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1.
N Z Med J ; 134(1530): 38-47, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651776

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to assess the use of and attitudes towards cannabis use (medicinal and recreational) by people with IBD in New Zealand. METHODS: People with IBD were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were recruited via postal mail using a hospital database of patients with IBD (developed by the Gas-troenterology Department at Dunedin Public Hospital) and via online recruitment (advertised on the Crohn's and Colitis New Zealand website, Facebook page and e-mail list). Inclusion criteria were ages 18+ and self-reported confirmed IBD diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 378 participants completed the questionnaire, with 334 eligible responses. Partici-pants were predominantly New Zealand European (84%) and female (71%). Sixty-one percent of re-spondents had CD and 34% UC. Overall, 51% of respondents reported having ever used cannabis. Of those, 63% reported use as recreational and 31% for reduction of IBD symptoms. Users were more likely to be younger (on average by 6.4 years), with on-going symptoms, unemployed or self-employed and current or ex-smokers. There were no differences by disease status or severity. Symp-toms most reported as improved by cannabis use were abdominal pain/cramping, nausea/vomiting and loss of appetite. Fifty-four percent of participants reported that if cannabis were legal, they would request it for medicinal use to help manage their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our research aligns with previous observational research that reports im-provements in symptoms of IBD with cannabis use. Studies of a higher evidence level (eg, RCTs) would be needed to guide prescribing. In the meantime, this research provides useful background to clini-cians about patients' views and experiences.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/psicologia , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/psicologia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 179-188, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723977

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Analgesics (painkillers) are one of the most widely used medications to reduce and control pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the self-medication with analgesics (narcotic or non-narcotic) in controlling odontogenic pain in patients visiting dental offices, dental clinics, and the dental school of Kerman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive-analytic study, conducted in 2018. The study sample included patients referring to dental offices, dental clinics and the dental school of Kerman. After obtaining informed consent, a questionnaire consisting of demographic data and questions regarding the consumption of different types of analgesics for relieving and controlling odontogenic pain and their impact on patients was given by the researcher to the respondents. The patients were asked to complete and return the forms. The questionnaire consisted of three categories of questions, including demographic data, pain characteristics (severity, aggravating factors, relieving factors, etc) and the drug used to relieve the pain. Pain severity was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis in SPSS. RESULTS: This study included 230 males and 351 females (male:female ratio = 0.66) in the age range of 18 to 71 years old (38.21 ± 7.45). 2.6% of respondents were illiterate and 11.3% of respondents were unemployed. The mean value of pain intensity was 6.21 ± 1.11 on a scale of 1 to 10. The types of drugs used for pain relief included 71.8% analgesics, 12.1% complementary medicines and 16.1% antibiotics. The most commonly used medication was NSAIDS, followed by acetaminophen codeine. In this study, the fourth most common medication consumed by patients as an analgesic was amoxicillin. Moreover, it showed that 44.3% (257 individuals) of study participants had used analgesics as self-medication to relieve odontogenic pain, of which 46.08% were males (N = 107) and 42.68% were females (N = 150). The gender of respondents, level of education, and occupation were significantly associated with the consumption of opioid drugs (p = 0.023, p = 0.041, p = 0.011, respectively). Consumption of opioid medications was not statistically significantly correlated with pain intensity (p = 0.115). CONCLUSION: The factors affecting the appropriate use of medications are social, economic, cultural, and flaws in the health-care system of a society. This study showed that the medications used to reduce pain included analgesics, traditional drugs, and antibiotics. The rate of self-medication was higher among men and among those having a higher level of education.


