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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502864

RESUMO

The world is living the fourth industrial revolution, marked by the increasing intelligence and automation of manufacturing systems. Nevertheless, there are types of tasks that are too complex or too expensive to be fully automated, it would be more efficient if the machines were able to work with the human, not only by sharing the same workspace but also as useful collaborators. A possible solution to that problem is on human-robot interaction systems, understanding the applications where they can be helpful to implement and what are the challenges they face. This work proposes the development of an industrial prototype of a human-machine interaction system through Augmented Reality, in which the objective is to enable an industrial operator without any programming experience to program a robot. The system itself is divided into two different parts: the tracking system, which records the operator's hand movement, and the translator system, which writes the program to be sent to the robot that will execute the task. To demonstrate the concept, the user drew geometric figures, and the robot was able to replicate the operator's path recorded.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Robótica , Automação , Humanos , Indústrias , Movimento
2.
Anal Chem ; 93(34): 11836-11842, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461729

RESUMO

Measuring insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is useful for assessing and managing growth-related disorders, such as acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency. High-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is used for measuring IGF-1 due to its molecular specificity, quantitative performance, well-characterized reference materials, and detailed age/sex-specific reference intervals. However, polymorphisms in the IGF1 gene may cause mass shifts in the polypeptide, which can impede quantitation and cause errors in clinical interpretation. We (1) developed a concept of "isotopic peak index", which allows simultaneous monitoring of 15 IGF-1 variants by using only four m/z ratios; (2) developed a "relative retention time" parameter that allows distinction of previously unresolved variants; and (3) utilized tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to distinguish between the most common pair of variants: isobaric A67T and A70T. All methods were validated with DNA sequencing. This approach identified six variants from the ExAC database, P66A, A67S, S34N, A38 V, A67T, and A70T; two previously reported V44M and A67V variants; and discovered six unreported variants, Y31H, S33P, R50Q, R56K, T41I, and A62T. Major improvements in our workflow include enhanced automation, avoiding detailed manual calculations that are prone to human error, and the ability to monitor more, and discover new, IGF-1 variants. The workflow provides a profile of a patient's IGF-1 status and can be used to explore genotype-phenotype relationships in IGF-1 variants.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Automação , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Laboratórios , Masculino
3.
F1000Res ; 10: 401, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408850

RESUMO

Background: The reliable and usable (semi)automation of data extraction can support the field of systematic review by reducing the workload required to gather information about the conduct and results of the included studies. This living systematic review examines published approaches for data extraction from reports of clinical studies. Methods: We systematically and continually search MEDLINE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), arXiv, and the dblp computer science bibliography databases. Full text screening and data extraction are conducted within an open-source living systematic review application created for the purpose of this review. This iteration of the living review includes publications up to a cut-off date of 22 April 2020. Results: In total, 53 publications are included in this version of our review. Of these, 41 (77%) of the publications addressed extraction of data from abstracts, while 14 (26%) used full texts. A total of 48 (90%) publications developed and evaluated classifiers that used randomised controlled trials as the main target texts. Over 30 entities were extracted, with PICOs (population, intervention, comparator, outcome) being the most frequently extracted. A description of their datasets was provided by 49 publications (94%), but only seven (13%) made the data publicly available. Code was made available by 10 (19%) publications, and five (9%) implemented publicly available tools. Conclusions: This living systematic review presents an overview of (semi)automated data-extraction literature of interest to different types of systematic review. We identified a broad evidence base of publications describing data extraction for interventional reviews and a small number of publications extracting epidemiological or diagnostic accuracy data. The lack of publicly available gold-standard data for evaluation, and lack of application thereof, makes it difficult to draw conclusions on which is the best-performing system for each data extraction target. With this living review we aim to review the literature continually.


Assuntos
Publicações , Relatório de Pesquisa , Automação , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , MEDLINE
4.
Appl Ergon ; 97: 103543, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343736

RESUMO

The delegation of tasks to a non-human agent in a sociotechnical system can extend human capabilities and performance. Effective performance is, however, reliant on a successful relationship between human operators and automation. Optronics is a partially automated system which has replaced periscope on board some modern submarine platforms, operating modes permit the completion of tasks either manually or utilizing automation. A reluctance to utilize automated functionality within the optronics system has been due to operator familiarity with legacy manual procedures based upon the use of a physical periscope. This highlights the gap that is prevalent between innovation, design, training and governance of automation utilization. The current work examined current (Control group) utilization of optronics technology using an expert population in a high fidelity simulator. Findings were utilized to guide the development of novel optronics specific standard operating procedures (Intervention group). Results indicate that automaton disuse was greatly reduced, which had had a positive overall impact on overall system performance with regard to productivity and accuracy. The current work highlights the importance of incorporating governance of use and training as part of an automation design and implementation program is critical to help 'maximize what you have'.


