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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782111

RESUMO

The bicycle is a low-cost means of transport linked to low risk of transmission of infectious disease. During the COVID-19 crisis, governments have therefore incentivized cycling by provisionally redistributing street space. We evaluate the impact of this new bicycle infrastructure on cycling traffic using a generalized difference in differences design. We scrape daily bicycle counts from 736 bicycle counters in 106 European cities. We combine these with data on announced and completed pop-up bike lane road work projects. Within 4 mo, an average of 11.5 km of provisional pop-up bike lanes have been built per city and the policy has increased cycling between 11 and 48% on average. We calculate that the new infrastructure will generate between $1 and $7 billion in health benefits per year if cycling habits are sticky.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Automóveis , Ciclismo/economia , Ciclismo/normas , Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Segurança , Transportes/métodos
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781036

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the current situation of occupational hazards in automobile manufacturing enterprises in Shandong Province. Methods: From February to May 2019, the convenience sampling method was adopted to conduct on-site occupational health surveys with 20 automobile manufacturing enterprises in Shandong Province as the survey subjects, to detect the occupational hazard factors in the workplaces and individual exposure levels, and to analyze the occupational health check results of operators. Results: There were 13 small-sized, 4 medium-sized and 3 large-sized enterprises among the 20 automobile manufacturing enterprises. The detection results of benzene and toluene in the workplaces met the occupational exposure limits, and the detection results of welding fumes, manganese and its compounds, and xylene exceed the occupational exposure limits. The maximum short-term exposure concentration (C(STE)) of welding fume in the air of workplaces was 24.23 mg/m(3), and the over-standard rate was 11.0% (16/146) . The maximum time-weighted average concentration (C(TWA)) of welding fume of operators is 10.60 mg/m(3), and the over-standard rate was 11.0% (8/73) . The maximum C(STE) of manganese and its compounds in the air of workplaces was 0.879 mg/m(3), and the of manganese and its compounds of operators was 0.175 mg/m(3), and the over-standard rate was 5.7% (4/70) . The maximum xylene C(STE) in the air of workplaces was 230.00 mg/m(3), and the over-standard rate was 3.9% (2/51) . The maximum xylene C(TWA) of operators was 70.40 mg/m(3), the over-standard rate was 3.6% (1/28) . Among the 4775 workers exposed to occupational hazards, 38 (0.80%) were suspected of electric welder's pneumoconiosis, 27 (0.57%) were suspected of manganese poisoning and 31 (0.65%) were suspected of chronic low-concentration benzene and benzene series poisoning. The detection rates of suspected occupational diseases among workers in small and medium-sized enterprises were relatively high, 2.86% (30/1048) and 4.51% (51/1132) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the detection rates of suspected occupational diseases among the operators of different scale automobile manufacturers (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The exposure levels of electric welding fumes, manganese and its compounds in welding jobs and xylene exposure levels in spray painting jobsin Shandong Province's automobile manufacturing enterprises are more serious. The supervision and management of occupational hygiene should be strengthened, the working environment should be improved, and the health of welding and painting workers should be protected.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Automóveis , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
3.
Clin Chem ; 67(4): 672-683, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic call for rapid response and complete screening of the suspected community population to identify potential carriers of pathogens. Central laboratories rely on time-consuming sample collection methods that are rarely available in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We present a highly automated and fully integrated mobile laboratory for fast deployment in response to infectious disease outbreaks. The mobile laboratory was equipped with a 6-axis robot arm for automated oropharyngeal swab specimen collection; virus in the collected specimen was inactivated rapidly using an infrared heating module. Nucleic acid extraction and nested isothermal amplification were performed by a "sample in, answer out" laboratory-on-a-chip system, and the result was automatically reported by the onboard information platform. Each module was evaluated using pseudovirus or clinical samples. RESULTS: The mobile laboratory was stand-alone and self-sustaining and capable of on-site specimen collection, inactivation, analysis, and reporting. The automated sampling robot arm achieved sampling efficiency comparable to manual collection. The collected samples were inactivated in as short as 12 min with efficiency comparable to a water bath without damage to nucleic acid integrity. The limit of detection of the integrated microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer reached 150 copies/mL within 45 min. Clinical evaluation of the onboard microfluidic nucleic acid analyzer demonstrated good consistency with reverse transcription quantitative PCR with a κ coefficient of 0.979. CONCLUSIONS: The mobile laboratory provides a promising solution for fast deployment of medical diagnostic resources at critical junctions of infectious disease outbreaks and facilitates local containment of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) transmission.


