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1.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(3): 231-236, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of autophagy and apoptosis induced by cyclic mechanical stretch and the potential role of autophagy in stretch-induced apoptosis of myoblasts. METHODS: Loading model of L6 myoblasts was established in vitro. The cells were then subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch involving 3 s of 15% stretch alternating with 3 s of relaxation. The cells were collected after mechanical stretch for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Control cells were cultured on the same plates without mechanical strain. Apoptosis of myoblasts was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin V binding and propidium iodide staining. Autophagy was determined by MDC staining and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The level of proteins associated with apoptosis and autophagy was detected by Western blot. The data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. RESULTS: The results of Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin V binding and propidium iodide staining indicated that mechanical stretch notably induced apoptosis of myoblasts. Caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk effectively abrogated apoptosis of myoblasts, indicating mechanical stretch induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. In addition, the results of TEM, MDC staining and Western blot proved that mechanical stretch elicited autophagy of myoblasts. Inhibition of autophagy using 3-MA enhanced caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by mechanical stretch. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic mechanical stretch induced apoptosis and autophagy of myoblasts time-dependently. Protective autophagy, acting as the compensatory mechanism, inhibited caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by mechanical stretch.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Mioblastos
2.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1022-1033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999189

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the significant risk factors that result in maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and exercise is known to exert cardioprotection. In this research, the cardioprotective function and exercise mechanisms were explored.The rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation. The rats that received TAC were randomly assigned to five groups: (1) rats subjected to a sham operation as control group (SC), (2) rats that underwent TAC group (TC), (3) TAC and moderate-intensity exercise group (TE), (4) TE plus 3-MA group (TEM), and (5) TE plus Compound C group (TEC). The heart function was measured via echocardiography. Histological analysis and relative protein testing were conducted to analyze collagen deposition and apoptosis. Furthermore, western blot was employed to measure the protein expression of relevant signaling pathways. Impaired cardiac function, interstitial fibrosis, enhanced apoptosis, and ER stress were observed in the TAC-induced left ventricular hypertrophy. Exercise attenuated TAC-induced cardiac dysfunction, interstitial fibrosis, and ER stress-related apoptosis. In addition, exercise significantly improved autophagy and upregulated AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor Compound C repressed the activation of AMPK, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine reversed exercise-induced autophagy. All of these abolished the protection of exercise against cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis induced by TAC.Our results indicated that 4 weeks of treadmill exercise could alleviate pressure overload-induced LV dysfunction and remodeling via an autophagy-dependent mechanism, which was induced by enhancing autophagy through the activation of AMPK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/reabilitação , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/reabilitação , Animais , Apoptose , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Remodelação Ventricular
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22544, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown that celecoxib can significantly inhibit the development of tumors, and basic experiments and in vitro experiments also provide a certain basis, but it is not clear how celecoxib inhibits tumor development in detail. METHODS: A literature search of all major academic databases was conducted (PubMed, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), Wan-fang, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), including the main research on the mechanisms of celecoxib on tumors. RESULTS: Celecoxib can intervene in tumor development and reduce the formation of drug resistance through multiple molecular mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib mainly regulates the proliferation, migration, and invasion of tumor cells by inhibiting the cyclooxygenases-2/prostaglandin E2 signal axis and thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κ-gene binding, Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Meanwhile, it was found that celecoxib could promote the apoptosis of tumor cells by enhancing mitochondrial oxidation, activating mitochondrial apoptosis process, promoting endoplasmic reticulum stress process, and autophagy. Celecoxib can also reduce the occurrence of drug resistance by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs.


