Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.939
Filtrar
1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180429, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059128

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: to identify self-efficacy and self-esteem levels in undergraduate nursing students and to verify the mutual relationship between these constructs and with sociodemographic variables. Method: a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 264 students from two universities. Self-esteem and self-efficacy were measured by the Brazilian versions of the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem and of the General and Perceived Self-Efficacy scales, respectively. Results: a predominance of moderate to high self-efficacy was identified, with a mean score of 35.29 and moderate self-esteem, with a mean of 23.48. Self-efficacy was associated with the male gender, priority option in the college entrance examination by nursing, satisfaction with the course and absence of overload, besides correlating positively with age and self-esteem. Conclusion: self-efficacy and self-esteem levels were moderate/high and moderate, respectively. These constructs have shown a mutual relationship and assume an indispensable role both in the individual's personal life and in the professionalization process. These findings point to the need to strengthen mental health in this population, especially in vulnerable students (female, activity overload, dissatisfaction with the course and low self-esteem and self-efficacy), in order to foster their sense of value and the belief in their abilities.


RESUMEN Objetivos: identificar los niveles de autoeficacia y autoestima en estudiantes universitarios de enfermería y verificar la relación de estos constructos entre sí y con las variables sociodemográficas. Método: estudio transversal con una muestra compuesta por 264 estudiantes de dos instituciones de enseñanza superior. La autoestima y la autoeficacia se midieron conforme a las versiones brasileñas de la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg y de la Escala de Autoeficacia General y Percibida, respectivamente. Resultados: se identificó un predominio de autoeficacia de moderada a alta, con un puntaje medio de 35,29 y de autoestima moderada, con una media de 23,48. La autoeficacia se asoció con el sexo masculino, con opción prioritaria de ingreso a la carrera de enfermería, satisfacción con la carrera y ausencia de sobrecarga, además de correlacionarse positivamente con la edad y la autoestima. Conclusión: los niveles de autoeficacia y autoestima fueron moderados/altos y moderados, respectivamente. Estos constructos evidenciaron una relación entre sí y asumen un rol imprescindible tanto en la vida personal del individuo como en el proceso de profesionalización. Estos hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de fortalecer la salud mental en esta población, especialmente en estudiantes vulnerables (sexo femenino, sobrecarga de actividades, insatisfacción con la carrera y bajos niveles de autoestima y autoeficacia), de modo de favorecer la sensación de valor que se atribuyen como personas y lo que creen con respecto a sus capacidades.


