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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112270, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589965

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Primates forage on a variety of plant parts to balance their dietary intake to meet requirements of energy, nutrition and maintenance, however the reason(s) leading them to ingest some plants which have no nutritional value and/or contain bioactive or even toxic secondary metabolites is recently gaining closer attention. The growing literature suggests that primates consume plants for medicinal purposes (self-medication) as well, particularly when infected with parasites and pathogens (bacteria, viruses, microbes). Interestingly, some of the plants they consume are also used by humans for similar purposes or may have potential uses for humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a 16-month study of the parasite ecology of a sub-species of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on the island of Yakushima, we surveyed their feeding habits and collected a subset of plants and plant parts observed being ingested by macaques. The ethnomedicinal value of these plants was surveyed and methanolic extracts of 45 plant parts were tested in vitro against important parasites of humans, including four protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Potential toxicity of the extracts was also assessed on mammalian cells. RESULTS: A wide range of ethnomedicinal uses in Asia for these plants is noted, with 37% associated with the treatment of parasites, pathogens and related symptoms. Additionally, the 45 extracts tested showed broad and significant activity against our test organisms. All extracts were active against T. b. rhodesiense. The majority (over 80%) inhibited the growth of P. falciparum and L. donovani. Half of the extracts also displayed antiprotozoal potential against T. cruzi while only several extracts were active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Cytotoxicity was generally low, although several extracts lacked specific toxicity to test parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ilhas , Japão , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/veterinária , Automedicação/veterinária , Testes de Toxicidade , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
2.
South Med J ; 112(12): 621-625, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the present use of dietary supplements among the Parkinson disease (PD) population and to determine which dietary supplements are most commonly taken. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used an online questionnaire that was administered to individuals with PD via support group Web sites. Dietary supplement users also were asked whether they spoke with a healthcare professional about their supplement use. RESULTS: Of the 205 respondents, 83.4% reported taking at least 1 dietary supplement. Although 94 different types of dietary supplements were identified, >50% of participants taking dietary supplements took multivitamins, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 (52.6%, 74.3%, and 56.1%, respectively). Respondents reported taking coenzyme Q10, Mucuna pruriens, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, melatonin, and N-acetylcysteine most commonly for PD. Among supplement users, 29.2% did not discuss their supplement use with a healthcare practitioner. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate a high prevalence of dietary supplement use among individuals with PD, in addition to a wide variety of supplements being taken. This study's findings also indicate the need for better dialog between patients and healthcare practitioners regarding the use of dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692864