Assuntos
Celecoxib/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Celecoxib/efeitos adversos , Celecoxib/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Life Sci ; 259: 118391, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891610

RESUMO

AIMS: Dyslipidemia-associated diabetic retinopathy is featured by macular edema and retinal angiogenesis. This study investigated the in vitro lipotoxicity of free fatty acids and their modulatory roles in regulation of autophagy and angiogenic factor production in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ARPE-19 cells. MAIN METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to monounsaturated oleic acid (OA), saturated palmitic acid (PA), or both. Cell viability, cell cycle distribution, migration, and autophagy of the treated cells were monitored. Angiogenic factor production was determined by RT-qPCR and ELISA. KEY FINDINGS: OA, but not PA, at doses higher than 500 µM significantly induced cytostasis and lipotoxicity in ARPE-19 cells. OA exposure not only markedly enhanced autophagy flux, but also enhanced cell migration, while PA suppressed motility of RPE cells. Meanwhile, OA stimulated de novo synthesis of angiogenic factors including VEGF and bFGF in ARPE-19 cells. Mechanistically, OA treatment stimulated not only AMPK/mTOR/p70S6K signaling, but also induced hyperphosphorylation of MAPK pathway mediators, including ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as NF-κB activation. Kinase inhibition assays showed that blockade of PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB pathways prevented the OA-upregulated VEGF transcription and its peptide release. Comparatively, only NF-κB inhibition significantly suppressed bFGF peptide release from ARPE-19 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Out findings support the OA-exhibited cytostasis, autophagy modulation and angiogenic factor production in RPE cells. This study sheds light on the interrelationship between metabolic disorder and retinopathy and provides molecular strategies for preventing and treating choroidal neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Autofagia , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Life Sci ; 259: 118383, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896555

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous studies have shown that the widespread use of estrogen preparations can cause adverse outcomes such as thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Autophagy is a biochemical process necessary to maintain cell homeostasis. The present study investigated whether E-2 mediates autophagy-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. The role of aspirin in this process was then studied. MAIN METHODS: Western blot, fluorescence microscopy, electron transmission microscopy, plasma construction and transfection, vasoreactivity study in wire myograph are all used in this study. KEY FINDINGS: We found that E-2 activated the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway and inhibited the formation of the Atg14L-Beclin1-Vps34-Vps15 complex, thereby inhibiting autophagy. Aspirin promoted Beclin1 phosphorylation in autophagy initiation complexes and enhanced autophagy. Furthermore, E-2 treatment of HAECs resulted in endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting autophagy and leading to accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). E-2 inhibited the activation of eNOS and reduced the expression of eNOS protein. In the mouse aortic vascular function test, E-2 disrupted endothelium-dependent vasodilation. An α-SMA-shRNA lentivirus eliminated the disruption to endothelium-dependent vasodilation by E-2. Aspirin inhibited α-SMA accumulation by enhancing autophagy, reversed endothelial functional impairment caused by E-2, and promoted endothelium-dependent vasodilation. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that E-2 inhibits autophagy and induces abnormal accumulation of α-SMA, resulting in endothelial cell dysfunction and affecting vasodilation. Aspirin can effectively restore the endothelial cell function disrupted E-2.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Aspirina/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Proteína VPS15 de Distribuição Vacuolar/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Life Sci ; 259: 118397, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896557