Assuntos
Navios , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Automação , Humanos
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450839

RESUMO

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) rely on various types of sensor technologies to perceive the environment and to make logical decisions based on the gathered information similar to humans. Under ideal operating conditions, the perception systems (sensors onboard AVs) provide enough information to enable autonomous transportation and mobility. In practice, there are still several challenges that can impede the AV sensors' operability and, in turn, degrade their performance under more realistic conditions that actually occur in the physical world. This paper specifically addresses the effects of different weather conditions (precipitation, fog, lightning, etc.) on the perception systems of AVs. In this work, the most common types of AV sensors and communication modules are included, namely: RADAR, LiDAR, ultrasonic, camera, and global navigation satellite system (GNSS). A comprehensive overview of their physical fundamentals, electromagnetic spectrum, and principle of operation is used to quantify the effects of various weather conditions on the performance of the selected AV sensors. This quantification will lead to several advantages in the simulation world by creating more realistic scenarios and by properly fusing responses from AV sensors in any object identification model used in AVs in the physical world. Moreover, it will assist in selecting the appropriate fading or attenuation models to be used in any X-in-the-loop (XIL, e.g., hardware-in-the-loop, software-in-the-loop, etc.) type of experiments to test and validate the manner AVs perceive the surrounding environment under certain conditions.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Automação , Humanos , Tecnologia , Transportes , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372210

RESUMO

Industrialization has led to a huge demand for a network control system to monitor and control multi-loop processes with high effectiveness. Due to these advancements, new industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) standards such as ZigBee, WirelessHART, ISA 100.11a wireless, and Wireless network for Industrial Automation-Process Automation (WIA-PA) have begun to emerge based on their wired conventional structure with additional developments. This advancement improved flexibility, scalability, needed fewer cables, reduced the network installation and commissioning time, increased productivity, and reduced maintenance costs compared to wired networks. On the other hand, using IWSNs for process control comes with the critical challenge of handling stochastic network delays, packet drop, and external noises which are capable of degrading the controller performance. Thus, this paper presents a detailed study focusing only on the adoption of WirelessHART in simulations and real-time applications for industrial process monitoring and control with its crucial challenges and design requirements.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Tecnologia sem Fio , Automação , Indústrias
8.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(7): 198-206, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340267

RESUMO

Background: High-throughput assays that can infer neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 are of great importance for assessing the immunity induced by natural infection and COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to evaluate the performance and degree of correlation of three fully automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays with neutralization activity using a surrogate virus-neutralizing test (sVNT) from GenScript, targeting the receptor-binding domain. Methods: 110 sera collected from PCR-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) using the sVNT. Positive samples were tested on three automated immunoassays targeting different viral antigens: Mindray CL-900i®, Abbott Architect, and Ortho VITROS®. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, agreement, and correlation with the sVNT were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine optimal thresholds for predicting the presence of neutralizing activity by each assay. Results: All three assays showed 100% specificities. The highest sensitivity was 99.0%, demonstrated by VITROS®, followed by 94.3%, for CL-900i®, and 81.0%, for Architect. Both VITROS® and CL-900i® had the strongest correlation with the sVNT (ρ = 0.718 and ρ = 0.712, respectively), while Architect showed a moderate correlation (ρ = 0.618). ROC curve analysis indicated that the manufacturer's recommended cutoff values are adequate for predicting the presence of nAbs and providing a strong correlation with the sVNT. Conclusion: VITROS® and CL-900i® serological assays, which detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, could serve as reliable assays to predict neutralization activity after infection or vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoensaio/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Automação , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção
9.
Nat Med ; 27(8): 1471-1476, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349267