RESUMO Objetivos: identificar os níveis de autoeficácia e autoestima em estudantes de graduação em enfermagem e verificar a relação destes constructos entre si e com variáveis sociodemográficas. Método: estudo transversal, com amostra constituída por 264 estudantes de duas instituições de ensino superior. A autoestima e a autoeficácia foram mensuradas pelas versões brasileiras das Escalas de Autoestima de Rosenberg e de Autoeficácia Geral e Percebida, respectivamente. Resultados: identificou-se predomínio de autoeficácia moderada a alta, com pontuação média de 35,29 e de autoestima moderada, com uma média de 23,48. A autoeficácia foi associada ao sexo masculino, opção prioritária no vestibular pela enfermagem, satisfação com o curso e ausência de sobrecarga, além de correlacionar-se positivamente com a idade e autoestima. Conclusão: os níveis de autoeficácia e autoestima foram moderados/altos e moderados, respectivamente. Estes constructos mostraram relação entre si e assumem um papel imprescindível tanto na vida pessoal do indivíduo como no processo de profissionalização. Estes achados apontam para a necessidade do fortalecimento da saúde mental nesta população, sobretudo, em estudantes vulneráveis (sexo feminino, sobrecarga de atividades, insatisfação com o curso e baixa autoestima e autoeficácia), de modo a favorecer o sentimento de valor que atribuem a si próprios e a crença em suas capacidades.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Saúde Mental , Enfermagem , Estudantes , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Autoeficácia , Instituições de Ensino Superior
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship between maternal self-efficacy to breastfeed and sociodemographic, obstetric, and neonatal variables; between the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and sociodemographic variables; and between the breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding at the intervals of 30, 60, and 180 days postpartum. METHOD: a longitudinal and prospective study conducted with 224 women. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form, and a questionnaire on breastfeeding and child feeding were used for collecting the data. Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used for analysis. RESULTS: there was no association between breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding identified at 30, 60, and 180 days. Self-efficacy was associated with the type of delivery and complications in the postpartum period. There was also an association between religion and exclusive breastfeeding 30 and 60 days postpartum, and assistance with baby care and exclusive breastfeeding at 60 days. CONCLUSION: It was identified that the type of delivery, complications in the postpartum period, religion, and assistance with baby care corroborate to increase maternal confidence in the ability to breastfeed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 108, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is an important determinant of adjustment following spinal cord injury. Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that one can successfully execute behavior required to produce the desired outcomes. In its original conceptualization, self-efficacy refers to the confidence that people have in their ability to accomplish specific tasks and behaviors within a specific context. Over the years these situation specific aspects have been unconfined and multiple constructs of self-efficacy have been proposed. The most common is a division in trait and state self-efficacy. Another used division that is utilized is between general, domain-specific and task-specific self-efficacy. The scientific support for these constructs is to date still unclear. The objective of this study was to enhance the understanding of the self-efficacy construct by comparing four self-efficacy scales designed to measure three aspects of self-efficacy (general versus domain-specific versus task-specific) in people with spinal cord injury. METHODS: Dutch and Australian adults with spinal cord injury (N = 140) completed four frequently used self-efficacy scales; the Moorong Self-efficacy Scale, General Self-efficacy Scale, University of Washington Self-efficacy Scale and a Self-care Self-efficacy Scale approximately 6 months after their inpatient rehabilitation. Pearson correlations examined inter-relationships between the scales. RESULTS: Hypothesized strong correlations between scales measuring similar aspects of self-efficacy were found (correlations 0.50-0.65). However, the hypothesized weak to moderate correlations between scales measuring diverging aspects of self-efficacy were only partly found (correlations 0.31-0.74), with 7 out of 12 correlations being strong instead of moderate. CONCLUSIONS: The expected distinctions between the three aspects of self-efficacy was not demonstrated. All four scales measure a common latent construct, most likely general self-efficacy aspects. Further research is necessary to find ways to improve the measurement of domain-specific and task-specific aspects of SE, so that they are sensitive enough to capture change over time, and thus enhance clinical outcomes of people with SCI as they adjust to their disability.


Assuntos
Autoeficácia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(5): 33-43, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical care nurses must often care for patients who are dying and their families. Thus, understanding the self-efficacy and life attitudes of nursing staff in the ICU in response to death is important to the development and provision of relevant education and training. PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the self-efficacy of ICU nurses in response to death and related predictive factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional research study. The subjects were 216 nurses in the adult ICU of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The research tools used included the death coping self-efficacy scale and the life attitude scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression. RESULTS: The results showed: 1. In terms of death coping self-efficacy, the mean score was 112.0 ± 14.3, with the highest scoring subscale, hospice care, earning a mean score of 51.1 ± 6.3. In terms of life attitude, the mean score was 128.9 ± 13.8, with the highest scoring subscale, life autonomy, earning a mean score of 24.0 ± 3.2. 2. Nurses with experiences of withdrawal of life support had better coping efficacy (t = 1.94, p = .05) and those with a graduate degree or above earned a better average life attitude score than those educated to the university / junior college level. 3. Age and ICU seniority were found to correlate positively with grief-related coping skills (r = .241- .315), with the life-attitude subscales of aspiring, life-autonomy, love, and caring showing positive correlations with death coping self-efficacy (r = .138- .482). 4. The predictors found in this study for death coping self-efficacy were age, aspiring, life-autonomy, love, and caring, with a total explained variance of 30.1% (F = 12.78, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that education level and having hospice care experience are both significant predictors of life attitude in ICU nurses, which is a factor that is known to affect self-efficacy in response to death. Life attitude and hospice care training programs for ICU nurses should be promoted to foster positive life attitudes and thereby enhance self-efficacy in response to death to improve the quality of intensive clinical care.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Taiwan
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1201-1206, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913157