Assuntos
Analgésicos , Dor , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Automedicação , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562427

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected people's lives globally. While important research has been conducted, much remains to be known. In Bangladesh, initial treatment (self-administered, hospitalized), persistent COVID-19 symptoms ("long COVID-19"), and whether COVID-19 leads to changes in mental state, such as depressive symptoms, of people are not known. This study aimed to examine treatment, persistent symptoms, and depression in people who had been infected with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1002 individuals infected with COVID-19 (60% male; mean age = 34.7 ± 13.9; age range = 18-81 years), with data taken over a one-month period (11 September 2020 to 13 October 2020). A self-reported online questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographics, lifestyle, COVID-19 symptoms (during and beyond COVID-19), medication (over-the-counter or doctor-prescribed), and depression (assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)). Results: Twenty-four percent of participants self-medicated with over-the-counter medicine when they were first diagnosed with COVID-19. Self-medication was higher among female vs. male respondents (29.6% vs. 20.2%, respectively, p = 0.002). A minority (20%) reported that they experienced persistent COVID-like symptoms after recovering from COVID-19. The most reported persistent symptoms were diarrhea (12.7%) and fatigue (11.5%). Forty-eight percent of participants were categorized as having moderate to severe depression. Based on multivariate regression analysis, depression during COVID-19 was positively associated with lower family income, poor health status, sleep disturbance, lack of physical activity, hypertension, asthma/respiratory problems, fear of COVID-19 re-infection, and persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Conclusions: The findings suggest a need for appropriate interventions for COVID-19 patients to promote physical and mental wellbeing.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Biol Dyn ; 15(1): 137-150, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538240

RESUMO

Self-medication is an important initial response to illness in Africa. This mode of medication is often done with the help of African traditional medicines. Because of the misconception that African traditional medicines can cure/prevent all diseases, some Africans may opt for COVID-19 prevention and management by self-medicating. Thus to efficiently predict the dynamics of COVID-19 in Africa, the role of the self-medicated population needs to be taken into account. In this paper, we formulate and analyse a mathematical model for the dynamics of COVID-19 in Cameroon. The model is represented by a system of compartmental age-structured ODEs that takes into account the self-medicated population and subdivides the human population into two age classes relative to their current immune system strength. We use our model to propose policy measures that could be implemented in the course of an epidemic in order to better handle cases of self-medication.


Assuntos
/terapia , Modelos Estatísticos , Automedicação , /epidemiologia , Camarões , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , /isolamento & purificação
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541971

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a biphasic illness with an initial viraemia phase and later effective adaptive immune phase, except in a minority of people who develop severe disease. Immune regulation is the key target to treat COVID illness. In anticipation, an elderly man self-medicated himself with dexamethasone on the day of symptom onset of a flu-like illness, took other symptomatic measures and was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. His condition deteriorated with each passing day resulting in hospitalisation. He demanded oxygen and declared as severe COVID. With supportive treatment, he recovered after the 20th day of illness. Immunosuppression and anti-inflammation are likely to benefit when the immune response is dysregulated and turning into a cytokine storm. A medication that has saved many could be the one predisposing to severity if taken as a preventive measure, too early in the disease course, especially the viraemia phase.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Automedicação/métodos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Viremia/complicações
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466957

RESUMO

We use the Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices framework to analyze determinants of three types of self-medication practices in Romania: (1) self-medication in the case of cold/flu/viral infections; (2) taking non-prescribed medicine in general; and (3) self-medication based on recommendations by others. We analyzed 706 responses to an online survey and used a factor-based Partial Least Squares algorithm (PLSF) to estimate the relationships between each type of self-medication and possible predictors. Our results show that self-medication is strongly predicted by non-cognitive behavioral factors such as habits and similarity of symptoms, while cognitive determinants such as knowledge and understanding of potential risks are not significantly associated with self-medication behaviors. This paper identifies nonlinear relationships among self-medication practices and its predictors and discusses how our results can help policymakers calibrate interventions with better accuracy.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Automedicação , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Romênia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 58, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19, which is a pandemic disease, caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. In Togo, where four in five people practice self-medication, the absence of a cure for COVID-19 and the constant progression of the disease requires an assessment of self-medication patterns in the context of the pandemic. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-medication to prevent COVID-19 and its associated factors in Lomé, Togo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lomé, the capital city of Togo, from April 23rd to May 8th, 2020, with a sample of participants from five sectors: the healthcare, air transport, police, road transport and informal sectors. The participants were invited to provide information about their self-medication practices to prevent COVID-19 in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. RESULTS: A total of 955 participants (71.6% men) with a median age of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included. Approximately 22.1% were in the air transport sector, 20.5% were in the police sector, and 38.7% were in the health sector. The overall prevalence of self-medication to prevent COVID-19 was 34.2% (95% CI: 31.2-37.3%). The most commonly used products were vitamin C (27.6%) and traditional medicine (10.2%). Only 2.0% of participants reported using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Female sex (aOR=1.90; p< 0.001), work in the health sector (aOR=1.89; p= 0.001), secondary education level (aOR= 2.28; p= 0.043) and university education level (aOR= 5.11; p< 0.001) were associated with self-medication. CONCLUSION: One-third of the individuals in high-risk populations in Lomé practiced self-medication. Intensifying awareness campaigns is crucial to fight misinformation about alleged COVID-19 prevention products on social media.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Togo/epidemiologia
8.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(3): 118-121, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198678