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that Bazedoxifene, as an FDA-approved selective estrogen inhibitor, approved by FDA, not only inhibits estrogen receptors, but also has other pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Bazedoxifene on the functional changes of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) after PDGF-BB stimulation. VSMCs were divided into control group, PDGF-BB treatment group, and PDGF-BB treatment group with different concentrations of Bazedoxifene. CCK-8 and EdU staining were used to determine the VSMCs viability and proliferation. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of vimentin, SMA, ERK, p-ERK, STAT3, p-STAT3, AKT, p-AKT, and LC3 I/II. Wound healing method was used to detect the migration of VSMCs. PDGF-BB treatment significantly enhanced the viability and proliferation of VSMCs as indicated by CCK-8 and EdU assays (P < 0.01), while Bazedoxifene pretreatment could reduce the increased viability and proliferation of VSMCs caused by PDGF-BB (P < 0.05). Wound healing test also showed Bazedoxifene significantly attenuated the migration in the PDGF-BB stimulated VSMCs (P < 0.01). PDGF-BB also induced the phenotypic switch and decreased the autophagy level in VSMCs, manifested as a reduction in vimentin, SMA, and LC3 II (P < 0.01). These effects of PDGF-BB were partially reversed by Bazedoxifene (P < 0.05). Bazedoxifene may inhibit the proliferation and migration of VSMCs through up-regulate the autophagy level after PDGF-BB stimulation.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Becaplermina/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia , Becaplermina/antagonistas & inibidores , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Fenótipo
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 981-987, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFRTKI) HS-10296 on the proliferation of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cells and explore the possible molecular mechanism. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with HS-10296 for 24, 48, or 72 h, and CCK-8 assay was used to assess the changes in the cell viability. The inhibitory effect of HS-10296 on cell proliferation was determined by clonogenic assay. JC-1 and flow cytometry were employed for analyzing the cell apoptosis, and the ultrastructure of the cells was observed under electron microscope. After pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ), MDA-MB-231 cells were divided into control group, CQ treatment group, HS-10296 (4 and 6 µmol/L) treatment groups and combined treatment groups, and the sensitivity of the treated cells to HS-10296 was determined using CCK-8 assay. The effects of HS-10296 on EGFR pathway and apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells were investigated using Western blotting. RESULTS: HS-10296 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values at 24, 48 and 72 h of 8.393, 2.777 and 2.016 µmol/L, respectively. JC-1 and flow cytometry showed that HS-10296 induced obvious apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed an apoptosis rate of (21.63 ± 2.97)% following treatment with 8 µmol/L HS-10296. Autophagy vesicles were observed in the cells treated with HS-10296 under electron microscope. In MDA-MB-231 cells pretreated with CQ, inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced HS-10296-induced cell death. Western blotting showed that the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was activated after HS-10296 treatment to cut its substrate PARP. The expression of autophagy-related protein light chain 3B (LC3B) was significantly enhanced after HS-10296 treatment (P < 0.01), which also resulted in inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR and AKT proteins in the cells. CONCLUSIONS: HS-10296 can inhibit the proliferation and induce autophagy and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting the EGFR/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Neoplasias da Mama , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases
9.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(6): 828-836, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced of autophagy, apoptosis and the related signaling pathways in THP-1 macrophages. METHODS: THP-1 macrophages were infected with EV71 at the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 for 2, 8 or 16 h, and the cell proliferation and toxicity were analyzed using CCK-8 kit. The intracellular viral nucleic acid in THP-1 macrophages were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the ultrastructural changes of the cells were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Cell apoptosis induced by EV71 infection was detected using Hoechst 33342 staining and AnnexinV/PI double staining. Western blotting was performed for analysis of changes in autophagy and apoptosis of the cells and in the expressions of the related proteins. The effect of EV71 infection on apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages incubated with 3-MA and Ac-DEVD-CHO inhibitor for 2 h was assessed using Western blotting. RESULTS: EV71 infection significantly lowered the cell survival rate of THP-1 macrophages at 2, 8 h and 16 h after the infection (P < 0.05). The total copy number of viral nucleic acid in THP-1 macrophages incubated with EV71 increased significantly and progressively over time (P < 0.01). Intracellular autophagosomes and virions could be seen in EV71-infected THP-1 macrophages. The total apoptotic rate of the infected cell also increased significantly over time (P < 0.01). EV71 infection significantly increased LC3 conversion (LC3-Ⅱ/ LC3-I) and the expression of cleaved caspase 3 protein and decreased the protein expressions of p62, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 (P < 0.01) without causing obvious changes in cleaved caspase-8 (P>0.05). 3-MA significantly inhibited the EV71-induced autophagy of THP-1 macrophages and reduced LC3 conversion (LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-I) and p62 protein expression at 8 h after EV71 infection (P < 0.01). Compared with DMSO, Ac-DEVD-CHO significantly inhibited EV71-induced apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages (15.5% vs 7.7%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: EV71 not only can infect and replicate in THP-1 macrophages, but also induces autophagy and cell apoptosis possibly by activating LC3/p62 autophagy pathway and caspase apoptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Enterovirus Humano A , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Macrófagos
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4480, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900992