RESUMO

We evaluated the safety and efficacy of fully closed-loop insulin therapy compared with standard insulin therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes requiring dialysis. In an open-label, multinational, two-center, randomized crossover trial, 26 adults with type 2 diabetes requiring dialysis (17 men, 9 women, average age 68 ± 11 years (mean ± s.d.), diabetes duration of 20 ± 10 years) underwent two 20-day periods of unrestricted living, comparing the Cambridge fully closed-loop system using faster insulin aspart ('closed-loop') with standard insulin therapy and a masked continuous glucose monitor ('control') in random order. The primary endpoint was time in target glucose range (5.6-10.0 mmol l-1). Thirteen participants received closed-loop first and thirteen received control therapy first. The proportion of time in target glucose range (5.6-10.0 mmol l-1; primary endpoint) was 52.8 ± 12.5% with closed-loop versus 37.7 ± 20.5% with control; mean difference, 15.1 percentage points (95% CI 8.0-22.2; P < 0.001). Mean glucose was lower with closed-loop than control (10.1 ± 1.3 versus 11.6 ± 2.8 mmol l-1; P = 0.003). Time in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol l-1) was reduced with closed-loop versus control (median (IQR) 0.1 (0.0-0.4%) versus 0.2 (0.0-0.9%); P = 0.040). No severe hypoglycemia events occurred during the control period, whereas one severe hypoglycemic event occurred during the closed-loop period, but not during closed-loop operation. Fully closed-loop improved glucose control and reduced hypoglycemia compared with standard insulin therapy in adult outpatients with type 2 diabetes requiring dialysis. The trial registration number is NCT04025775.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Automação , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450910

RESUMO

Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are generally considered to be the next generation of engineered systems. However, the actual application of CPSs in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is still at a low level. The sensing method in the construction process plays a very important role in the establishment of CPSs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the application potential of computer vision-based sensing methods and provide practical suggestions through a literature review. This paper provides a review of the current application of CPSs in the AEC industry, summarizes the current knowledge gaps, and discusses the problems with the current construction site sensing approach. Considering the unique advantages of the computer vision (CV) method at the construction site, the application of CV for different construction entities was reviewed and summarized to achieve a CV-based construction site sensing approach for construction process CPSs. The potential of CPS can be further stimulated by providing rich information from on-site sensing using CV methods. According to the review, this approach has unique advantages in the specific environment of the construction site. Based on the current knowledge gap identified in the literature review, this paper proposes a novel concept of visual-based construction site sensing method for CPS application, and an architecture for CV-based CPS is proposed as an implementation of this concept. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a CPS architecture using computer vision as the main information acquisition method based on the literature review. This architecture innovatively introduces computer vision as a sensing method of construction sites, and realizes low-cost and non-invasive information acquisition in complex construction scenarios. This method can be used as an important supplement to on-site sensing to further promote the automation and intelligence of the construction process.


Assuntos
Computadores , Engenharia , Automação
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450999

RESUMO

Road vehicle accidents are mostly due to human errors, and many such accidents could be avoided by continuously monitoring the driver. Driver monitoring (DM) is a topic of growing interest in the automotive industry, and it will remain relevant for all vehicles that are not fully autonomous, and thus for decades for the average vehicle owner. The present paper focuses on the first step of DM, which consists of characterizing the state of the driver. Since DM will be increasingly linked to driving automation (DA), this paper presents a clear view of the role of DM at each of the six SAE levels of DA. This paper surveys the state of the art of DM, and then synthesizes it, providing a unique, structured, polychotomous view of the many characterization techniques of DM. Informed by the survey, the paper characterizes the driver state along the five main dimensions-called here "(sub)states"-of drowsiness, mental workload, distraction, emotions, and under the influence. The polychotomous view of DM is presented through a pair of interlocked tables that relate these states to their indicators (e.g., the eye-blink rate) and the sensors that can access each of these indicators (e.g., a camera). The tables factor in not only the effects linked directly to the driver, but also those linked to the (driven) vehicle and the (driving) environment. They show, at a glance, to concerned researchers, equipment providers, and vehicle manufacturers (1) most of the options they have to implement various forms of advanced DM systems, and (2) fruitful areas for further research and innovation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Automação , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vigília
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(8): 969-970, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239081
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300366

RESUMO

The utilization of robotic systems has been increasing in the last decade. This increase has been derived by the evolvement in the computational capabilities, communication systems, and the information systems of the manufacturing systems which is reflected in the concept of Industry 4.0. Furthermore, the robotics systems are continuously required to address new challenges in the industrial and manufacturing domain, like keeping humans in the loop, among other challenges. Briefly, the keeping humans in the loop concept focuses on closing the gap between humans and machines by introducing a safe and trustworthy environment for the human workers to work side by side with robots and machines. It aims at increasing the engagement of the human as the automation level increases rather than replacing the human, which can be nearly impossible in some applications. Consequently, the collaborative robots (Cobots) have been created to allow physical interaction with the human worker. However, these cobots still lack of recognizing the human emotional state. In this regard, this paper presents an approach for adapting cobot parameters to the emotional state of the human worker. The approach utilizes the Electroencephalography (EEG) technology for digitizing and understanding the human emotional state. Afterwards, the parameters of the cobot are instantly adjusted to keep the human emotional state in a desirable range which increases the confidence and the trust between the human and the cobot. In addition, the paper includes a review on technologies and methods for emotional sensing and recognition. Finally, this approach is tested on an ABB YuMi cobot with commercially available EEG headset.