RESUMO

Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is on a rise as one of the major global public health threats. It is therefore important to assess contributory factors to the rise in the cases of resistance reported. The main objective of this study was to assess the self-medication practices with antibiotics among the University of Rwanda students in Huye Campus. Methods: A sample of 570 students from all levels and colleges of the University of Rwanda in Huye Campus were selected using a simple random sampling to participate in this study. A questionnaire was administered to be answered individually by the consented respondents where the self-medication practices with antibiotics in the past 6 months were assessed. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS v.16. Results: The study showed that 12.1% (n=69) practiced self-medication with antibiotics. The major reason for self-medication with antibiotics was illness not serious to have a consultation (50.72%). The main diseases being treated were common cold/fever/cough (47.83%). The most used antibiotic for self-medication was Amoxicillin capsules (59.42%), while the main source of antibiotics was the community pharmacy (72.42%). Conclusion: Self-medication with antibiotics is not uncommon among the university students. Regarding the main reasons of self-medication with antibiotics, diseases being treated, and the antibiotics used, it was found that all these may be related to the students' lack of knowledge about the need for rational use of antibiotics and a study was needed to confirm it.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruanda , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Presse Med ; 48(10): e273-e283, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-medication for alleviating pain is very prevalent in most countries. While safe self-medication is supposed to be dependent on both patient's behaviour and pharmacist's counselling, little is known about the context of the delivery of analgesics available without prescription. The primary objective of the study was to define sociodemographic profiles and behaviours of patients seeking non-prescribed analgesics in French community pharmacies. Secondary objectives included the assessment of pharmacist management and identification of risk-associated patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, national and multicentre study, including adults who asked for a prescription-free medication for acute or chronic physical pain. Information was collected through separate patient and healthcare professional (HCP) questionnaires. RESULTS: The analysis was based on 1215 and 1271 patient and HCP questionnaires, respectively, collected from 164 pharmacies. The patient population consisted in women and men (ratio 6:4), mainly (71%) under 60 years old. Headaches, rheumatologic and musculoskeletal pains were the most frequent reasons for getting analgesics, with a median pain intensity of 6 on a scale graded from 0 (no pain) to 10 (intolerable pain). The main reasons guiding self-medication were time saving, a well-known pain and a well-known product. The mean time allocated to delivery was 4.7minutes. Indications, dose and posology were almost systematically addressed by the pharmacy staff, while contra-indications, drug-drug interaction or safety were mentioned in around two-third of cases. The proportion of patients identified at risks due to an inappropriate context of self-medication was 15.5%. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a great heterogeneity of the population asking for non-prescribed analgesics in French community pharmacies. While pharmacists were able to identify patients at risks, a significant part may have 'slipped through the net'. The results support further studies to better define patient care pathway and optimize pharmacist-led medication.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Farmacêuticos , Automedicação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190004, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Travestis and transgender women resort to the use of hormones for body modification. Due to restrictions in the access to health services, self-medication is frequent. The aim of this study was to describe the self-reported prevalence of hormones used by travestis and transgender women in the Federal District. Method: This is a cross-sectional study with Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices questionnaire (KAP) along with travestis and transgender women over 18 years in the FD. Prevalence was calculated using the RDS-II estimator. Logistic models were used to investigate the associated factors. A total of 201 volunteers participated. RESULTS: There was a young sample (median age of 24 years). The overall prevalence of continuous use of hormones was 64.5%. The most used formulation was the combination of estrogen and progesterone (86.2%) by injectable (75.1%) and oral (66%) administration. Most participants (84%) got the hormones without a prescription. Guidance on the use of these hormones came from their peers in 41% of the cases. We observed that the continuous use of hormones is associated with race, income and age, as well as the search for guidance of healthcare professionals, which is also associated with schooling. DISCUSSION: The reality of the process of hormone use by these people in the quest for femininity is reflected in high rates of self-medication. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the visibility of the need to improve the access conditions of these people to health services.


Assuntos
Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Travestismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Travestismo/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529182

RESUMO

In KiGGS Wave 2, data from 3­ to 17-year-olds were collected from a total of 3462 persons using a standardized interview on the current use of AM/NEM in the last seven days. For trends analysis, data from 14,679 study participants in the same age group from the KiGGS baseline study were used.In KiGGS Wave 2, 36.4% (95% CI 34.1-38.8) of the 3­ to 17-year-olds had used at least one AM/NEM in the last seven days. The prevalence was highest at 46.5% in 14- to 17-year-olds and significantly different between girls and boys (56.4% vs. 37.3%). Only among girls were there significant differences by migrant background with a higher prevalence of use among girls without a migrant background.Most frequently, the preparations used were for treatment of the respiratory tract (girls: 14.2%, boys: 14.9%), followed by "Varia" (girls: 8.7%, boys: 9.3%) and preparations for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system (girls: 8.9%, boys: 5.8%). There was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of medicine use compared to the KiGGS baseline study (46.4% vs. 36.4%). This decrease was mainly due to lower prevalences of use in the ATC main groups "N Nervous System" (7.5% vs. 5.4%), "J Systemic Anti-infectives" (2.5% vs. 1.4%) and "H Systemic Hormones, excl. Sexual Hormones and Insulins" (2.0% vs. 1.1%).The results describe key points in the use of AM/NEM, including self-medication for children and adolescents in Germany. They illustrate the use behaviour and represent a valuable supplement to prescription data.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
9.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(1): 1571311, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533561

RESUMO

In the setting of increasing restrictions to legal abortion in the United States, reports have emerged of self-induced termination of pregnancies with misoprostol, obtained without a prescription or provider. This study seeks to describe the prevalence of women seeking or employing misoprostol for self-induced abortion, and how they access information. In a cross-sectional study of women immediately following their abortion at three reproductive health clinics in the Midwestern United States, an anonymous survey queried gestational age, barriers, online investigation about self-induction and opinions concerning the availability of medical abortion. From June to September 2016, 276 women participated out of 437 presenting to the clinics during the study period. One hundred and ninety-one (74.6%) women had investigated abortion options online, and of those, 58 (30.9%) investigated misoprostol online, for home use. Women who investigated online options were less likely to have had a prior abortion than those who did not investigate online (29.3% vs. 63.1%, p < .01). They were also more likely to report prior home attempts to end this pregnancy (8.6% vs. 0%, p = .05). Overall, four (1.6%) of the respondents purchased misoprostol and three (1.2%) used it. A majority of women seeking an abortion sought online information prior to their clinic appointment, and almost a third of those had investigated misoprostol for home use. Women are accessing information regarding misoprostol for self-induction of abortion on the Internet. As barriers to legal abortion increase, women may be more likely to self-induce abortion.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Misoprostol/uso terapêutico , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Automedicação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(4): 382-386, 30/09/2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023226

RESUMO

Objetivo: buscou-se investigar a automedicação por acadêmicos de curso de graduação em Medicina de instituição privada e analisar possíveis variáveis relacionadas. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado com 320 discentes dos quatro primeiros anos do curso de Medicina da Universidade Brasil, campus Fernandópolis-SP. Foi aplicado questionário validado com variáveis sociais e de consumo de medicamentos, seguido de análise estatística por regressão linear simples. Resultado: como resultado, a automedicação foi considerada uma opção em 309 dos participantes, a maioria deles do sexo feminino, idade entre 21 a 23 anos, solteiros, sem curso superior prévio, com convênio médico e conscientes de eventuais riscos à Saúde, mesmo após acesso a bulas ou a pesquisas on-line. O quadro clínico precedente à automedicação incluiu, principalmente, cefaleia e mialgia. Houve preferência por fármacos anteriormente utilizados com consumo médio (por 1 a 2 dias), principalmente de analgésicos e anti-inflamatórios. Estar mais próximo ao término do curso (p = 0,006) e possuir convênio médico (p = 0,046) se relacionaram com automedicação. Conclusão: o hábito da automedicação aumenta, gradativamente, ao decorrer


Objective: we sought to investigate self-medication by Medicine undergraduated students in a private institution of Medicine and to examine possible related variables. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study conducted with 320 students of the first four years of medical school at Universidade Brasil, Fernandópolis-SP campus. Validated questionnaire was applied taking into account social variables and medicine consumption, being followed by statistical analysis with simple linear regression. Results: as a result, self-medication was considered an option to 309 of the participants, the majority of women, aged 21-23 years old, single, without higher education, with health insurance and aware of possible risks to health even after access to bulls or online research. Clinical symptoms prior to self-medication included headache and myalgia. There was a preference for drugs previously used with an average consumption (from 1 to 2 days), especially analgesics and anti-inflammatories. It was verified that being related to self-medication was more likely to happen among those students closer to the end of the course (p = 0.006) and to those who have health insurance (p = 0.046). Conclusion: the habit of self-medication gradually increases over the undergradution, therefore, it is suggested to implement an educational pedagogical proposal on this subject in medical school curriculum.


Assuntos
Automedicação , Prescrições
11.
Endodoncia (Madr.) ; 37(2): 8-20, sept. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186295

RESUMO

Objetivos. Los objetivos de este son: 1. Evaluar el consumo de medicamentos, así como la automedicación entre los individuos que acuden a realizarse una endodoncia. 2.Evaluar la mejoría de sintomatología tras la toma de medicación. 3. Evaluar la ansiedad dental entre los pacientes sometidos a tratamiento endodóntico previo a la intervención. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional, transversal y comparativo, consistente en una encuesta sobre pacientes mayores de 16 años que acudieron a una clínica universitaria odontológica. Resultados: Se recopilaron 167 encuestas entre septiembre de 2017 y marzo del 2018, siendo válidas 131 y no válidas 36, cuyos resultados más destacados fueron los siguientes: · Ingesta de antibióticos + analgésicos y/o AINES (40,6%)· Ingesta analgésicos y/o AINES (59,4%). Origen de esa medicación; 44,6% prescrita por el odontólogo, seguida del 42,7% que corresponde a la tomada por decisión propia, 10,8% al médico de cabecera, 2,7% a urgencias y 0% al farmacéutico y de origen homeopático. Media de ansiedad en la escala de 4,38. La media de ansiedad en mujeres: 5 y en hombres: 3,2 (p: 0.0066). Grupo con algún tipo de formación académica; media de ansiedad: 4,24 y grupo sin ningún estudio; media de ansiedad: 8,75 (p: 0.0144). Conclusiones: Los pacientes encuestados tenían una alta tendencia a la automedicación, utilizándose fundamentalmente analgésicos y/o AINES. Además, referían mejoría en el día de la intervención tras haber tomado algún tipo de medicamento. Los pacientes encuestados sufrieron un grado de ansiedad medio previo a la realización del tratamiento endodóntico


Objectives: The objectives of this study are: 1. To evaluate the consumption of medicines as well as self-medication among the individuals who undergo endodontics.2. To evaluate the improvement of symptoms after taking medication. 3. To evaluate dental anxiety among patients undergoing endodontic treatment prior to the intervention. Material and Methods: An observational, transversal and comparative study was carried out, consisting of a survey of patients over 16 years of age who attended a university dental clinic. Results: In this study 167 surveys were collected, between September 2017 and March 2018, with 131 valid and 36 invalid. Taking antibiotics + analgesics and/or NSAIDs (40.6%) and analgesics and/or NSAIDs (59.4%); Origin of that medication; 44.6% prescribed by the dentist, followed by the 42.7% prescribed by the dentist, 10.8% by the general practitioner, 2.7% by the emergency department and 0% by the pharmacist and homeopathic origin. Average anxiety on the 4.38 scale. Average anxiety in women: 5 and in men: 3.2 (p: 0.0066).Group with some type of academic training; mean anxiety: 4.24 and group without any study; mean anxiety: 8.75 (p: 0.0144). Conclusions: The patients surveyed had a high tendency to self-medication, mainly using analgesics and/or NSAIDs. They also reported improvement on the day of the intervention after having taken some type of medication. The patients surveyed suffered a medium degree of anxiety prior to the endodontic treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/tendências , Ansiedade/psicologia , Endodontia/métodos , Avaliação de Medicamentos/métodos , Sobremedicalização , Estudos Transversais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Pulpite/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1033, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-medication is a public health concern that may create several problems such as increase in drug resistance, raise in drug use per capita, and creating side effects. This study was conducted to determine predictors of self-medication based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the Iranian women. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. A sample of married women completed a validated, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included items on demographic variables, knowledge, and TPB structures, and the checklist of women's self-medication practices. The study was conducted in six urban health centers of Shush and Zarandieh in Iran during January to July 2016. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0 applying t-test and logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 360 women took part in the study. The results showed that 76% of women had a history of self-medication and 98.9% stored drugs at home. The most important reasons for self-medication were perceived self-medication harmless (41%), having history of a disease (35.5%), and availability of medications at home (34%). The most frequent diseases for self-medication were fatigue, weakness, and anxiety (24%), and fever (20%). The results obtained form logistic regression analysis indicated that age, place of residence, education level, health insurance status, as well as all constructs of the TPB were significant predictors for self-medication. CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that the prevalence of self-medication among Iranian women was high. Since women have important role in shaping the family health, the issue of high prevalence among this population should be considered as a serious problem in Iran. In this regard, it is recommended to consider factors affecting self-medication among women to reduce this health threatening factors.


Assuntos
Automedicação/psicologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 25, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384340

RESUMO

Psychiatric side effects secondary to corticosteroids have been described for a long time. Some reactions are severe, occurring in approximately 5% of patients. These side effects are more difficult to evaluate when corticosteroids are assumed without medical supervision, practicing self-medication influenced by some cultural factors. We here report the case of a young woman with acute corticosteroid-induced psychotic episode. The patient had assumed corticosteroids in an attempt to gain weight. We here highlight the role of diagnostic tests and early management of patients as well as of an effective multidisciplinary strategy, in particular when cultural involvement of patients occurs, as in the case of our patient.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/etiologia , Automedicação/efeitos adversos , Cultura , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/diagnóstico , Automedicação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(16): 1135-1137, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416105

RESUMO

HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: In this report, a 60-year old patient with a history of mixed nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain after successful removal of oral squamous cell cancer is described who received outpatient pain treatment in our clinic. Moreover, the patient presented with a history of alcohol abuse as well as anorexia and weight loss. EXAMINATIONS AND DIAGNOSIS: The patient was in reduced general condition and cachectic nutritional status. In addition, he suffered from oral pain that radiated to both ears and a related loss of appetite. TREATMENT: In the light of progressive cachexia, we started regular medical cannabis (Sativex®, contains i. e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol). Despite good initial tolerability, medical cannabis was stopped early due to alcohol relapse of the patient. After termination of medical cannabis, the patient regained control of alcohol consumption and achieved sobriety. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that medical cannabis only be prescribed with particular caution in patients with a history of alcohol abuse.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Abuso de Maconha , Maconha Medicinal , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/psicologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Recidiva , Automedicação/psicologia
15.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(3): 189-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441458

RESUMO

Objective: In most resource-poor settings, there is a paucity of data on self-medication and possible factors that influence this practice. The current study assesses self-medication among the people of Akuse, a rural setting in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out in Akuse from 4th January 2016 to 27th February 2016. Using a questionnaire, interviews were conducted to assess self-medication: class of drugs taken, sources of drugs, knowledge of potential adverse effects, among others. Results: Of the 363 participants enrolled, 361 completed questionnaires administered. Of the 361 respondents, 58.4% were female. A majority of the respondents were within the ages of 30 and 45 years. Respondents were mainly farmers (40.2%), and a majority (44.6%) had primary level as the highest education. One major reason for self-medication was influence from family and friends (32.7%). Antibiotics (32.1%) and analgesics (21.0%) were the most common self-medicated drugs, and these drugs were mostly obtained from licenced chemical sellers (32.5%). A little more than a third (39.9%) of the respondents said that their condition did not change after self-medication. A greater number of the respondents (81.7%) did not have knowledge of potential adverse reactions associated with self-medicated drugs. However, respondents with high educational level had the most knowledge of adverse drug reactions. Conclusion: The study found self-medication as a common practice among a number of residents of Akuse. Findings from this study provide data that could be used for targeted education and sensitisation of self-medication and its demerits in similar resource-poor rural settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Rural , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317891

RESUMO

AIM: To study self-medication and its factors in patients with depressive and neurotic disorders at premorbid stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 131 first-time admitted patients and 85 recurrent patients with depressive or neurotic disorders, who reported taking medication to cope with the symptoms during preadmission period. Lazarus coping strategies test, Shmishek personality test, test on disease attitude and patient activation were used. Social and demographic characteristics, subjective characteristics of disease, medical literacy and behavioral coping strategies were studied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Over 50% of the patients used self-medication to cope with the symptoms during the preadmission period. Coping anxiety and insomnia was a key motivation to self-medication. Most frequently used medications included tranquilizers and herbal anxiolytics. Misunderstanding of origin of their state, searching for information about treatment of disease via internet, increased emotiveness and tension, lack of their correction with psychotherapy were the factors of self-medication.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neuróticos , Automedicação , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Depressão , Humanos , Transtornos Neuróticos/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 971, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Yaa Chud' is a non-prescribed poly-pharmaceutical pack containing several types of drugs, including antibiotics and steroids, which can be purchased over the counter in Thailand for self-medication. Although it is illegal, it is still available at some community outlets. This study aimed to understand access to and use of Yaa Chud at the community level in order to raise awareness on its usage and to provide policy recommendations to address the problem. METHODS: This study employed qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews with 18 drug suppliers and 16 community members, and six focus group discussions. It included inventories from 17 drug suppliers. Data were collected in selected communities of the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System, located in the western region of Thailand.Thematic analysis was based upon the Health Services Utilization Model and conducted using the Open Code qualitative software program. RESULTS: Overcrowding, long waiting times, and a perceived unwelcoming environment at public health-care service outlets were identified as factors that drive people into the private sector, where loose regulation of drug laws facilitates access and use of Yaa Chud. Migrants and older people were most likely to seek and use Yaa Chud, especially for mild illness. Availability, easy access through a user's network, low cost, and perceived effectiveness were identified as factors that enable access and use of Yaa Chud. CONCLUSIONS: Though illegal in Thailand, Yaa Chud is likely to remain available for self-medication by community members, due to the persisting demand by the elderly and migrant workers. There is an urgent need to replace these mixed medications with better choices. Safer Yaa Chud may be a preferred, first-line health-care option, which could help reduce congestion in the formal health-care setting. At the same time, enforcement of regulatory compliance needs to be continued in order to stop the supply of unsafe Yaa Chud.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Medicamentos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/provisão & distribução , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Automedicação , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219891, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the criticality of adherence to tuberculosis treatment, there is paucity of rigorous experimental research exploring the efficacy of interventions to promote adherence and a greater lack of inquiry addressing the integral role of adherence behaviour. The aim of this formative study was to examine the way in which the Wisepill evriMED Medication Event Reminder Monitor (MERM) was used among outpatients with drug susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: In depth interviews were conducted with 20 outpatients receiving treatment from two public healthcare facilities in Thanh Hoa, a rural province in northern Viet Nam. Patients had been enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of using the MERM device upon adherence for between 1-3 months. The control group used the device without an alert, while the intervention group used the device with a daily alert and scheduled dosing history review. FINDINGS: All 20 patients interviewed were supportive of using the MERM device. Those able to be at home at the time that their treatment was due (50%) used the device as intended. Patients who worked all reported separating the time when the box was opened from the time at which they ingested their medication. Patients expressed fidelity to the prescribed medication taking time and concerns regarding the portability of the device. Limitations of the study surround the inclusion of a small sample population that did not experience factors that further compromise adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Data recorded by the box did not always accurately reflect usage patterns. The alert in the intervention arm was able to support adherence only in patients who did not work while completing their treatment. MERM implementation can be improved by better aligning prescriber instructions with patients' daily routines, and increasing the use of adherence data to guide adherence support practices. Healthcare staff need to be aware of potential barriers to optimal use of MERM devices. A rigorous qualitative approach to formative assessment is essential to inform the scale up of new digital technologies.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação , Automedicação/métodos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Automedicação/instrumentação , Vietnã , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 726, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of drug resistance caused by self-medication with antibiotics, can be seen as one of the growing global threats. Self-medication is defined as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the practice of self-medication with antibiotics and associated factors among the community of Asmara, Eritrea. METHODS: This was a community based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 16 selected sub-districts of Asmara from September to November 2017. A Two-stage cluster sampling was employed to select study sites and participants. Data was collected in a face to face interview with a structured questionnaire and entered to CSPro version 6.2. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and logistic regression were executed using SPSS version 22. RESULTS: A total of 580 study participants were recruited with a response rate of 99.5% (N = 577). The prevalence of Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) in this study was found to be 45.1% [95% CI (40.5, 49.6)] and majority of them practiced once or twice in a period of 12 months. The main reasons for SMA were previous successful experience (34.4%) and the illness being 'not serious enough to seek medical care' (25.7%). Of those who self-medicated, 84.1% of used amoxicillin at least once. Wound infection (17.9%) and sore throat (13.9%) were the most self-recognized complaints that required self-medication. Antibiotics were supplied and recommended mostly by the community drug outlets. Only Sex (p = 0.046), knowledge (p = 0.019) and attitude (p < 0.001) of the participants were found significantly associated with the practice of SMA in the multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Though majority of the respondents considered self-medication with antibiotics as inappropriate practice, about half of them were practicing it anyway. Therefore immediate attention from relevant bodies is required.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218772, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the use of any drug or medication to treat an illness or ailment without the supervision of a licensed medical doctor/health care providers. Self-medication practice in Eastern Ethiopia is quite common. However, there is little information with regard to magnitude and associated factors. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of self-medication practice and associated factors among adult community members of Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 27- July 12, 2017. Multistage sampling method was used and the number of kebeles and Sub-kebeles were selected using simple random sampling technique. Finally, sampled households in the Sub-kebeles were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected using face to face interview with 547 adult (≥18 years) participants. It was entered and cleaned using EPI-Data version 3.02 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 23 for further analysis. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression models were carried out to identify factors associated with the self-medication. RESULT: The magnitude of self-medication was found to be 37.5% (95% CI: (33.6%-41.7%). Educational status of secondary school [(AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: (0.22-0.98)], high income [(AOR = 3.00; 95% CI: (1.77-5.06)], advised by neighbors, friends or relatives to take drug for their complaint [(AOR = 2.59; 95% CI: (1.62-4.14)], used old prescription /past experience to bought drugs [(AOR = 12.19; 95% CI: (6.65-22.35)], follow advertisements of drugs by television [(AOR = 0.21; 95% CI: (0.05-0.85)], and perception about Hospital drugs (clinics, health centers and hospitals) do not work [(AOR = 2.36; 95% CI: (1.39-3.99)] were significantly associated with self-medication. CONCLUSION: High income, advice by neighbors, friends or relatives to take drug for their complaint, old prescription/past experience use to bought drugs, and perception of hospital drugs do not work was positively associated with self-medication. Therefore, health education should be given to the community on the importance of hospital drugs (clinics, health centers and hospitals) to shift their perception.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco/métodos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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