Assuntos
/métodos , Laboratórios , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Patologia Molecular/métodos , RNA Viral/análise , Adulto , Automóveis , /instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Masculino , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/química , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pandemias , Patologia Molecular/instrumentação , Robótica , /química
4.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(2): 10-13, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739061

RESUMO

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Is to determine the features of the injuries formation in children-pedestrians in a collision with moving cars on the basis of studying the nature and localization of injuries on the body of the victims. It was analyzed the materials of the forensic medical examination of 140 children death cases (91 boys and 49 girls) caused by a collision of moving cars with pedestrian-children aged 6 to 17 years. It was found that the majority of children-pedestrians with a car injury develop concomitant craniocerebral trauma (CCT) (78%), concomitant trauma of the chest (CT) (46.4%) and abdomen (50.2%), spinal cord injury (SCI) (25.7%) and fractures of the limb bones (55%). TBI is quite often accompanied by fractures of the bones of the vault and base of the skull. For CT of the chest and organs of the chest cavity, unilateral fractures of the ribs and bruises of the lungs are typical. In the structure of the abdomen organs CT, damage to the parenchymal organs prevails. In SCI, damage to the structures of the cervical and thoracic spinal column is more common, while separation of the spinal cord is quite common. This type of injury is characterized by the formation of femurs fractures, bones of the lower leg and upper limbs.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Fraturas Ósseas , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Automóveis , Criança , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino
5.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(2): 5, 2021 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527261

Assuntos
Automóveis , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535339

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the current status of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in automobile assembly workers, as well as the distribution of WMSDs at multiple sites and related influencing factors. Methods: From March to July 2019, cluster sampling was performed to select 663 male automobile assembly workers as respondents, and the musculoskeletal injury questionnaire was used to investigate their general status and working condition. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors for WMSDs at multiple sites. Results: The detection rate of WMSDs within the past 7 days was 37.9% (251/663) among the automobile assembly workers, and the detection rate of WMSDs within the past 1 year was 51.9% (344/663) . Of all workers, 13.6% (90/663) had WMSDs involving only 1 site, while 38.3% (254/663) had WMSDs involving 2 or more sites. The multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that frequent turns during work was a risk factor for WMSDs involving 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9 sites (odds ratio [OR]=1.65, 2.47, and 3.65, respectively) . Repeated action of lower extremities and ankles was a risk factor for WMSDs involving 4-6 and 7-9 sites (OR=2.15 and 2.98, respectively) . Working in an uncomfortable position was a risk factor for WMSDs involving 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9 sites (OR=1.95, 2.67, and 3.04, respectively) . Prolonged standing during work was a risk factor for WMSDs involving 1-3 and 4-6 sites (OR= 1.87 and 1.79, respectively) . Working overtime was a risk factor for WMSDs involving 7-9 sites (OR=5.48) . Adequate time for rest was a protective factor against WMSDs involving 1-3 and 4-6 sites (OR=0.50 and 0.31, respectively) . Conclusion: There is a high detection rate of WMSDs in automobile assembly workers, and WMSDs at multiple sites are more common than WMSDs at a single site. Poor position and organizational management factors are risk factors for occupational WMSDs at multiple sites.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Automóveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(1): 184-197, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460417

RESUMO

The efficiency of combined filtration media consisting of rice husk (RH), granular activated carbon (GAC) and gravel (GR) for the removal of metals cadmium, copper, lead and iron from stormwater runoff emanating from automobile workshops in Nigeria was investigated. Stormwater runoff samples were collected from five sites over a period of nine (9) weeks and filtered using two filter combinations, GAC - RH, GR - GAC as well as a RH-only filter. All the filters removed metals. Highest average singular metals removals were: approximately 74% copper for GR - GAC; 70% lead for RH, 67% iron for GAC - RH and 46% cadmium for GAC - RH. Average metals removal efficiencies (all metals combined) were GAC - RH 61%, GR - GAC 52% and RH-only 46%. The combined filter materials therefore showed better metals removal efficiencies than the RH-only filter. Further filtration of metals polluted stormwater would be required to lower the average metals concentration to meet local and international discharge standards. Future research into low cost modifications towards optimising the filter materials to improve metals removal efficiencies is recommended.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Automóveis , Carvão Vegetal , Filtração , Nigéria
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481956