Assuntos
Robótica , Automação , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Humanos , Indústrias
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300387

RESUMO

This paper proposes a new haptic shared control concept between the human driver and the automation for lane keeping in semi-autonomous vehicles. Based on the principle of human-machine interaction during lane keeping, the level of cooperativeness for completion of driving task is introduced. Using the proposed human-machine cooperative status along with the driver workload, the required level of haptic authority is determined according to the driver's performance characteristics. Then, a time-varying assistance factor is developed to modulate the assistance torque, which is designed from an integrated driver-in-the-loop vehicle model taking into account the yaw-slip dynamics, the steering dynamics, and the human driver dynamics. To deal with the time-varying nature of both the assistance factor and the vehicle speed involved in the driver-in-the-loop vehicle model, a new ℓ∞ linear parameter varying control technique is proposed. The predefined specifications of the driver-vehicle system are guaranteed using Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed haptic shared control method is validated under various driving tests conducted with high-fidelity simulations. Extensive performance evaluations are performed to highlight the effectiveness of the new method in terms of driver-automation conflict management.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Automação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Torque , Carga de Trabalho
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300396

RESUMO

Nowadays, the concept of Industry 4.0 aims to improve factories' competitiveness. Usually, manufacturing production is guided by standards to segment and distribute its processes and implementations. However, industry 4.0 requires innovative proposals for disruptive technologies that engage the entire production process in factories, not just a partial improvement. One of these disruptive technologies is the Digital Twin (DT). This advanced virtual model runs in real-time and can predict, detect, and classify normal and abnormal operating conditions in factory processes. The Automation Pyramid (AP) is a conceptual element that enables the efficient distribution and connection of different actuators in enterprises, from the shop floor to the decision-making levels. When a DT is deployed into a manufacturing system, generally, the DT focuses on the low-level that is named field level, which includes the physical devices such as controllers, sensors, and so on. Thus, the partial automation based on the DT is accomplished, and the information between all manufacturing stages could be decremented. Hence, to achieve a complete improvement of the manufacturing system, all the automation pyramid levels must be included in the DT concept. An artificial intelligent management system could create an interconnection between them that can manage the information. As a result, this paper proposed a complete DT structure covering all automation pyramid stages using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to model each stage of the AP based on the Digital Twin concept. This work proposes a virtual model for each level of the traditional AP and the interactions among them to flow and control information efficiently. Therefore, the proposed model is a valuable tool in improving all levels of an industrial process. In addition, It is presented a case study where the DT concept for modular workstations underpins the development of technologies within the framework of the Automation Pyramid model is implemented into a didactic manufacturing system.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Indústrias , Automação , Tecnologia
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300450

RESUMO

Condition monitoring of rail transport systems has become a phenomenon of global interest over the past half a century. The approaches to condition monitoring of various rail transport systems-especially in the context of rail vehicle subsystem and track subsystem monitoring-have been evolving, and have become equally significant and challenging. The evolution of the approaches applied to rail systems' condition monitoring has followed manual maintenance, through methods connected to the application of sensors, up to the currently discussed methods and techniques focused on the mutual use of automation, data processing, and exchange. The aim of this paper is to provide an essential overview of the academic research on the condition monitoring of rail transport systems. This paper reviews existing literature in order to present an up-to-date, content-based analysis based on a coupled methodology consisting of bibliometric performance analysis and systematic literature review. This combination of literature review approaches allows the authors to focus on the identification of the most influential contributors to the advances in research in the analyzed area of interest, and the most influential and prominent researchers, journals, and papers. These findings have led the authors to specify research trends related to the analyzed area, and additionally identify future research agendas in the investigation from engineering perspectives.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Publicações , Automação
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300671