RESUMO

Background: Self-efficacy has become a cross-disciplinary concept. In the field of healthcare, this concept is considered crucial for nurses; who play an important role in improving the health and well-being of the community. Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a "Relationship-with-the-patient self-efficacy scale" (RPSES). Methodology: A sample of 331 university students (310 females and 21 males; 168 from the midwifery and 162 from the nursing departments) were enrolled in the study. Out of 24 items, 8 behavior items with the highest factor loadings were selected regarding the nurse-patient-relationship self-efficacy according to the results of the preliminary exploratory factor analysis. Results: The final exploratory factor analysis revealed that the selected 8 items of RPSES had a single factor, explaining 83.28% of the total variance. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was c alculated as 0.97. Conclusion: This scale has beendemonstrated to be a valid and reliable instrument.The analyses unfolded that RPSES scores of the students were not different between men and womenand did not differ by the departments the students attended; however, the RPSES scores were different by the grade levels of the students (juniors and seniors). The fourth graders' RPSES scores were higher than those of third graders.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Autoeficácia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 843-849, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893867

RESUMO

Despite early warnings and calls for action, COVID-19 infection rates continue to climb in many areas of the United States. The current study examined participants' reported likelihood of engaging in eight behaviors designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as critical for the prevention of COVID-19 at the outset of the epidemic. Self-efficacy, perceived threat, and internal and external health locus of control were explored as potential predictors of those behaviors. In addition, demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not participants were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for analysis. Overall, participants reported high engagement with the prevention behaviors. Higher levels of self-efficacy, perceived severity of the illness, and external locus of control in regard to medical professionals were all positively associated with plans to take the recommended precautions. Based on the results, it appears that messaging regarding COVID-19 prevention may be particularly effective when it focuses on the high risk of the illness, the ease with which the prevention behaviors can be taken, and a reassurance that the medical establishment has individuals' best health in mind when it makes its specific recommendations. While numerous countries have succeeded in reducing the spread of COVID-19, the number of new cases in the United States remains high, even relative to other populations also heavily impacted by the disease [1]. Although it would be difficult to pinpoint a single cause or explanation for the epidemic's course in the USA, at the heart of its spread, like the spread of all infectious diseases, is noncompliance with preventative measures. The current research served as a preliminary exploration of the prevalence and predictors of eight COVID-19 prevention behaviors. A brief survey was sent out at the end of March 2020 to 350 U.S. residents in order to assess the likelihood of their engaging in various prevention behaviors recommended at that time and several related psychosocial factors. The psychological factors assessed included health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, self-efficacy, and perceived threat. In addition, a handful of demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not they were working outside the home or were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for examination.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autoeficácia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicologia , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Inquiry ; 57: 46958020957114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900271

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus pneumonia broke out and gradually developed into a global public health problem. Health care workers, especially nurses, suffered from great occupational pressure and psychological distress during the outbreak of infectious diseases. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the psychological status and self-efficacy of nurses in public hospital during COVID-19 outbreak between 16th and 25th February 2020. A total of 223 nurses participated in this study. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 40.8% (CI 95%: 34.4%-47.2%) and 26.4% (CI 95%: 20.6%-42.2%), respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of anxiety symptoms among demographic variables. There was significant differences in the prevalence of depression symptoms according to professional titles (P = .020). The mean score of self-efficacy was 25.90 ± 7.55. The self-efficacy was negatively correlated with anxiety (r = -0.161, P < .05). The psychological status of nurses in public hospital during COVID-19 outbreak needs our attention. Improving nurses' self-efficacy in dealing with emerging infectious diseases may be helpful to their psychology.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238682, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941474

RESUMO

The appearance of a new coronavirus (Covid-19) and its rapid expansion throughout the world has forced all countries to establish regulations based on social confinement. In the early days of a pandemic, the adherence to regulations is crucial to be able to block its spread. This research aims to analyse the relationship between motivational variables associated with physical distancing and self-interested consumption behaviours in the first 10 days of confinement in Spain. A total of 1,324 people participated throughout the country (mean age 28.92 years). Participants answered an online survey about socio-demographic, motivational variables, which included a) risk information seeking, b) confidence in self- and collective efficacy in coping with the pandemic, and c) the four higher-order personal values ‒conservation (security, conformity, and tradition), self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence), openness (self-direction actions and stimulation), and self-improvement (hedonism and power) ‒ and the aforementioned behaviours in coping with Covid-19. Results showed a positive association between self- and collective efficacy and both coping behaviours analysed: a protective role of conservation values on normative behaviours; and a negative relationship between self-transcendence values and self-interested consumption. Additionally, risk information seeking was positively associated with the development of physical distancing behaviour.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Valores Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899478