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Señalar, mediante la exposición de un caso clínico, la necesidad de tener en cuenta el riesgo de abuso o dependencia de un antidepresivo de reciente aparición en nuestro país: la tianeptina. CASO CLÍNICO: Se presenta el caso de un varón de 47 años con diagnósticos de trastorno bipolar tipo ii, trastorno límite de personalidad y trastorno por uso sustancias, que presentaba una dependencia a tianeptina, de la que llegó a consumir 1.125mg al día. RESULTADOS: Durante la búsqueda bibliográfica apenas se encontraron revisiones de casos centrados en el potencial abuso o dependencia de tianeptina. Se halló que, por la modulación de los sistemas de neurotransmisión opioidérgico (activación de los receptores μ), su uso a dosis altas se relaciona con un mayor riesgo. CONCLUSIONES: Ciertas características personales y enfermedades, como pueden ser los trastornos de personalidad o un abuso de sustancias previo, implican una mayor probabilidad de abuso o dependencia de tianeptina


OBJECTIVE: Using a clinical case, the aim of this article is to point out the need to take into account the risk of abuse and / or dependence on tianeptine, an antidepressant that has recently appeared in Spain. CLINICAL CASE: The case is presented on a 47-year-old man diagnosed with type II bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and substance use disorder with tianeptine dependency, consuming 1,125mg per day. RESULTS: During the bibliographic search, few reviews were found that focused on the potential abuse or dependence on tianeptine. High-dose use was found to be associated with an increased risk, explained by modulation of opioidergic neurotransmission systems (activation of μ receptors). CONCLUSIONS: Some personal characteristics and pathologies, such as personality disorders or previous substance abuse, imply a greater probability of abuse or dependence on tianeptine


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Automedicação/efeitos adversos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244454, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373407

RESUMO

Despite being a priority population in malaria elimination, there is scant literature on malaria-related behavior among gold miners. This study explores the prevalence and factors influencing malaria prevention, care seeking and treatment behaviors in Guyana gold mining camps. A cross sectional survey was conducted among adult gold miners living in mining camps in the hinterland Regions 1 (Barima-Waini), 7 (Cuyuni-Mazaruni), and 8 (Potaro-Siparuni). Multivariable logistic regressions explored factors associated with miners' self-report of mosquito net use, prompt care-seeking; self-medication; and testing for malaria. A third of miners used a mosquito net the night preceding the survey and net use was higher among those who believed that net use was the norm in their camp (aOR: 3.11; 95% CI:1.65, 5.88). Less than half (45%) of miners had a fever in the past 12 months, among whom 36% sought care promptly, 48% tested positive for malaria while 54% self-medicated before seeking care. Prompt care-seeking was higher among miners with high malaria knowledge (aOR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.05). Similarly, testing rates increased with secondary education (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: (1.16, 2.51), high malaria knowledge (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.05), positive beliefs regarding malaria transmission, threat, self-diagnosis, testing and treatment, and, trust in government services (aOR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12, 2.27) and experience of a prior malaria episode (aOR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.71, 4.00). Self-medication was lower among male miners (aOR: 0. 52; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.86). Malaria prevention and care seeking behaviors among miners are somewhat low and influenced by mosquito net usage, perceived norms, malaria knowledge and prior episode of confirmed malaria. Study findings have implications for malaria interventions in the hinterland regions of Guyana such as the mass and continuous distribution of insecticide treated nets as well as community case management initiatives using trained malaria testing and treatment volunteers to curb malaria transmission among remote gold mining populations. These include efforts to identify and address gaps in distributing mosquito nets to miners and address miners' barriers to prompt care seeking, malaria testing and treatment adherence. Targeted social and behavior change messaging is needed on net acquisition, use and care, prompt care-seeking, malaria testing and treatment adherence. Additional efforts to ensure the overall sustainability of the community case management initiative include increased publicity of the community case management initiative among miners, use of incentives to promote retention rates among the community case management volunteer testers and public private partnerships between the Guyana Ministry of Health and relevant mining organizations.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mineradores/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ouro , Guiana , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração/organização & administração , Mosquiteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Automedicação/psicologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(4): 826-832, oct.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143249

RESUMO

RESUMEN Los psicofármacos son frecuentemente consumidos por la población; su uso irracional atenta contra la calidad de vida de los pacientes que los toman regularmente sin supervisión médica. El objetivo de esta investigación es caracterizar el consumo de psicofármacos en un Grupo Básico de Trabajo en el área de salud del Policlínico Docente Universitario Martha Abreu de Estévez. Frecuentemente, se toman por automedicación, son prescriptos por complacencia y aunque tengan una indicación médica precisa, en ocasiones no se cumplen las normas establecidas para su uso correcto. Entre las variables epidemiológicas predominaron: las edades entre 50 y 64 años y el sexo femenino. Las principales causas del consumo fueron: para disminuir la tensión arterial y aliviar problemas familiares y laborales. Se concluyó que existió un alto índice de consumo de psicofármacos de manera automedicada; los entrevistados accedieron a estos a través de vías no convencionales, no relacionadas con el sistema de salud.


ABSTRACT Psychotropic drugs are frequently consumed by the population; their irrational use threatens the quality of life of patients who take them regularly without medical supervision. The objective of this research is to characterize the consumption of psychotropic drugs in a Basic Work Group from the health area of ‟Martha Abreu de Estevez" University Teaching Polyclinic. These drugs are often taken for self-medication, prescribed for complacency, and although they have a precise medical indication, sometimes the established norms for their correct use are not met. Ages between 50 and 64 years and female gender predominated among the epidemiological variables. Lower blood pressure and alleviate family and work problems were the main causes of consumption. We concluded that there was a high rate of self-medicated use of psychotropic drugs; the interviewees had access to them through unconventional ways, not related to the health system.


Assuntos
Automedicação , Antidepressivos
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041323, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at identifying the commonly used non-prescribed antibiotics (NPAs) and the main health conditions leading to the practices of self-medication with antibiotics (SMAs) in Maputo city, Mozambique. DESIGN: Cross-sectional qualitative study based on individual and group interviews. SETTING: The study was conducted in nine pharmacies of three socioeconomic areas of Maputo city, from October 2018 to March 2019. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 32 pharmacy clients and 17 pharmacists. The pharmacy clients included men 10 (31%) and women 22 (69%) ranging from 19 to 67 years while the pharmacists included men 6 (35,3%) and women 11 (64,7%) with ages ranging from 24 to 47 years. FINDINGS: The majority of the pharmacy clients 30 (93.75%) admitted frequent use of NPAs, 15 (88.2%) out of the 17 pharmacists admitted dispensing NPAs. While the majority of the participants (16) mentioned the use of amoxicillin, also known as 'two colours medicine', 14 mentioned the use of cotrimoxazole and seven mentioned amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Two to five participants also used tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, metronidazole and phenoxymethylpenicillin. The above mentioned NPAs were used to treat self-perceived sore throat, fever, pain, cough, vaginal discharge, eye problems, the common influenza, urinary infections, respiratory tract infections, wounds and toothaches. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics are perceived as essential medical resources to manage health and illnesses. While taking an active role in their health-disease process, participants commonly used amoxicillin, 'two colours', cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid to manage their health and that of their families. In this sense, the practices of SMAs were perceived as part of the self-care process and not necessarily as misuse of antibiotics. A wideunderstanding of health-seeking beliefs and behaviours regarding the utilisation of antibiotics is needed to inform public health experts, health policymakers and other stake-holders in designing and implementing public health education and health promotion programsat all levels in Mozambique.


Assuntos
Automedicação , Adulto , Idoso , Amoxicilina , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e46505, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1120172

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a associação entre danos à saúde e qualidade de vida no trabalho de enfermeiros hospitalares. Método: estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal, com 145 enfermeiros, aprovado pela comissão de ética sob protocolos 1.634.051 e 1.643.912. Utilizaram-se estatísticas descritivas, análises bivariadas, teste qui-quadrado, cálculo da razão de chance e intervalos de confiança. Resultados: observou-se que o consumo de medicamentos provocado/agravado pelo trabalho aumentou em 2,31 vezes a chance de o enfermeiro ter baixa qualidade de vida no trabalho; transtornos do sono provocados/agravados pelo trabalho aumentou em 3,15 vezes a chance de ter baixa qualidade de vida no trabalho; cefaleia frequente provocada/agravada pelo trabalho aumentou a chance em 1,98 vezes de ter baixa qualidade de vida no trabalho. Conclusão: condições de trabalho impactam na saúde e qualidade de vida do trabalho do enfermeiro. Ambientes de trabalho adequados proporcionam satisfação pessoal e profissional, além de manterem a qualidade da força de trabalho do enfermeiro.


Objective: to examine the association between health harm and quality of life in the work of hospital nurses. Method: this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with 145 nurses, after approval by research ethics committee ­ protolcols 1.634.051 and 1.643.912. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, chi-square test, odds ratio and confidence intervals were used. Results: the odds of nurses' quality of life at work being poor were found to be increased 2.31 times by work-related or - aggravated medicine consumption; 3.15 times by work-related or -aggravated sleep disorders; and 1.98 times by frequent workrelated or -aggravated headache. Conclusion: working conditions impact on nurses' health and quality of life at work. Appropriate work environments favor personal and professional satisfaction and maintain the quality of the nurse's workforce.


Objetivo: examinar la asociación entre daños a la salud y calidad de vida en el trabajo de enfermeras hospitalarias. Método: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, transversal, con 145 enfermeros, previa aprobación del comité de ética en investigación - protolcols 1.634.051 y 1.643.912. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, análisis bivariados, prueba de chi-cuadrado, razón de probabilidades e intervalos de confianza. Resultados: se encontró que las probabilidades de que la calidad de vida de las enfermeras en el trabajo sea deficiente aumentaban 2,31 veces por el consumo de medicamentos relacionados con el trabajo o agravados; 3,15 veces por trastornos del sueño relacionados con el trabajo o agravados; y 1,98 veces por dolor de cabeza frecuente relacionado con el trabajo o agravado. Conclusión: las condiciones laborales repercuten en la salud y la calidad de vida de las enfermeras en el trabajo. Los entornos laborales adecuados favorecen la satisfacción personal y profesional y mantienen la calidad de la fuerza laboral de la enfermería.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Condições de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Hospitais Universitários , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Automedicação , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Intervalos de Confiança , Razão de Chances , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Local de Trabalho , Cefaleia , Satisfação no Emprego
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescription drug diversion, and misuse has increased over the past decade and is notably in high-income-countries and significantly contributes to the opioid epidemic. People living with HIV (PLWH) are particularly vulnerable to prescription drug diversion, and misuse as most experience chronic pain, mental health problems and HIV-related illnesses. The researchers investigated the prevalence and correlates of prescription drug diversion, and misuse among PLWH in the eThekwini district, KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 392 PLWH, conveniently recruited from the public healthcare facilities located in rural, semi-urban and urban areas of the eThekwini district. Participants answered questions about their background, prescription medications, substance use, and prescription drug diversion, and misuse. Descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the prevalence of prescription drug diversion, and misuse. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of prescription drug diversion, and misuse. FINDINGS: Overall, 13% of the participants reported lifetime prescription drug diversion. The most common type of diversion was using prescription medication not prescribed by a healthcare provider (11%), followed by sharing of prescription medication (9%) and buying prescription medication without a medical script (5%). Twenty-three per cent of the participants reported prescription drug misuse in the past 90 days, with using prescription medication without a healthcare providers' guidance (9%) and not following the scheduled time periods (8%) being the most common reported types of misuse. Self-medicating was identified as a risk factor for prescription drug misuse. There was no association between ART adherence and prescription drug diversion, and misuse. CONCLUSION: The study findings contribute to improving the limited data available on prescription drug diversion, and misuse among PLWH in South Africa. The prevalence underscores a need for urgent interventions when prescribing medications with potential risks. Addressing the risk of self-medicating is imperative for HIV care outcomes and to avert death.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Desvio de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187315

RESUMO

(1) Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has changed the functioning of Polish health systems. Telemedicine has been developed and access to prescription drugs (Rx) has been facilitated. This study examined whether these changes and the imposition of a three-month lockdown caused Polish people to engage in more self-medication-related behaviors. (2) Method: After the fourth (final) stage of defrosting the Polish economy, an online survey of a quota sample of 1013 Polish respondents was conducted. (3) Results: Almost half of the respondents (45.6%) indicated that they had engaged in at least one behavior associated with inappropriate self-medication during the lockdown (e.g., 16.6% took medication as a precaution, and 16.8% took an Rx formulation without consultation). Some of these people had never engaged in such behaviors prior to the lockdown. Linear regression showed that higher values of a composite ("lockdown") index of self-medication-related behaviors occurring during lockdown were predicted by greater religiosity and the presence of children in a household. Also, independent samples t-tests showed that people who were afraid for their financial future and people who feared for their health obtained higher lockdown index scores than people not having such worries. (4) Conclusions: Self-medication-related behaviors were more common among Poles before lockdown than during the lockdown (which is unsurprising given that the lengths of the periods compared were hugely different), worryingly, many people exhibited such behaviors for the first time during the lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Automedicação/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Isolamento Social
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238868, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035226

RESUMO

Globally, usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in elderly with chronic pain has been reported as frequent. Though NSAIDs are fundamental in maintaining their quality of life, the risk of polypharmacy, drug interactions and adverse effects is of paramount importance as the elderly usually require multiple medications for their co-morbidities. If prescriptions are not appropriately monitored and managed, they are likely to expose patients to serious drug interactions and potentially fatal adverse effects. This study was conducted to assess the appropriateness of NSAIDs use and determine the risk of NSAIDs related potential interactions in elderly. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly out-patients (aged 60 and above) who visited three hospitals in Asmara, Eritrea, between August 22 and September 29, 2018. A stratified random sampling design was employed and data was collected using an interview-based questionnaire and by abstracting information from patients' prescriptions and medical cards. Descriptive and analytical statistics including chi-square test and logistic regression were employed using IBM SPSS (version 22). A total of 285 respondents were enrolled in the study with similar male to female ratio. One in four of all respondents were chronic NSAIDs users and NSAIDs risk practice was reported in 24%. Using chronic NSAIDs without prophylactic gastro-protective agents, self-medication, polypharmacy and drug-drug interactions were the main problems identified. A total of 322 potential interactions in 205 patients were identified and of which, 97.2% were classified as moderate, 0.6% severe and the rest were mild. Those who involved in self-medication were more likely to be exposed to drug interactions. Diabetes (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.14, 5.02) and hypertension (AOR = 9.06, 95% CI: 4.00, 20.51) were associated with chronic NSAIDs use and incidence of potential drug interactions (AOR = 3.5, 95%CI: 1.68, 4.3; AOR = 2.81, 95%CI: 1.61, 4.9 respectively), while diabetes AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.43, 8.35) and cardiac problems (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.17, 15.73) were more likely to be associated with incidence of polypharmacy. In conclusion, chronic use of NSAIDs without gastro-protective agents and therapeutic duplication of NSAIDs were commonly which requires attention from programmers, health facility managers and healthcare professionals to safeguard elderlies from preventable harm.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Polimedicação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Interações Medicamentosas , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881969

RESUMO

Self-medication and antibiotic utilization without healthcare oversight may lead to delayed appropriate treatment, transmission of communicable infections, untoward adverse events, and contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Previous data suggest people obtain over-the-counter (OTC) animal antibiotics for their personal use. This study examined the availability of OTC fish antibiotics online and the documented intent for self-medication. The authors conducted a web-based cross-sectional study using Google search engine to identify vendor websites selling fish antibiotics in the United States. Vendor websites were included if product information, consumer reviews, and comments were publicly available. Nine fish antibiotics were chosen due to their possibility of having consequences to human misuse. The cost and availability of fish antibiotics was recorded. The proportion of reviews and comments related to human consumption was calculated. Consumer review traffic based on "likes" and "dislikes" received was compared between human- and non-human consumption-related reviews. Selected fish antibiotics were purchased and evaluated for physical appearance and compared to FDA-approved available equivalents. We found 24 website vendors with online ordering available for OTC fish antibiotics. Cost varied significantly by antibiotic and quantity ranging from USD $8.99 to $119.99. There were 2,288 reviews documented for the 9 selected antibiotics being sold. Among consumer reviews, 2.4% were potentially associated with human consumption. Human consumption-related reviews constituted 30.2% of all "likes" received and 37.5% of all "dislikes" received. Human consumption-related reviews received an average of 9.2 likes compared to 0.52 likes for non-human consumption-related reviews. The 8 fish antibiotics purchased were consistent with FDA-approved equivalents in physical appearance. Although infrequent, antibiotics intended for fish use are being purchased online without a prescription for self-medication to circumvent professional medical care. Reviews related to human consumption generate significant online traffic compared to reviews unrelated to human consumption.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade de Medicamentos Via Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Drogas Veterinárias/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Conhecimento do Paciente sobre a Medicação , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Addict Med ; 14(5): e264-e266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852316

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with substance use disorder may be particularly vulnerable to withdrawal-related complications during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Limited availability of alcohol and other substances coupled with decreased accessibility to substance use treatment poses a substantial risk to this population. Isopropanol, the active ingredient in rubbing alcohol, is widely available; thus, it may be used in times of scarcity. CASE REPORT: We present a case of intentional isopropanol ingestion used as an ethanol surrogate within the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Toxic alcohol ingestions are imperative considerations on the differential for the intoxicated patient particularly during resource-limited times.


Assuntos
2-Propanol/administração & dosagem , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Automedicação/psicologia , 2-Propanol/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722103

RESUMO

The self-medication hypothesis may explain the co-morbidity of affective and substance use disorders. Research shows increased prevalence, frequency, and intensity of binge drinking and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among those directly exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC), however, little is known about PTSD symptomology and intentional self-medication with alcohol (ISMA) among this group. We used WTC Health Registry data (N = 28,935) to describe the relationship between ISMA and specific symptom clusters of probable 9/11-related PTSD, the number of PTSD symptom clusters endorsed, and binge drinking intensity. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). ISMA was most strongly associated with the hyperarousal PTSD symptom cluster (AOR = 2.04 [1.88, 2.21]) and the endorsement of one (AOR = 1.80 CI [1.65, 1.95]), two (AOR = 2.51 CI [2.28, 2.77]), or three (AOR = 2.84 CI [2.55, 3.17]) PTSD symptom clusters, indicating a clear dose-response relationship. A significant number of 9/11-exposed persons continue to experience PTSD symptoms and engage in ISMA as a potential coping mechanism. Repeated screenings for self-medicative alcohol use among survivors of mass traumas with PTSD symptoms is of public health importance.


Assuntos
Desastres , Automedicação , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes
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