RESUMO

Macroautophagy initiates by formation of isolation membranes, but the source of phospholipids for the membrane biogenesis remains elusive. Here, we show that autophagic membranes incorporate newly synthesized phosphatidylcholine, and that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase ß3 (CCTß3), an isoform of the rate-limiting enzyme in the Kennedy pathway, plays an essential role. In starved mouse embryo fibroblasts, CCTß3 is initially recruited to autophagic membranes, but upon prolonged starvation, it concentrates on lipid droplets that are generated from autophagic degradation products. Omegasomes and isolation membranes emanate from around those lipid droplets. Autophagy in prolonged starvation is suppressed by knockdown of CCTß3 and is enhanced by its overexpression. This CCTß3-dependent mechanism is also present in U2OS, an osteosarcoma cell line, and autophagy and cell survival in starvation are decreased by CCTß3 depletion. The results demonstrate that phosphatidylcholine synthesis through CCTß3 activation on lipid droplets is crucial for sustaining autophagy and long-term cell survival.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Colina-Fosfato Citidililtransferase/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Colina-Fosfato Citidililtransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Colina-Fosfato Citidililtransferase/genética , Meios de Cultura , Ativação Enzimática , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111344, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977283

RESUMO

Rotenone is an insecticide that generates oxidative stress in the CNS and induces locomotor dysfunction and neurodegeneration in rodents. Biochanin A [BioA] is an isoflavone with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. The antioxidant and the modulatory action of BioA on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and autophagy were tested in rotenone-Parkinsonian mice. Mice were allocated into; Group I: oil control group, Group II: rotenone group [1-mg/kg/48h, subcutaneously], group III: rotenone and BioA [10-mg/kg]. Rotenone injection resulted in locomotor disturbances in mice, degeneration in dopaminergic neurons [tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells], low striatal dopamine, increased malondialdehyde and decreased level of glutathione. Neuroinflammation was evidenced by upregulation of astrocytes [glia fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP] and elevated levels of cytokines. The phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and the autophagy-related protein, beclin-1, were decreased significantly as indicated by Western blot analysis. BioA treatment enhanced locomotor activity and afforded nigral neuroprotection. The mechanism by which BioA produced this effect includes increased antioxidant defenses, lessened proinflammatory cytokines, increased phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR proteins and upregulated beclin-1. Importantly, BioA suppressed the striatal astrocyte marker [GFAP]. Overall, the currents study highlighted that BioA activates PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and enhances beclin-1 leading to neuroprotection for nigral dopaminergic neurons.


Assuntos
Genisteína/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Rotenona/toxicidade , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3784-3789, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893571

RESUMO

Ischemic heart disease(IHD) is a common and frequently-occurring disease that causes serious harm to human health. Autophagy is a life process that maintains cell homeostasis by degrading macromolecules such as damaged organelles in cells. In the process of ischemic heart disease development, on the one hand, cardiomyocytes degrade macromolecules such as damaged organelles by autophagy to provide material basis for energy synthesis and maintain cell homeostasis; on the other hand, over-activated autophagy can also increase cardiomyocyte death. Ischemic heart disease has a complex pathological mechanism, and the occurrence of autophagy is closely related to the survival or death of myocardial cells, so the regulation of autophagy may be an important therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) with obvious effects, unique advantages and great potential has been widely used in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. In recent years, more and more studies have found that TCM can protect myocardium by regulating autophagy of cardiomyocytes. In this review, we summarized recent studies on the regulation of autophagy in myocardial cells by traditional Chinese medicine in ischemic heart disease. The pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicinein regulating autophagy to protect cardiomyocytes was reviewed through different ways(promoting or inhibiting autophagy) from three levels, i.e. active ingredient, as well as drug pair and compound. The specific mechanism of Chinese medicine in regulating autophagy to protect ischemic heart disease was explored to provide references or new ideas for clinical treatment and drug development of ischemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Isquemia Miocárdica , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Miocárdio , Miócitos Cardíacos
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(8): 1471-1483, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924346