RESUMO

This paper is dedicated to the higher education institutions shifting towards distance learning processes due to the global pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 in 2020. The paper covers the pandemic situation in Poland generally, analyzing governmental ordinances and tracking the gradual extension of restrictions for educational institutions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of Experience, Enjoyment, Computer Anxiety, and Self-Efficacy on students' acceptance of shifting education to distance learning. The study tested and used the adapted General Extended Technology Acceptance Model for E-Learning (GETAMEL) in the context of coronavirus pandemic. The partial least squares method of structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed research model. The study utilizes an online survey to obtain data from 1692 Polish undergraduate and graduate students in both full- and part-time study. The dataset was analyzed using SmartPLS 3 software. Results showed that the best predictor of student's acceptance of shifting education to distance learning is Enjoyment, followed by Self-Efficacy. Both Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness predict student's Attitude Towards Using and Intention to Use the distance learning. The findings improve understanding regarding the acceptance of distance learning and this work is therefore of particular interest to teachers and practitioners of education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Prazer , Polônia/epidemiologia , Autoeficácia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911779

RESUMO

As the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, engaging the public in adherence to precautionary measures for preventing COVID-19 spread or infection becomes difficult. The present study aims to extend our understanding of how illness perceptions, coping, and self-efficacy affect adherence to precautionary measures among the public. An online survey was administered between April and June 2020 to a sample of 514 Hong Kong citizens. Variables considered were illness perceptions toward COVID-19, problem-solving, avoidance-based coping, self-efficacy, as well as adherence to precautionary measures including physical distancing, limiting unnecessary travelling, and washing hands regularly with soap and water. Adjusted structural equation model showed that illness perceptions toward COVID-19 had significant direct effect on their adherence to precautionary measures (unstandardized ß = 0.50, [95% CI, 0.28, 0.80], p = 0.001), and indirect effects through avoidance-based coping (ß = -0.10 [95% CI, -0.26, -0.01], p = 0.016) and self-efficacy (ß = -0.10, [95% CI, -0.18, -0.01], p = 0.025). These results imply that apart from emphasizing the health hazards of a novel infectious disease, an effective public health intervention and crisis communication should address avoidance-based coping and self-efficacy of the public in adherence to precautionary measures for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Precauções Universais
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936827

RESUMO

The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research experiences) would promote both short- and long-term integration into STEM via social influence processes (operationalized as science self-efficacy, identity, and internalized community values). Moreover, we examined the previously untested hypothesis of reciprocal influences from early levels of social integration in STEM to future engagement with social influence agents. Results of a series of longitudinal structural equation model-based mediation analyses indicate that, in the short term, higher levels of faculty mentorship support and research engagement, and to a lesser degree more diverse mentor networks in college promote deeper integration into the STEM community through the development of science identity and science community values. Moreover, results indicate that, in the long term, earlier high levels of integration in STEM indirectly influences research engagement through the development of higher science identity. These results extend our understanding of the TIMSI framework and advance our understanding of the reciprocal nature of social influences that draw students into STEM careers.


Assuntos
Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Modelos Estatísticos , Ciência/educação , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Tecnologia/educação , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mentores , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 262-270, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192063

RESUMO

Many previous studies have discussed the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. living environment) on academic achievement of children from western China. The present study focused on four non-cognitive factors, self-educational aspiration, self-efficacy, instrumental motivation, and anxiety, which could affect mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms how these four non-cognitive factors affected mathematics achievement. 5774 primary school students from 4th and 5th grade in western China participated in this study. A moderated chained mediation model was constructed. The results showed that self-educational aspiration could positively predict mathematics achievement. However, instrumental motivation and anxiety formed chained mediation between self-educational aspiration and mathematics achievement, and negatively predicted mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy played a moderated role in the relationship between self-educational aspiration and anxiety


