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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1581, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has become one of the most common causes of mortality among Indonesian women. Many women in Indonesia present with late-stage breast cancer, negatively affecting prognosis and treatment outcomes. Better prognosis of breast cancer will be achieved if it is diagnosed in an earlier stage, thus efforts to detect breast cancer earlier are important. Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is considered as an important first step to encourage women to actively be responsible for their own health, especially for women in low-and middle-income countries with limited resources and access to other forms of preventive healthcare (e.g., screening programs). The present study aimed to predict BSE practice among women in Surabaya, Indonesia using the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHODS: This investigation was a cross-sectional survey which was distributed among 1967 women aged 20-60 years. The Indonesian version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (I-CHBMS) was used to explain self-reported BSE practice. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of HBM variables with BSE practice. RESULTS: 44.4% of the respondents indicated they had performed BSE. Further, the results indicated that the HBM variables were significantly associated with BSE practice. Specifically, higher perceived benefits and self-efficacy, lower perceived barriers and less cues to action were unique correlates of BSE practice. The result also showed that perceived severity and susceptibility were not associated with BSE practice. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that several HBM constructs significantly associated with BSE practice among Indonesian women, suggesting that BSE health education programs should emphasize the perceived benefits of BSE, focus on increasing women's self-efficacy to address and overcome perceived barriers in performing BSE, and help them in identifying personally relevant cues to action.


Assuntos
Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 122, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incidence of breast cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has increased in recent years. Screening helps in early detection of cancer and early diagnosis and timely treatment of breast cancer lead to a better prognosis. Women in the healthcare profession can have a positive impact on the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of general public. Therefore, it is important that the healthcare workers themselves have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes. We conducted a study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breast cancer screening among female healthcare professionals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on female health professional of KFMC (King Fahad Medical City). Data was collected using a pre-designed, tested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included specific sections to test the participants' knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cervical cancer and its screening. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 395 health care workers participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 34.7 years. Participants included physicians (n = 63, 16.0%), nurses (n = 261, 66.1%), and allied health workers (n = 71, 18.0%). Only 6 (1.5%) participants had a good level of knowledge of breast cancer and 104 (26.8%) participants demonstrated a fair level of knowledge. Overall, 370 (93.7%), 339 (85.8%), and 368 (93.2%) participants had heard of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography, respectively. A total of 295 (74.7%) participants reported practicing breast self-examination, 95 (24.1%) had undergone clinical breast examination, and 74 (18.7%) had ever undergone mammography. CONCLUSION: The knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breast cancer screening were found to be lower than expected. Active steps are required to develop educational programs for the health care staff, which might empower them to spread the knowledge and positively influence the attitudes of female patients in the hospital.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 637, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among reproductive-age women worldwide and the second leading cause of death among women in Ethiopia. Regular breast self-examination is the most cost-effective methods for early detection of breast cancer. Despite this fact, breast self-examination was low among women in the general population and it was not well documented among health care workers. Therefore, this study intended to assess the magnitude of breast self-examination practice and associated factors among female healthcare workers in public health facility in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 female healthcare workers. The study participants were recruited by lottery method. Data were collected from March to April 2019. Data were entered into Epi data version 4.5 and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions analysis were done. With 95% CI, the level of significance was decided at P-value ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The magnitude of regular breast self-examination practice was 32.6%. Educational levels, breast cancer awareness, knowledge towards breast self-examination were predictors of breast self-examination. Regular awareness creation forum on breast self-examination technique, risk factors, and related matters should be facilitated so that all female health care workers will be reminded.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(9): 2865-2873, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554389