RESUMO

Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that targets cytoplasmic components, maintains metabolic stability in cells, and combates infection with various pathogenic bacteria. Autophagy can help body to eliminate invading pathogens; however, some bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to interfere with the autophagy signaling pathway or inhibit the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes to form autolysosomes to escape autophagic degradation, and even use autophagy to promote their growth and proliferation. This review discusses the newest progress in the relationship between pathogens and autophagy of host cell, and the role of autophagy in bacterial infection. We hope that this review provides useful knowledge for the research on autophagy caused by pathogenic infection.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Citoplasma , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(8): 1610-1619, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924359

RESUMO

Autophagy is one of the most common protective mechanisms during plant stress response. We studied the effect of exogenous Cd on autophagy in celery, by using transcriptome sequencing technique to analyze the differentially expressed genes under different Cd concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L). Eight differentially expressed autophagy-related genes were screened and identified by qRT-PCR. Cd had obvious toxic effect on celery, in a dose-dependent manner. Eight differentially expressed autophagy-related genes were screened, among which ATG8a, ATG8f, ATG13, AMPK-1 and AMPK-2 were up-regulated, whereas ATG12, VPS30 and VPS34 were first up-regulated and then decreased. The up-regulated expression of differential genes may resist Cd toxicity by increasing autophagosome structures; however, 8 mg/L Cd exceeded the autophagosome tolerance limit of celery, resulting in decreased expression of multiple autophagy-related genes. The above results can provide help for subsequent functional study of autophagy-related genes, and provide a reference for further exploring the tolerance mechanism of celery to Cd toxicity.


Assuntos
Apium , Autofagia , Cádmio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Apium/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Reguladores/genética , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111053, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888615

RESUMO

Vinclozolin is a common dicarboximide fungicide used to protect crops from diseases. It is also an endocrine disruptor and is thought to be related to abnormalities of the reproductive tract. However, its mechanism of inducing abnormalities of the male reproductive tract is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of gestational vinclozolin exposure on the development of rat fetal Leydig cells. Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to vinclozolin (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage from gestational day 14-21. Vinclozolin dose-dependently reduced serum testosterone levels at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg and the anogenital distance at 100 mg/kg. RNA-seq, qPCR, and Western blotting showed that vinclozolin down-regulated the expression of Nr5a1, Sox9, Lhcgr, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3, Amh, Pdgfa, and Dhh and their encoded proteins. Vinclozolin reduced the number of NR2F2-positive stem Leydig cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg and enhanced autophagy in the testes. In conclusion, vinclozolin disrupts reproductive tract development and testis development in male fetal rats via several pathways.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Organogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4684, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943635

RESUMO

Cancer cells have a characteristic metabolism, mostly caused by alterations in signal transduction networks rather than mutations in metabolic enzymes. For metabolic drugs to be cancer-selective, signaling alterations need to be identified that confer a druggable vulnerability. Here, we demonstrate that many tumor cells with an acquired cancer drug resistance exhibit increased sensitivity to mechanistically distinct inhibitors of cancer metabolism. We demonstrate that this metabolic vulnerability is driven by mTORC1, which promotes resistance to chemotherapy and targeted cancer drugs, but simultaneously suppresses autophagy. We show that autophagy is essential for tumor cells to cope with therapeutic perturbation of metabolism and that mTORC1-mediated suppression of autophagy is required and sufficient for generating a metabolic vulnerability leading to energy crisis and apoptosis. Our study links mTOR-induced cancer drug resistance to autophagy defects as a cause of a metabolic liability and opens a therapeutic window for the treatment of otherwise therapy-refractory tumor patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiglucose , Tratamento Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4615, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934241

RESUMO

Integration of the unique advantages of the fields of drug discovery and drug delivery is invaluable for the advancement of drug development. Here we propose a self-delivering one-component new-chemical-entity nanomedicine (ONN) strategy to improve cancer therapy through incorporation of the self-assembly principle into drug design. A lysosomotropic detergent (MSDH) and an autophagy inhibitor (Lys05) are hybridised to develop bisaminoquinoline derivatives that can intrinsically form nanoassemblies. The selected BAQ12 and BAQ13 ONNs are highly effective in inducing lysosomal disruption, lysosomal dysfunction and autophagy blockade and exhibit 30-fold higher antiproliferative activity than hydroxychloroquine used in clinical trials. These single-drug nanoparticles demonstrate excellent pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles and dramatic antitumour efficacy in vivo. In addition, they are able to encapsulate and deliver additional drugs to tumour sites and are thus promising agents for autophagy inhibition-based combination therapy. Given their transdisciplinary advantages, these BAQ ONNs have enormous potential to improve cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Aminoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Aminoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Nanomedicina/instrumentação , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(5): 603-615, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919481

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to examine the impact of the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant peptide, SS31, and its role in promoting autophagy in cone photoreceptor 661W cells that were subjected to oxidative damage. To do so, we examined the viability of 661W cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of H2O2 with or without SS31 pre-treatment using the MTT assay and by expression of autophagy and apoptosis-associated proteins LC3-II/I, P62, and caspase-3. Autophagy was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy in cells stained with monodansyl cadaverine (MDC). Autophagy was induced with rapamycin (Rap) and inhibited with bafamycin A1 (bafA1) followed by examination of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in target 661W cells by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Annexin V/PI staining was used to evaluate the rate of apoptosis and mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq) analysis (Illumina platform) was performed on H2O2-exposed 661W cells treated with SS31. Among our results, we observed a substantial and concentration-dependent decrease in 661W cell viability in response to H2O2-exposure; production of ROS, autophagy and apoptosis were induced at 8 h in response to exposure to 100 µM of H2O2. Pre-treatment with 100 nM SS31 resulted in significant attenuation of H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity, together with reduced ROS production and enhanced autophagy observed in response to oxidative stress. Both Rap and bafA1 were used to modulate SS31-mediated autophagy; the impact of Rap was similar to that of SS31. By contrast, administration of bafA1 counteracted autophagy induced by SS31. Furthermore, mRNAseq analysis revealed that SS31 promoted significant alterations in gene expression in 661W cells and suggested that autophagy was induced via the mTORC1-mediated signaling. In conclusion, our results indicate that exposure to H2O2 resulted in reduced 661W cell viability via mechanisms associated with oxidative damage, apoptosis, and autophagy. Notably, we demonstrated that pre-treatment with SS31 protects 661W cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damage that may result in part from induction of autophagy via mTORC1-mediated signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
20.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(8): 640-4, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of autophagy mediated PI3K/AKT pathway and sex hormones in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats, so as to explore the mechanisms underlying improvement of PCOS anovulatory infertility. METHODS: Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, model and EA groups (n=10 per group). The PCOS model was established by gavage of Letrozole solution (1.0 mg/kg), once daily for 21 consecutive days. Then, EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to the "Sanyinjiao"(SP6) and "Taichong"(LR3) for 20 min, once a day for 14 successive days. The morphological changes of the ovary were observed after H.E. staining. The contents of serum androgen (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) were detected by ELISA. The expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the ovary tissues were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the levels of serum T, LH and AMH contents, and ovarian LC3 Ⅱ expression and the ratio of LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰwere significantly increased (P<0.05), and the expression levels of PI3K and AKT proteins were considerably decreased in the model group (P<0.05). After EA intervention, the levels of serum T, LH, AMH, and the ratio of LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰwere considerably down-regulated (P<0.05), and those of PI3K and AKT were obviously up-regulated in the EA group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA intervention can reduce serum T, LH and AMH contents, and the ratio of ovarian LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰ and up-regulate ovarian PI3K and AKT in PCOS rats, which may contribute to its effect in improving anovulatory infertility by suppressing autophagy.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Autofagia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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