and were more likely to have admissions to the hospital for pain (ß = 0.87;p = 0.047) compared to non-users. In contrast, the older cohort reporting marijuana use had more days treating pain at home (ß = 0.44;p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Only a minority of patients with SCD reported lifetime marijuana use. Among those reporting marijuana use, there were different associations with self-care and health-related behaviors by age. The older cohort who endorsed marijuana use reported more days of treating pain at home, although this did not translate into increased acute care visits for pain crisis. Among youth, endorsing marijuana use was associated with worse SCD self-care.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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