RESUMO

Smart home applications are ubiquitous and have gained popularity due to the overwhelming use of Internet of Things (IoT)-based technology. The revolution in technologies has made homes more convenient, efficient, and even more secure. The need for advancement in smart home technology is necessary due to the scarcity of intelligent home applications that cater to several aspects of the home simultaneously, i.e., automation, security, safety, and reducing energy consumption using less bandwidth, computation, and cost. Our research work provides a solution to these problems by deploying a smart home automation system with the applications mentioned above over a resource-constrained Raspberry Pi (RPI) device. The RPI is used as a central controlling unit, which provides a cost-effective platform for interconnecting a variety of devices and various sensors in a home via the Internet. We propose a cost-effective integrated system for smart home based on IoT and Edge-Computing paradigm. The proposed system provides remote and automatic control to home appliances, ensuring security and safety. Additionally, the proposed solution uses the edge-computing paradigm to store sensitive data in a local cloud to preserve the customer's privacy. Moreover, visual and scalar sensor-generated data are processed and held over edge device (RPI) to reduce bandwidth, computation, and storage cost. In the comparison with state-of-the-art solutions, the proposed system is 5% faster in detecting motion, and 5 ms and 4 ms in switching relay on and off, respectively. It is also 6% more efficient than the existing solutions with respect to energy consumption.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Privacidade , Automação
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300683

RESUMO

The automation of lifespan assays with C. elegans in standard Petri dishes is a challenging problem because there are several problems hindering detection such as occlusions at the plate edges, dirt accumulation, and worm aggregations. Moreover, determining whether a worm is alive or dead can be complex as they barely move during the last few days of their lives. This paper proposes a method combining traditional computer vision techniques with a live/dead C. elegans classifier based on convolutional and recurrent neural networks from low-resolution image sequences. In addition to proposing a new method to automate lifespan, the use of data augmentation techniques is proposed to train the network in the absence of large numbers of samples. The proposed method achieved small error rates (3.54% ± 1.30% per plate) with respect to the manual curve, demonstrating its feasibility.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Automação , Longevidade , Redes Neurais de Computação
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 159: 106270, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216854

RESUMO

Lack of consumer acceptance is a prominent barrier to the large-scale adoption of automated vehicles (AVs). This study investigated the underlying mechanisms for AV acceptance and how the mechanisms differed across subgroups by reviewing and synthesizing existing literature. We proposed AV acceptance models by extending the basic Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with trust and perceived risk factors. Data from 36 studies were extracted to fit the models using meta-analytic structural equation modeling technique. The results suggested that trust contributed most in determining AV acceptance, followed by perceived usefulness and perceived risk, and perceived ease of use makes the least contribution. The subgroup analyses showed that the model parameters differed across the levels of three variables, i.e., sample origin (Europe/Asia/America), automation level (full/partial), and age (young/middle-aged). Specifically, trust was unanimously identified as the most important determinant of AV acceptance across all subgroups. Perceived risk only remained significant in America, fully AVs, and middle-aged subgroups. Perceived ease of use was insignificant in the above-mentioned three subgroups while remained significant in the rest subgroups. Building trust could be the most useful and universal way to improve AV acceptance, and policy makers should consider the characteristics of consumers when making AV promotion strategies.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Tecnologia , Automação , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Confiança
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 159: 106292, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256315

RESUMO

Level 2 (L2) driving automation systems that maintain latitudinal and longitudinal control of the vehicle decrease mental workload and result in drivers failing to monitor and respond to potential roadway hazards. This issue is potentially important for young drivers with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) since they have known difficulties anticipating and mitigating potential hazards on the road, a skill which requires attention. The objective of this study is to investigate how the use of partially automated (L2) systems and manual systems impacts hazard anticipation and mitigation among young drivers with varying levels of ADHD symptomatology. Sixty-eight drivers, classified into two groups - high and low ADHD symptomatology-navigated twice through three scenarios on a driving simulator, once with an L2 and once with a manual system. The results indicated that: (i) the hazard anticipation skills of drivers with both high and low ADHD symptomatology were depressed in the L2 condition relative to the manual condition; (ii) the hazard mitigations skills of drivers with both high and low ADHD symptomatology were depressed in the L2 condition relative to the manual condition on two measures, but improved on a third measure; and (iii) the hazard anticipation and mitigation skills of drivers with high and low ADHD symptomatology were differentially impacted, both within and across the two levels of automation. Taken together, the results indicate the pernicious and often hard to predict consequences of higher levels of automation for different populations of younger drivers.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Automação , Humanos
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