Muchos estudios previos han discutido la influencia de factores extrínsecos (por ejemplo, entorno vital) en el logro académico de los niños de China occidental. El presente estudio se centró en cuatro factores no cognitivos, la aspiración autoeducativa, la autoeficacia, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad, los cuales podrían afectar el logro matemático. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los mecanismos por los cuales estos cuatro factores no cognitivos afectaron el logro matemático. Un total de 5774 estudiantes de primaria de 4º y 5º grado en el oeste de China participaron en este estudio. Se construyó un modelo de mediación encadenado moderado. Los resultados mostraron que la aspiración autoeducativa podría predecir positivamente el logro matemático. Sin embargo, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad formaron una mediación encadenada entre la aspiración autoeducativa y el logro matemático, y predijeron negativamente el logro matemático. Además, la autoeficacia desempeñó un papel moderado en la relación entre la aspiración autoeducativa y la ansiedad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Autoeficácia , Modelos Psicológicos , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sucesso Acadêmico
14.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 361-369, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192073

RESUMO

Las organizaciones están implementando acciones para la mejora de la salud y calidad de vida de sus empleados. Este hecho repercute por tanto en las empresas y en sus empleados, caracterizándose éstos últimos por disponer de cinco fortalezas como son el engagement, la resiliencia, la autoeficacia, el optimismo y la esperanza. El cuestionario del empleado saludable mide ocho dimensiones, por lo que el objetivo del trabajo es validar el instrumento reduciendo el constructo del empleado saludable de ocho dimensiones a cinco dimensiones y constatar la fiabilidad del mismo como medio de evaluación del empleado saludable. 287 empleados (208 hombres y 79 mujeres) de edades comprendidas entre 20-59 años participaron en es-te estudio. Se analizó el ajuste de los modelos de cinco y ocho dimensiones mediante un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC), utilizando el método de estimación de Máxima Verosimilitud Robusto. Los índices incrementa-les (CFI y NNFI) y el absoluto SRMR mostraron un buen ajuste en ambos modelos al ser superiores a ,90 e inferior a ,08 respectivamente. En cuanto a la comparación de modelos se observa un aumento significativo del estadístico de contraste Chi Cuadrado de Satorra-Bentler en el modelo de cinco frente al de ocho dimensiones, aunque la reducción del CFI en el modelo de cinco dimensiones no superó el criterio de ,01, lo que permitió considerar ambos modelos como similares en cuanto a ajuste. Ambos modelos mostraron resultados satisfactorios en cuanto al ajuste, este hecho confirma el uso del cuestionario del empleado saludable de ocho dimensiones a cinco dimensiones


Organisations are implementing actions to improve the health and quality of life of their employees. This fact therefore has an impact on companies and their employees, the latter being characterised by five strengths: engagement, resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and hope. The Healthy Employee Questionnaire measures eight dimensions, so the aim of the work is to validate the instrument by reducing the construct of the healthy employee from eight dimensions to five dimensions and to ascer-tain the reliability of the instrument as a means of evaluating the healthy employee. 287 employees (208 men and 79 women) aged 20-59 participat-ed in this study. The fit of the five- and eight-dimensional models was ana-lysed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), using the Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation method. The incremental indices (CFI and NNFI) and the absolute SRMR showed a good fit in both models being higher than .90 and lower than .08, respectively. In terms of model comparison, a significant increase in the Satorra-Bentler Chi Square contrast statistic was observed in the five versus eight-dimensional model, although the reduc-tion of the CFI in the five-dimensional model did not exceed the criterion of .01, which allowed both models to be considered as similar in terms of fit. The two models showed satisfactory results in terms of fit, this fact confirming the reduction of the healthy employee questionnaire from eight dimensions to five dimensions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , 16054/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Resiliência Psicológica , Análise Fatorial , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039646, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic poses immense challenges for national and international healthcare systems. Especially in times of social isolation and governmental restrictions, mental health should not be neglected. Innovative approaches are required to support psychologically burdened people. The e-mental health intervention 'CoPE It' has been developed to offer manualised and evidence-based psychotherapeutic support adapted to COVID-19-related issues in order to overcome psychological distress. In our study, we aim to assess the efficacy of the e-mental health intervention 'CoPE It' in terms of reducing distress (primary outcome), depression and anxiety symptoms as well as improving self-efficacy, quality of life and mindfulness (secondary outcomes). Furthermore, we want to evaluate the programme's usability, feasibility and participants' satisfaction with 'CoPE It' (tertiary outcome). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The e-mental health intervention 'CoPE It' consists of four 30 min modules, conducted every other day, involving psychotherapeutic techniques of mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive-behavioural therapy. The widely applied and previously established content has been adapted to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic by experts in psychosomatic medicine and stress prevention. In our longitudinal study, adult participants-with adequate German language and computer skills, and who have provided informed consent-will be recruited via emergency support hotlines in Germany. Flyers will be distributed, and online channels will be used. Participants will complete a baseline assessment (T0), a postintervention assessment (T1) and assessments 1 and 3 months later (T2 and T3, respectively). We will perform repeated measures analysis of covariance, mixed linear models, standard analyses of variance and regression, and correlation coefficients. In case of binary outcome variables, either mixed logistic regression or χ² tests will be used. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committees of the University of Duisburg-Essen (20-9243-BO) and University of Tübingen (469/2020BO) approved the study. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00021301.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Aconselhamento à Distância/métodos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785108