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 was first identified in Hubei Province, China in December, 2019. Within a matter of months the virus had spread and become a global pandemic. In addition to international air travel, local travel (e.g. by passenger car) contributes to the geographic spread of COVID-19. We modify the common susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) virus spread model and investigate the extent to which short-term travel associated with driving influences the spread of the virus. We consider the case study of the US state of Minnesota, and calibrated the proposed model with travel and viral spread data. Using our modified SEIR model that considers local short-term travel, we are able to better explain the virus spread than using the long-term travel SEIR model. Short-term travel associated with driving is predicted to be a significant contributor to the historical and future spread of COVID-19. The calibrated model also predicts the proportion of infections that were detected. We find that if driving trips remain at current levels, a substantial increase in COVID-19 cases may be observed in Minnesota, while decreasing intrastate travel could help contain the virus spread.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Viagem , Automóveis , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , /isolamento & purificação
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353151

RESUMO

Predictive factors for fatal traffic accidents have been determined, but not addressed collectively through a predictive model to help determine the probability of mortality and thereby ascertain key points for intervening and decreasing that probability. Data on all road traffic accidents with victims involving a private car or van occurring in Spain in 2015 (164,790 subjects and 79,664 accidents) were analyzed, evaluating 30-day mortality following the accident. As candidate predictors of mortality, variables associated with the accident (weekend, time, number of vehicles, road, brightness, and weather) associated with the vehicle (type and age of vehicle, and other types of vehicles in the accident) and associated with individuals (gender, age, seat belt, and position in the vehicle) were examined. The sample was divided into two groups. In one group, a logistic regression model adapted to a points system was constructed and internally validated, and in the other group the model was externally validated. The points system obtained good discrimination and calibration in both the internal and the external validation. Consequently, a simple tool is available to determine the risk of mortality following a traffic accident, which could be validated in other countries.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Automóveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Cintos de Segurança , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339358

RESUMO

The emergence and development of car-sharing has not only satisfied people's diverse travel needs, but also brought new solutions for improving urban traffic conditions and achieving low-carbon and green sustainable development. In recent years, car-sharing has had competition with other ways of getting around, as the acceptance of car-sharing has grown, notably taxis. Therefore, it is particularly important to explore car-sharing travel costs advantages from the perspective of consumers and discover the competitive and complementary spaces between car-sharing and other modes. Therefore, taking Beijing as an example, this paper uses GPS trajectory data based on car-sharing orders to design a travel cost framework of car-sharing and taxis. We calculate and compare the travel cost difference between these two modes under different travel characteristics. The results indicate that car-sharing is a more economical way for consumers to travel for short or medium lengths of time, while people are more inclined to take taxis for distances of long duration. Compared with on workdays, at the weekend, the cost advantage of car-sharing is greater for long-distance trips. Moreover, the cost advantage of car-sharing increases gradually with the increase in travel distance. In addition, the travel costs of car-sharing and taxis are also affected by peak and off-peak traffic periods. Compared with off-peak periods, it is more cost-effective for travelers to take taxis during peak traffic periods for various travel distances. From the perspective of the travel cost, it is of great theoretical significance to discuss the substitution (market competition) and complementary relationship (market cooperation) between car-sharing and taxis in a detailed and systematic way. It provides methods and ideas for the comparative cost calculation of car-sharing and other travel modes. This paper also provides enlightenment and guidance for the development of car-sharing. Enterprises should implement differentiated pricing, designing different charging methods for different traffic periods, travel miles, and rental times, and set up additional stations in the surrounding areas of the city. Relevant government departments should also strictly manage the market access of car-sharing, and add or open car-sharing parking lots in centralized areas and for specific periods.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Viagem , Pequim , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Viagem/economia
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036540