RESUMO

Background: Early detection of breast cancer is essential in improving overall women's health. The researchers sought to develop a comprehensive measure that combined the basic components of the health belief model (HBM) with a focus on breast self-examination (BSE) and screening mammogram amongst women. Methods: Questionnaire items were developed following a review of relevant literature of HBM on BSE and screening mammogram. The sampling frame for the study was Malaysian women aged 35 to 70 years old, living in Kuantan, Pahang and able to read or write in Bahasa Malaysia or English. As such, 103 women were randomly selected to participate in the study. Tests of validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability were subsequently performed to determine the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Results: The EFA revealed nine factors (self-efficacy of mammogram, perceived barriers of BSE and mammogram, perceived susceptibility of breast cancer, perceived severity of breast cancer, cues to action for mammogram screening, perceived benefits of BSE, health motivation, perceived benefits of mammogram and self-efficacy of BSE) containing 54 items that jointly accounted for 74.2% of the observed variance. All nine factors have good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.8. Fifty-four items remained in the final questionnaire after deleting 13 problematic items. The scale also showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusion: The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for the study involving women in Kuantan, Pahang. The instrument can help to assess women's beliefs on BSE adoption and mammogram screening in health care practice and research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Cultura , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Prognóstico , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher
5.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819863777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331185

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women all over the world, also in Vietnam. In recent years, the incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in Vietnam, and most cases are diagnosed at late stages, making treatment more difficult. More and better early detection could help more women to survive. The aim of this study was to identify the current knowledge, attitude and practice about early detection of breast cancer as well as potential predictors of breast cancer screening among women aged 20 to 49 year in a mountainous commune in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in a largely ethnic Muong population. Women aged 20 to 49 years were selected by systematic random sampling to participate in a cross sectional study in October 2017. They were interviewed with a closed questionnaire about their knowledge of breast cancer, its risk factors, and warning signs. A checklist for performance of breast self-examination was also applied. Three hundred six women agreed to participate in the study. More than half had a low level of knowledge, and were weak in attitude and practice about breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, breast ultrasound, and mamography. Among women who had practiced at least 1 screening method, 17.0% mentioned clinical breast examination, and only 13.8% reported practicing breast self-examination. Factors associated with practice included knowledge about breast cancer early detection (BCED), ethnicity, income, the BCED information approach, and the BCED screening programs approach. The finding of a very low proportion of women in the mountainous setting with good awareness and practice on early detection of breast cancer is important evidence to inform the BCED intervention program developers about where and how to target which information, especially to reach more ethnic minority women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(6): 1825-1831, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244306

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In south-east Asia, both the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer are on the rise, and the latter is likely due to the limited access to large-scale community screening program in these resource-limited countries. Breast cancer awareness is an important tool which may, through increasing breast self-examination and the seeking of clinical examination, reduce breast cancer mortality. Investigating factors associated with breast cancer awareness of women is likely to help identify those at risk, and provide insights into developing effective health promotion interventions. Objective: To investigate factors associated with breast cancer awareness in Thai women. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of Thai women aged 20-64 years was collected during August to October, 2015 from two provinces of southern Thailand (Surat Thani and Songkla). A questionnaire including the Breast Cancer Awareness Scale along with demographic characteristics was administered and Proportional Odds Logistic regression was then used to investigate factors associated with breast cancer awareness. Results: In total, 660 Thai women participated in this study. Factors most often associated with the various breast cancer awareness domains were age and rurality. While rural women had poorer knowledge of breast cancer signs and symptoms, they also had lower levels of perceived barriers and considerably better breast cancer awareness behaviors. Conclusion: Despite lower knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and no evidence of better knowledge of signs and symptoms, we found rural Thai women had considerably better breast cancer awareness behavior. This may be due to these women's lower levels of perceived barriers to breast cancer screening services. Indeed this suggests, at least in Thai women, that interventions aimed at lowering perceived barriers rather than enhancing disease knowledge may be more successful in engaging women with breast cancer screening services and increasing breast self-examination.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Mamografia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(6): 1901-1908, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244316

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Many young women in the UAE have poor knowledge about breast cancer screening, including risk factors and warning signs/symptoms. We investigated awareness about breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) as a screening tool among female students at the University of Sharjah, UAE. Methods: This study used a cross sectional survey design. Participants were 241 undergraduate female students (aged ≥18 years) from three University of Sharjah campuses. Data were collected from March to April 2017 using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered: sociodemographic characteristics; knowledge about breast cancer, risk factors, and warning signs/symptoms; and knowledge and practice of BSE. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square tests. Results: About 38.6% of participants were from the Medical campus, 37.3% were from the Women's campus, and 24% were from the Fine Arts and Design campus. Most (99%) participants had heard of breast cancer. About 50% were knowledgeable about the risk factors, but only 38% were knowledgeable about warning signs/symptoms. The most commonly identified risk factors were family and personal histories of breast cancer, and the most commonly identified warning sign/symptom was breast lump. There was a significant association between knowledge about risk factors and campus type. Participants from the Medical campus were more knowledgeable about risk factors than participants from the other two campuses. Overall, 68.5% of participants had heard of BSE, but few participants actually performed BSE. Reasons for not performing BSE included "forgetting" and "not knowing how." Conclusions: Although most participants were aware of breast cancer, knowledge about risk factors and warning signs/symptoms was relatively poor. Knowledge about performing BSE was particularly low. This highlights the importance of increasing awareness about breast cancer and BSE among young women in the UAE.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(4): 325-334, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096764

RESUMO

A stages-of-change approach would be helpful to understand cancer screening behaviors. This study aimed to identify the compliance and determinants of breast self-examination (BSE) based on transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 296 rural Vietnamese women using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of Champion's HBM scales, breast cancer knowledge (BCK), integrated connection to neighborhood storytelling networks (ICSN), and TTM stages of BSE. A generalized ordered logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with TTM stages of BSE. About 61% of women did not currently perform BSE. Perceived benefit was significant in all stages changes. When changing to the action stage, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and BCK were significant. When changing to the maintenance stage, perceived susceptibility, benefits, self-efficacy, and ICSN were significant. Determinants influencing BSE behavior were different in each TTM stage, indicating that educational programs should be introduced with stage-matched strategies to increase BSE.


Assuntos
Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , População Rural , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
9.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(3): 877-884, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912407

RESUMO

Background: Globally, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women and is a leading cause of mortality in Indonesia. Raising awareness of breast cancer is particularly important to help at risk women seek medical treatment for this disease. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the Indonesian women's level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, barriers, attitude and breast cancer screening. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study administered the breast cancer awareness Indonesian scale (BCAS-I) to 856 Indonesian women. Samples were selected in rural and urban combinations from three provinces by stratified random sampling. The ordinal logistic model was used to investigate the clustering effect of the participant's characteristics in this study. Results: Of the women, 62% lived in rural areas and 38% lived in urban areas. Living in an urban area was significantly associated with a lower knowledge of the risk factors. However, living in an urban area was significantly associated with better attitudes and healthier behaviours related to breast cancer awareness. Women with higher education levels had 70% worse attitudes toward breast cancer awareness. Women living South of Sumatera, women living in Yogyakarta, and unmarried women were 5.03, 3.84, and 1.56 times as likely to have higher perceived barriers, respectively. Conclusion: Urban women had a poorer level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors compared to women living in more rural areas. The result of this study may reflect inadequate breast cancer awareness campaigns or a lack of breast cancer awareness campaigns. These findings suggest that additional education programs aiming to increase awareness and educate the public are needed.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Adv Nurs ; 75(8): 1713-1722, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895639

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore breast health awareness and the early diagnosis and detection methods of breast cancer from the perspective of women and primary healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia. BACKGROUND: A high incidence of advanced breast cancer exists in Saudi Arabia, particularly among younger women. This is due to poor awareness of breast cancer and its management, social customs and poor breast health awareness among healthcare providers. DESIGN: Qualitative exploratory study. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in eight states across the Jizan region of Saudi Arabia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit Saudi women (N = 24), general practitioners (N = 20), and nurses (N = 20). Semi-structured interviews were conducted from November 2015-February 2016. Inductive thematic analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Overarching themes centred on culture, religion, and resources. Novel key findings from this study confirm that Saudi women require more health education about breast cancer and breast cancer screening. The study has provided important new knowledge in relation to Islamic concept of preserving health, social barriers, cultural taboos, misconceptions, and myths that currently exist surrounding breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION: This study provides new evidence on the complexity of poor breast health awareness and lack of resources in Saudi Arabia. Additional resources are needed to remove such barriers and provide targeted health education and services. IMPACT: This research informs breast cancer service provision for Muslim or Arab women internationally as they share cultural resources or Islamic principles to follow a healthy lifestyle and help promote the uptake of breast cancer screening services.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Arábia Saudita
11.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(2): 469-478, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803209

RESUMO

Objective: Evaluate the beliefs about the risk factors for breast cancer in a population of women from the western Amazon and determine the factors associated with the higher belief scores presented by this population. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study included 478 women aged >40 years residing in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. An American Cancer Society questionnaire was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer. Results: The main beliefs about the risk factors for breast cancer were breast trauma (95%), use of underwire bra (58.5%), and a high number of sexual partners (55.5%). Women from younger age groups presented higher belief scores (Bcoefficient: ­0.04, 95% CI: ­0.07; ­0.01) than those of women from older age groups. A strong association was noted between high knowledge scores of risk factors and signs/symptoms of the disease and high belief scores in the study group (Bcoefficient:0.33;95%CI:0.28;0.38). Conclusion: The results indicate the existence of important beliefs related to the risk factors for breast cancer. Women from younger age groups, women who have seen a gynecologist in the past 2 years, and women who had more knowledge about the risk factors and signs and symptoms of breast cancer had higher belief scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(2): e12960, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421468

RESUMO

Breast cancer and cervical cancer are important causes of cancer-related mortality in women all over the world. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the distribution of cervical and breast cancer risk factors in women and their knowledge and behaviours about cancer screening methods. The study is cross-sectional in nature. It was conducted with the participation of 1,886 women in Turkey. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The knowledge and behaviours of women aged 40 and over about breast cancer or cervical cancer screening methods were investigated according to the education level; results showed that the rates of those who knew and did breast self-examination were significantly lower in illiterate women. Besides, the rates of women who did breast self-examination were significantly lower in those who were aged 40 and over, and the rates of those who had clinical breast examination and Pap smear test were significantly lower in women aged 39 and below (p < 0.01). This study identified the most notable breast and cervical cancer risk factors as low education levels, high number of deliveries, short breastfeeding period, obesity and low socio-economic level. For this reason, public health policies should be developed to minimise these risk factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aleitamento Materno , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Teste de Papanicolaou/psicologia , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Turquia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia
13.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 19(11): 3179-3185, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486608

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in Turkey and worldwide, and is ranked as the second-leading cause of death in women after lung cancer. Early diagnosis of breast cancer is possible, and breast cancer is included in cancer-screening programs in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of young women (older than 20 years of age) on breast self-examination and breast cancer screening methods, and to determine the effect of sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: A total of 489 patients were included in the study. The mean age of participants was 36.53 ± 11.22 years. 346 (70.8%) of the participants were married. The study was a cross-sectional, non-randomized study in public health. The participants in this study were women over 20 years old, who presented to Arnavutkoy State Hospital General surgery policlinic and Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Family Medicine policlinic. Results: The rate and duration of breastfeeding were higher among participants living in rural areas than those living in urban areas (p<0.001) The awareness of breast cancer increased as the level of education increased (p<0.001). Having a family history of a high incidence of breast cancer significantly increased the rate of breast self examination practice by 1.93 fold (p=0.016). Conclusion: Breast Cancer is a disease that can be treated 100 % with early diagnosis. Primary care physicians especially works in lower socioeconomic conditions have to tell the importance of early diagnosis of breast cancer, and properly explain breast self examination and other screening tools.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Ecossistema , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 19(8): 2031-2041, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139040

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is a great concern for women's health; early detection can play a key role in reducing associated morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to systematically assess the effectiveness of model-based interventions for breast cancer screening behavior of women. Methods: We searched Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar search engines for systematic reviews, clinical trials, pre- and post-test or quasi-experimental studies (with limits to publication dates from 2000-2017), Keywords were: breast cancer, screening, systematic review, trials, and health model. In this review, qualitative analysis was used to assess the heterogeneity of data. Results: Thirty six articles with 17,770 female participants were included in this review. The Health belief model was used in twenty three articles as the basis for intervention. Two articles used both the Health belief model and the Health Promotion Model, 5 articles used Health belief model and The Trans theoretical Model, 2 used Hthe ealth belief model and Theory planned behavior, 2 used the Health belief model and the Trans theoretical Model, 2 used the Trans theoretical Model, 1 used social cognitive theory, and 1 used Systematic Comprehensive Health Education and Promotion Model. The results showed that model-based educational interventions are more effective for BSE and CBE and mammography screening behavior of women compare to no model based intervention. The Health belief model was the most popular model for promoting breast cancer screening behavior. Conclusions: Educational model-based interventions promote self-care and create a foundation for improving breast cancer screening behavior of women and increase policy makers' awareness and efforts towards its enhancement breast cancer screening behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Modelos Estatísticos , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 19(8): 2109-2116, 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139209

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of breast cancer in Lebanon is higher than any other Middle ­Eastern country, is diagnosed at a younger age than women in Western countries, and is more aggressive and fatal. Therefore addressing risk factors in this population is of paramount importance. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional, comparative design evaluated the risk factors for breast cancer in a convenient sample of 105 Lebanese-American women with 250 Lebanese. Odds Ratio, Chi square t-tests or ANOVA were used to compare the two groups' risk factors and knowledge of screening tools. Associations found to be statistically significant were included in three multiple logistic regression models to estimate the odds of each variable for performing a mammography, a clinical breast exam (CBE) and a breast self-exam (BSE). Results: There were more Muslims in the Lebanese-American sample who perceived having a better income, and had a better understanding of the effectiveness of the mammogram, the CBE and the BSE. The Lebanese group reached menopause at an older age, t = 2.66, p = 0.05, smoked more, OR = 1.42, p = 0.001 and were five times more likely to live close to a main road or highway, OR = 5.75, p = 0.001 than the Lebanese-American group. The Lebanese- Americana group breast fed longer χ2= 11.68, p = .008, used contraceptives more, OR = 1.74, p = 0.027, exercised more, OR = 1.61, p < 0.001, and consumed more vegetables and fruits than their Lebanese counterparts, OR= 1.22, p = 0.002, and OR = 1.27 p = 0.001, respectively. For ever having a mammogram, the duration of breastfeeding (>6 months), effectiveness of the mammogram, and exercise were significant predictors. While for ever having a CBE, smoking, eating fruits, and exercise were significant. No variables were related to performing a BSE. Conclusion: The Lebanese women had higher risk factors for developing breast cancer, and had less knowledge of the benefits of breast cancer screening tools, calling for the importance of promoting healthy life styles and education.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Cultura , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 19(4): 997-1003, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693968

RESUMO

Background: In women, breast cancer accounts for 30 percent of all cancers and it is the second leading cause of mortality. Mammography is considered an effective procedure to detect early breast cancer recommended by World Health Organization. This study was aimed to evaluate breast cancer screening determinants in women referred to health centers of Urmia for mammography in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, 348 women referred to health centers of Urmia were selected using multistage sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire for mammography screening determinants, with a checklist including demographic characteristics, family, social and economic factors and midwifery background. Analysis was with SPSS software version 20for descriptive and inferential statistic tests, P<0.05 being considered significant. Results: The proportion performing mammography was 12%. Significant relationships were noted with income, menopause status, a history of breast cancer in close relatives, beliefs, inaccessibility, knowledge, cues to action, emotions, self-care, and life priorities (P<0.05). There were no significant links with age at marriage, first age of delivery, number of children, duration of breastfeeding, status of residency, education, marital status, occupation, history of breastfeeding, and previous breast problems (P>0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the status of breast cancer screening in participating women was not satisfactory. Therefore, promotion of screening methods by health policy makers in Iran is necessary and given that reliance solely on education is not sufficient, it is essential to pay attention to barriers and eliminate them.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 19(3): 625-631, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580030

RESUMO

Objectives: Regular screening for breast cancer is associated with better survival, but compliance with guidelines depends on good knowledge and attitudes. This study aimed to assess the level of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening practices in Lebanese females, and identify their socio-demographic determinants as well as barriers to mammography use. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 371 Lebanese females residing in Beirut aged 18-65 with no history of breast cancer. The questionnaire applied was adapted from Stager and Champion. The overall knowledge score was determined with sections on general knowledge, curability, symptoms, and screening; the overall attitude score concerned attitudes towards breast cancer, screening, and barriers; and the overall practices score was for breast self examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of socioeconomic determinants were performed for each score. Results: The mean knowledge score was 55.5±17.1% and that for attitudes was 71.9±8.3%. For self-examination, mammography and clinical examination practices, individual means were 45.7±42.3%, 77.9±36.5% and 29.1±45.5%, respectively. Knowledge, attitudes and practices correlated positively with each other (p<0.0001). The highest average was the knowledge of symptoms (72.8±24.7%), and the lowest that of curability (49.6±25.7%). Most frequent barriers to mammography were fear of learning bad news, pain, costs, and staff unpleasantness. Higher education was associated with better knowledge (p=0.002) and smoking with lower levels (p=0.003). Older age (p=0.002), higher education (p=0.02), and taking exercise (p=0.02) were associated with better attitudes. Higher education (p=0.02) and having children (p=0.003) were associated with better practices. Conclusion: More emphasis should be placed on educating females on the curability of breast cancer and specific targeting of the barriers identified.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 208, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer screening awareness and participation may be lower in low- and middle-income countries that lack established national screening programmes compared with those that do. We evaluated potential determinants of awareness about and participation in breast and cervical cancer screening, and breast self-examination (BSE) in women using survey data from Indonesia. METHODS: From the fifth Indonesian Family Life Survey (2014-2015), a total of 5397 women aged 40 and older without any history of cancer who responded to questionnaires concerning Pap smears, mammography, and BSE were included. Multilevel modelling was used to assess potential determinants in relation to awareness about Pap smears and mammography, and participation in Pap smears and BSE practice. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of cancer screening. RESULTS: Of the 5397 respondents, 1058 (20%) women were aware of Pap smears, of which 297 had never had the procedure. Only 251 (5%) participants were aware of mammography. A total of 605 (12%) of women reported they performed BSE. Higher education and household expenditure were consistently associated with higher odds of awareness about Pap smears and mammography (e.g. odds ratio [OR] of being aware of Pap smear and mammography: 7.82 (95% CI: 6.30-9.70) and 7.70 (6.19-9.58), respectively, for high school graduates compared to women with less educational attainment in the multivariable models), and participation in Pap smears and BSE. We also identified enabling factors linked with greater cancer screening awareness and participation, including health insurance, shorter distance to health services, and social participation. CONCLUSION: There are socioeconomic disparities in cancer screening awareness and participation among Indonesian women. Our findings may help inform targeted health promotion and screening for cancer in the presence of limited resources.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Body Image ; 24: 76-81, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304438

RESUMO

Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change. Regression analyses indicated that greater breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, was significantly associated with less frequent BSE and lower confidence in detecting breast change. Both breast size and body dissatisfaction were significantly associated with greater delay in consulting a doctor following breast change, but the former was the stronger predictor. These findings suggest that improving breast size satisfaction may be a useful means of promoting improved breast awareness and self-examination.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Mama/anatomia & histologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Cancer Nurs ; 41(6): 513-519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer continues to be a major public health problem for women. Early detection and treatment are key to improved outcomes. Whereas most women seek help promptly, some postpone seeking help for self-discovered breast symptoms. Investigation of women's help-seeking behavior and the associated influencing factors on self-discovery of a breast symptom were sought. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to report the qualitative data from women who had self-discovered a breast symptom. METHODS: Women (n = 167) with a self-discovered breast symptom (who were part of a large quantitative correlational study) commented in an open-ended question on their overall experience. Comments were analyzed using Discourse Analysis. RESULTS: Four linked discourses were identified: (1) "being and remaining normal," (2) "emotion," (3) "becoming and being abnormal," and (4) "rationality." A sidelined discourse of emotion is drawn on to defer taking action based on rational knowledge. CONCLUSION: The tension between discourses "emotion" and "rationality" further informs our understanding of women's help-seeking behavior following self-discovered symptoms. Findings provide a deeper understanding of the emotional aspects of women's experience around symptom discovery. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Findings will be of benefit to all healthcare professionals involved in assessment and screening of breast changes suggestive of breast cancer. They provide a novel insight into the meaning of breast cancer, its diagnosis and treatment, and how this impacts women's emotions as they await consultation in a breast clinic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Emoções , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico
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