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses substantial threats to Latinx farmworkers and other immigrants in food production and processing. Classified as essential, such workers cannot shelter at home. Therefore, knowledge and preventive behaviors are important to reduce COVID-19 spread in the community. (2) Methods: Respondents for 67 families with at least one farmworker (FWF) and 38 comparable families with no farmworkers (nonFWF) in North Carolina completed a telephone survey in May 2020. The survey queried knowledge of COVID-19, perceptions of its severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors. Detailed data were collected to document household members' social interaction and use of face coverings. (3) Results: Knowledge of COVID-19 and prevention methods was high in both groups, as was its perceived severity. NonFWF had higher self-efficacy for preventing infection. Both groups claimed to practice preventive behaviors, though FWF emphasized social avoidance and nonFWF emphasized personal hygiene. Detailed social interactions showed high rates of inter-personal contact at home, at work, and in the community with more mask use in nonFWF than FWF. (4) Conclusions: Despite high levels of knowledge and perceived severity for COVID-19, these immigrant families were engaged in frequent interpersonal contact that could expose community members and themselves to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Autoeficácia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health is considered an integral part of human health. Reliable and valid measurement instruments are needed to assess various facets of mental health in the native language of the people involved. This paper reports on five studies examining evidence for the factorial validity of the Twi versions of five mental health and well-being measurement instruments: Affectometer-2 (AFM-2); Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Positive (ATQ-P); Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSEs); Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in a rural Ghanaian adult sample. METHOD: Measures were translated and evaluated using a research-committee approach, pilot-tested, and administered to adults (N = 444) randomly selected from four rural poor communities in Ghana. We applied confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), bifactor CFA, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and bifactor ESEM to the AFM-2, ATQ-P, and the PHQ-9, and CFA to the GSEs and the SWLS. The omega coefficient of composite reliability was computed for each measure. RESULTS: A two-factor bifactor ESEM model displayed superior model fit for the AFM-2. The total scale and the Negative Affect subscale, but not the Positive Affect subscale, attained sufficient reliability. Two models (a four-factor 22-item bifactor ESEM model and a 5-factor 22-item ESEM model) fitted the data best for the ATQ-P. The bifactor ESEM model displayed a high reliability value for the total scale and satisfactory reliability values for three of its four subscales. For the GSEs, a one-factor CFA model (residuals of items 4 and 5 correlated) demonstrated superior model fit with a high reliability score for the total scale. A two-factor ESEM model outperformed all other models fitted for the PHQ-9, with moderate and satisfactory reliability scores for the subscales. A one-factor CFA model (residuals of item 4 and 5 correlated) demonstrated superior model fit for the SWLS, with a satisfactory reliability value for the total scale. CONCLUSIONS: Findings established evidence for the factorial validity of the Twi versions of all five measures, with the global scores, but not all subscale scores, demonstrating satisfactory reliability. These validated measurement instruments can be used to assess mental health and well-being in the research and practice contexts of the current sample.