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the risk of occupational hearing loss caused by noise exposure in an automobile parts manufacturing enterprise. Methods: In June 2019, an automobile parts manufacturing enterprise in Huizhou City was selected to conduct occupational hygiene field investigation, and occupational health investigation and occupational hazards detection were carried out in the workplace. 395 workers with 8-hour working day equivalent sound level (L(ex·8 h)) ≥85 dB (a) were selected as the research objects. The occupational noise exposure risk assessment method was used to assess the noise exposure risk of L(ex·8 h)≥85 dB (a) , and the risk of high-frequency hearing loss and occupational noise deafness caused by noise exposure were evaluated when the working years were 10, 20, 30, 35 and 40. Results: When the exposure years were less than or equal to 30 years, the risk of high-frequency hearing loss of bearing pedestal final examiners was medium risk, and the risk of other positions was acceptable; the highest risk of noise deafness was the bearing pedestal final examiner, and the risk classification was higher, and the other types of work were negligible risk and acceptable risk. When the exposure years are more than 30 years, the risk classification of high-frequency hearing loss of bearing pedestal final inspection workers is high-risk, and the risk classification of other types of work is medium risk; the highest risk of noise deafness is the bearing pedestal final inspection workers, and the risk classification is higher risk, and the other types of work are medium risk. Conclusion: The enterprise should pay attention to the risk of occupational hearing loss caused by noise exposure, especially the bearing pedestal final inspection workers, and strengthen the hearing protection of noise exposed people.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Automóveis , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco
12.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 99-103, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994598

RESUMO

In this viewpoint we briefly review the evidence for smoke-free car legislation. We find that this legislation has been consistently associated with reduced secondhand exposure in cars with children/youth in all nine jurisdictions studied. Despite this, there are various aspects of this intervention that warrant further study-especially determining its impact on reducing tobacco-related ethnic inequalities. So we argue that the New Zealand Ministry of Health should invest in a thorough evaluation of this important upcoming public health intervention. This could both help the country in further refining the design of the law (if necessary) and would also be a valuable contribution to advancing the knowledge base for international tobacco control.


Assuntos
Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Automóveis/normas , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239608, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970768

RESUMO

Electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are the future of braking systems, particularly in commercial vehicles. Therefore, it is important to design a simple EMB scheme and establish its clamping force control strategy to satisfy the demands of commercial vehicle braking systems. This study proposes a pneumatic disc-brake-based EMB for an electric bus. Its working principle was established, and the system model was analyzed. Subsequently, the hidden Markov models (HMMs) of driver decelerate and brake intentions were built and recognized based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Given the time-consuming behavior of the proposed EMB to eliminate brake clearance due to the leverage effect of the arm and motor performance limitation, a clamping force control strategy factoring in the driver intentions was developed to improve the response performance without changing the structure or size of the EMB. Furthermore, simulation analyses were performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The results confirmed that under the action of a step and 5 Hz triangular sawtooth signals, the clamping force output from the EMB corresponds well with the target signal. The clamping force gradually increases when approaching the target without overshoot and jitter during the process. The overall clamping force response time is decreased by approximately 0.25 s under the driver emergency brake than the conventional control method. Hence, the response performance of the EMB is improved.


Assuntos
Automóveis/normas , Simulação por Computador , Desaceleração , Intenção , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986720

RESUMO

The popularity of Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has made people's driving environment more comfortable and convenient. However, with the integration of external networks and the vehicle networks, the vulnerabilities of the Controller Area Network (CAN) are exposed, allowing attackers to remotely invade vehicle networks through external devices. Based on the remote attack model for vulnerabilities of the in-vehicle CAN, we designed an efficient and safe identity authentication scheme based on Feige-Fiat-Shamir (FFS) zero-knowledge identification scheme with extremely high soundness. We used the method of zero-one reversal and two-to-one verification to solve the problem that FFS cannot effectively resist guessing attacks. Then, we carried out a theoretical analysis of the scheme's security and evaluated it on the software and hardware platform. Finally, regarding time overhead, under the same parameters, compared with the existing scheme, the scheme can complete the authentication within 6.1ms without having to go through multiple rounds of interaction, which reduces the additional authentication delay and enables all private keys to participate in one round of authentication, thereby eliminating the possibility that a private key may not be involved in the original protocol. Regarding security and soundness, as long as private keys are not cracked, the scheme can resist guessing attacks, which is more secure than the existing scheme.


Assuntos
Automação/métodos , Segurança Computacional/instrumentação , Segurança Computacional/tendências , Algoritmos , Condução de Veículo , Automóveis , China , Confidencialidade , Vítimas de Crime , Excipientes , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação/instrumentação , Sistemas de Informação/tendências , Internet , Conhecimento , Projetos de Pesquisa , Software
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881926

RESUMO

Unmanned vehicles need to make a comprehensive perception of the surrounding environmental information during driving. Perception of automotive information is of significance. In the field of automotive perception, the sterevision of car-detection plays a vital role and sterevision can calculate the length, width, and height of a car, making the car more specific. However, under the existing technology, it is impossible to obtain accurate detection in a complex environment by relying on a single sensor. Therefore, it is particularly important to study the complex sensing technology based on multi-sensor fusion. Recently, with the development of deep learning in the field of vision, a mobile sensor-fusion method based on deep learning is proposed and applied in this paper--Mobile Deep Sensor Fusion Model (MDSFM). The content of this article is as follows. It does a data processing that projects 3D data to 2D data, which can form a dataset suitable for the model, thereby training data more efficiently. In the modules of LiDAR, it uses a revised squeezeNet structure to lighten the model and reduce parameters. In the modules of cameras, it uses the improved design of detecting module in R-CNN with a Mobile Spatial Attention Module (MSAM). In the fused part, it uses a dual-view deep fusing structure. And then it selects images from the KITTI's datasets for validation to test this model. Compared with other recognized methods, it shows that our model has a fairly good performance. Finally, it implements a ROS program on the experimental car and our model is in good condition. The result shows that it can improve performance of detecting easy cars significantly through MDSFM. It increases the quality of the detected data and improves the generalized ability of car-detection model. It improves contextual relevance and preserves background information. It remains stable in driverless environments. It is applied in the realistic scenario and proves that the model has a good practical value.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Automóveis , Imageamento Tridimensional , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Percepção de Profundidade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Fotografação/instrumentação , Robótica
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892593

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and late diagnosis of suspected occupational diseases in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2018. Methods: The cases of suspected occupational diseases reported in Guangzhou from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2018 were collected and followed up to the end of 2018. The cases of suspected occupational diseases were analyzed statistically. Results: A total of 1502 suspected occupational cases were reported in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2018, including suspected occupational otorhinolaryngological and oral diseases (58.59%, 880/1502) , suspected occupational chronic poisoning (25.03%, 376/1502) and suspected occupational pneumoconiosis (11.72%, 176/1502) . The key reporting areas were Huangpu District (27.50%, 413/1502) and Panyu District (20.91%, 314/1502) . The key reporting industries were manufacturing industry (80.36%, 1207/1502) , among which railway, ship, aerospace and other transportation equipment manufacturing industry (13.26%, 160/1207) , automobile manufacturing industry (12.51%, 151/1207) and general equipment manufacturing industry (10.19%, 123/1207) were the main industries. The main type of reported economy was private economy (39.95%, 600/1502) . The scale of the key reporting enterprises was medium and small-sized enterprises (31.09%, 467/1502 and 34.62%, 520/1502) . As of December 31, 2018, 263 cases were diagnosed with occupational diseases, and the diagnosis rate was 17.51%. Conclusion: The number of suspected occupational diseases reported in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2018 is large, and the overall diagnosis rate of suspected occupational diseases is low. It is necessary to strengthen the supervision and management of key diseases, key regions, and key industries of suspected occupational diseases. It is suggested that the reporting system of suspected occupational diseases should be standardized as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Automóveis , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indústrias , Indústria Manufatureira , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Pneumoconiose
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898137

RESUMO

Public acceptance of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is still questionable. Nevertheless, it can be influenced by proper communication strategy. Therefore, our research focuses on (1) the type of information concerning AVs that consumers seek and (2) how to communicate this technology in order to increase its acceptance. In the first study (N = 711) topic modeling showed that the most sought for information concern the communion and the agency of AVs. In the second, experimental study (N = 303) we measured the participants' fear and goal-orientation in relation to AVs. Then, after the manipulation of the AV advertisement (imbued with communal vs agentic content), technology acceptance components (perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and behavioral intention) were verified. The comparative analysis of the structural model estimates showed that the both participants' fear and goal-orientation in relation to AVs were associated much more with the acceptance components of the communal AV rather than the agentic one. Therefore, people want to know both whether AVs are communal and agentic, but they are more prone to accept a communal AV than agentic one.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisa , Tecnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735570

RESUMO

Different consumer groups accept new energy vehicles sequentially from the perspective of innovation diffusion theory, and the early adopter group has recently been identified. By assuming that the density of early adopters is increasing at minimum acceptable quality thresholds, this paper proposes a vertical quality differentiation model of product R&D with product subsidies. The impact of product subsidies on the R&D investment of new energy vehicle firms is discussed. We show that the early adopters' characteristics may affect the stagnant marginal R&D investment of new energy vehicle firms by increasing sales, which determines the impact mechanism of product subsidies. For firms with decreasing marginal R&D investments, insufficient R&D investments result from financial constraints. If insufficient R&D resources deter firms from conducting R&D, substantial unit subsidies invariably incentivize firms to spend their entire R&D budget. Firms with increasing marginal R&D investments, insufficient R&D profits, or financial constraints are prevented from increasing R&D investment. Product subsidies generally have a crowding-in effect on firms not subject to financial constraints, and this effect increases with the unit subsidy. However, the existence of a crowding-in effect may require sufficiently large unit subsidies. In both situations, product subsidies cannot modulate financial constraints if the firm has spent its entire R&D budget. In the first situation, we also show that product subsidies should be replaced by a funding support policy. In contrast, the second situation shows that a funding support policy should be coordinated with product subsidies.


Assuntos
Automóveis/economia , Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/economia , Modelos Estatísticos
19.
Waste Manag ; 117: 81-92, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818811

RESUMO

China's automobile industry is developing rapidly, but the recycling rate of end-of-life vehicles has been low. In 2018, the recovery rate of end-of-life passenger vehicles was less than 18% of the scrapped amount. Dynamic material flow analysis can predict the amount of end-of-life passenger cars in China in the future, and analyze the flow of materials in recycling system. Life cycle assessment can be used to quantify greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, this paper integrates these two methods into the model construction of recycling decision system. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the important factors affecting the efficiency of the recovery system is carried out. Finally, the main recovery indexes of the system are predicted under three scenarios: low-speed, medium speed and high-speed development, which are set based on scrap volume, standard recovery rate, proportion of assembly into remanufacturing and carbon tax price. The research results show that in 2018, 656.9 kg/vehicle of iron, 150.2 kg/vehicle of aluminum and 7.9 kg/vehicle of copper are recovered from end-of-life passenger car in China, and the carbon emission during the recovery process is 651.1 kg of CO2eq/vehicle, with a total emission reduction of 3816.1 kgCO2eq/vehicle compared with the original production, and the economic benefit is about 5055.5 yuan/vehicle. The scenario prediction results show that by 2050, from the low-speed development scenario to the high-speed development scenario, the total amount of iron, aluminum and copper recovered rise from 3.96 million tons, 915 thousand tons and 46 thousand tons to 697 thousand tons, 1.61 million tons and 80 thousand tons respectively throughout the year. The carbon emission in the recovery process rise from 4.98 thousand tons to 9.32 million tons. Compared with the original production, the carbon emission reduction increases from 2.21 million tons to 38.3 million tons, the economic benefit increases from 58.9 billion yuan to 118.8 billion yuan, and the comprehensive benefit increases from 57 billion yuan to 111.6 billion yuan.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Reciclagem , Automóveis , China , Indústrias
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105675, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634761

RESUMO

Worldwide efforts have been made to deploy connected vehicle (CV) technologies in practice. The Korean government has also conducted various projects to fully exploit the benefits of CVs. This study attempted to estimate the safety benefits achievable of CVs based on crash risk analyses, which is a part of a pre-deployment project for CVs on freeways. A nice feature of the CVs in this project is that they are equipped with in-vehicle forward collision warning systems that are capable of providing both the speed of a preceding vehicle and the spacing between the preceding vehicle and a subject vehicle. This technical support enables us to systematically analyze vehicle interactions in terms of traffic safety. The crash potential index (CPI), which is able to analyze vehicle interactions in terms of crash risks, was adopted to quantify the crash potential of CVs when the forward hazardous situation warning (FHSW) information was either provided or not provided. The results of this study show that the average speed decreased by 10.2 % and the time-to-collision (TTC) increased by 5.3 % when warning information was provided. In addition, the achievable reduction in the CPI was approximately 20.7 % due to the provision of warning information. An illustrative demonstration of identifying freeway hazardous spots was also presented as a further application of the CPI analysis. The outcomes of this study will be useful for the establishment of relevant policies to promote CV technologies.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Automóveis , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco
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