Assuntos
Idioma , Saúde Mental , Psicometria , Tradução , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237250, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776992

RESUMO

Job crafting is beneficial for employees and organizations. To better predict these behaviors, we introduce the concept of job crafting self-efficacy (JCSE) and define it as an individual's beliefs about their capability to modify the demands and resources of their job to better fit their needs. This article describes the development and validation of a scale to measure JCSE. We conducted a qualitative study to design and four quantitative studies to test the psychometric properties of this scale among Polish and American employees in both paper-and-pencil and online versions. Three independent (N1 = 364; N2 = 432; N3 = 403) confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good fit to a 3-factor solution comprising JCSE beliefs about increasing (a) structural job resources, (b) social job resources, and (c) challenging job demands. The 9-item JCSE Scale had good internal consistency, high time stability, and good validity. It correlated positively with general self-efficacy. JCSE explained unique variance in job crafting behaviors over and above general self-efficacy, and was more important in predicting job crafting than contextual factors. We demonstrate the role of social cognitions in shaping job redesign behaviors and provide a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions dedicated to empowering JCSE.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Psicometria , Autoeficácia , Engajamento no Trabalho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia Industrial/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence factors of behavior problems of 8~18 years old children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, as well as the mediating effects of social support self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth. METHODS: From May 2019 to October 2019, 160 children with malignant tumors during the treatment were selected through convenience sampling method, and were investigated via the General Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Post-Traumatic Growth Scale and Conners' Parent Symptom Questionnaire. Structural equation model was established on the basis of survey results. RESULTS: The total detection rate of behavior problems in 8~18 years old children with malignant tumors was 10.6%. The structural equation models indicated that boys had more behavior problems than girls, self-efficacy, social support and post-traumatic growth can directly affect the behavior problems of 8~18 years old children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, and the standardized total effect of self-efficacy in both of the first model and the second model was the largest. Self-efficacy is also able to indirectly and negatively predict the behavior problems based on social support or post-traumatic growth. Social support can directly affect behavior problems or indirectly predict behavior problems through self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth. After 2000 bootstrap tests, the mediating effects of social support self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth were confirmed. CONCLUSION: Reduced total detection rate of behavior problems suggests that targeted interventions in recent years may be effective. Interventions focused on improving self-efficacy, social support and post-traumatic growth may lessen behavior problems of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most common female reproductive cancer after breast cancer with 84% of the cases in developing countries. A high uptake of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and screening, and early diagnosis leads to a reduction of incidence and mortality rates. Yet uptake of screening is low in Sub-Saharan Africa and there is an increasing number of women presenting for treatment with advanced disease. Nine women in their twenties die from cervical cancer in Kenya every day. This paper presents the biopsychosocial risk factors that impact on cervical cancer knowledge among Kenyan women aged 15 to 24 years. The findings will highlight opportunities for early interventions to prevent the worrying prediction of an exponential increase by 50% of cervical cancer incidences in the younger age group by 2034. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) was analysed using complex sample logistic regression to assess biopsychosocial risk factors of knowledge of cervical cancer among young women aged 15 to 24 years (n = 5398). FINDINGS: Close to one third of the participants were unaware of cervical cancer with no difference between participants aged 15-19 years (n = 2716) and those aged 20-24 years (n = 2691) (OR = 1; CI = 0.69-1.45). Social predisposing factors, such as lack of education; poverty; living further from a health facility; or never having taken a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test, were significantly associated with lack of awareness of cervical cancer (p<0.001). Young women who did not know where to obtain condoms had an OR of 2.12 (CI 1.72-2.61) for being unaware of cervical cancer. Psychological risk factors, such as low self-efficacy about seeking medical help, and an inability to refuse unsafe sex with husband or partner, perpetuated the low level of awareness about cervical cancer (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of young women in Kenya are unaware of cervical cancer which is associated with a variety of social and psychological factors. We argue that the high prevalence of cervical cancer and poor screening rates will continue to prevail among older women if issues that affect young women's awareness of cervical cancer are not addressed. Given that the Kenyan youth are exposed to HPV due to early sexual encounters and a high prevalence of HIV, targeted interventions are urgently needed to increase the uptake of HPV vaccination and screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Parceiros Sexuais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA