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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692864

RESUMO

Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is on a rise as one of the major global public health threats. It is therefore important to assess contributory factors to the rise in the cases of resistance reported. The main objective of this study was to assess the self-medication practices with antibiotics among the University of Rwanda students in Huye Campus. Methods: A sample of 570 students from all levels and colleges of the University of Rwanda in Huye Campus were selected using a simple random sampling to participate in this study. A questionnaire was administered to be answered individually by the consented respondents where the self-medication practices with antibiotics in the past 6 months were assessed. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS v.16. Results: The study showed that 12.1% (n=69) practiced self-medication with antibiotics. The major reason for self-medication with antibiotics was illness not serious to have a consultation (50.72%). The main diseases being treated were common cold/fever/cough (47.83%). The most used antibiotic for self-medication was Amoxicillin capsules (59.42%), while the main source of antibiotics was the community pharmacy (72.42%). Conclusion: Self-medication with antibiotics is not uncommon among the university students. Regarding the main reasons of self-medication with antibiotics, diseases being treated, and the antibiotics used, it was found that all these may be related to the students' lack of knowledge about the need for rational use of antibiotics and a study was needed to confirm it.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruanda , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190004, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Travestis and transgender women resort to the use of hormones for body modification. Due to restrictions in the access to health services, self-medication is frequent. The aim of this study was to describe the self-reported prevalence of hormones used by travestis and transgender women in the Federal District. Method: This is a cross-sectional study with Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices questionnaire (KAP) along with travestis and transgender women over 18 years in the FD. Prevalence was calculated using the RDS-II estimator. Logistic models were used to investigate the associated factors. A total of 201 volunteers participated. RESULTS: There was a young sample (median age of 24 years). The overall prevalence of continuous use of hormones was 64.5%. The most used formulation was the combination of estrogen and progesterone (86.2%) by injectable (75.1%) and oral (66%) administration. Most participants (84%) got the hormones without a prescription. Guidance on the use of these hormones came from their peers in 41% of the cases. We observed that the continuous use of hormones is associated with race, income and age, as well as the search for guidance of healthcare professionals, which is also associated with schooling. DISCUSSION: The reality of the process of hormone use by these people in the quest for femininity is reflected in high rates of self-medication. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the visibility of the need to improve the access conditions of these people to health services.


Assuntos
Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Travestismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Travestismo/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529182

RESUMO

In KiGGS Wave 2, data from 3­ to 17-year-olds were collected from a total of 3462 persons using a standardized interview on the current use of AM/NEM in the last seven days. For trends analysis, data from 14,679 study participants in the same age group from the KiGGS baseline study were used.In KiGGS Wave 2, 36.4% (95% CI 34.1-38.8) of the 3­ to 17-year-olds had used at least one AM/NEM in the last seven days. The prevalence was highest at 46.5% in 14- to 17-year-olds and significantly different between girls and boys (56.4% vs. 37.3%). Only among girls were there significant differences by migrant background with a higher prevalence of use among girls without a migrant background.Most frequently, the preparations used were for treatment of the respiratory tract (girls: 14.2%, boys: 14.9%), followed by "Varia" (girls: 8.7%, boys: 9.3%) and preparations for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system (girls: 8.9%, boys: 5.8%). There was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of medicine use compared to the KiGGS baseline study (46.4% vs. 36.4%). This decrease was mainly due to lower prevalences of use in the ATC main groups "N Nervous System" (7.5% vs. 5.4%), "J Systemic Anti-infectives" (2.5% vs. 1.4%) and "H Systemic Hormones, excl. Sexual Hormones and Insulins" (2.0% vs. 1.1%).The results describe key points in the use of AM/NEM, including self-medication for children and adolescents in Germany. They illustrate the use behaviour and represent a valuable supplement to prescription data.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1033, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-medication is a public health concern that may create several problems such as increase in drug resistance, raise in drug use per capita, and creating side effects. This study was conducted to determine predictors of self-medication based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the Iranian women. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. A sample of married women completed a validated, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included items on demographic variables, knowledge, and TPB structures, and the checklist of women's self-medication practices. The study was conducted in six urban health centers of Shush and Zarandieh in Iran during January to July 2016. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0 applying t-test and logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 360 women took part in the study. The results showed that 76% of women had a history of self-medication and 98.9% stored drugs at home. The most important reasons for self-medication were perceived self-medication harmless (41%), having history of a disease (35.5%), and availability of medications at home (34%). The most frequent diseases for self-medication were fatigue, weakness, and anxiety (24%), and fever (20%). The results obtained form logistic regression analysis indicated that age, place of residence, education level, health insurance status, as well as all constructs of the TPB were significant predictors for self-medication. CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that the prevalence of self-medication among Iranian women was high. Since women have important role in shaping the family health, the issue of high prevalence among this population should be considered as a serious problem in Iran. In this regard, it is recommended to consider factors affecting self-medication among women to reduce this health threatening factors.


Assuntos
Automedicação/psicologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(3): 189-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441458

RESUMO

Objective: In most resource-poor settings, there is a paucity of data on self-medication and possible factors that influence this practice. The current study assesses self-medication among the people of Akuse, a rural setting in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out in Akuse from 4th January 2016 to 27th February 2016. Using a questionnaire, interviews were conducted to assess self-medication: class of drugs taken, sources of drugs, knowledge of potential adverse effects, among others. Results: Of the 363 participants enrolled, 361 completed questionnaires administered. Of the 361 respondents, 58.4% were female. A majority of the respondents were within the ages of 30 and 45 years. Respondents were mainly farmers (40.2%), and a majority (44.6%) had primary level as the highest education. One major reason for self-medication was influence from family and friends (32.7%). Antibiotics (32.1%) and analgesics (21.0%) were the most common self-medicated drugs, and these drugs were mostly obtained from licenced chemical sellers (32.5%). A little more than a third (39.9%) of the respondents said that their condition did not change after self-medication. A greater number of the respondents (81.7%) did not have knowledge of potential adverse reactions associated with self-medicated drugs. However, respondents with high educational level had the most knowledge of adverse drug reactions. Conclusion: The study found self-medication as a common practice among a number of residents of Akuse. Findings from this study provide data that could be used for targeted education and sensitisation of self-medication and its demerits in similar resource-poor rural settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Rural , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 726, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of drug resistance caused by self-medication with antibiotics, can be seen as one of the growing global threats. Self-medication is defined as the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the practice of self-medication with antibiotics and associated factors among the community of Asmara, Eritrea. METHODS: This was a community based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 16 selected sub-districts of Asmara from September to November 2017. A Two-stage cluster sampling was employed to select study sites and participants. Data was collected in a face to face interview with a structured questionnaire and entered to CSPro version 6.2. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and logistic regression were executed using SPSS version 22. RESULTS: A total of 580 study participants were recruited with a response rate of 99.5% (N = 577). The prevalence of Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) in this study was found to be 45.1% [95% CI (40.5, 49.6)] and majority of them practiced once or twice in a period of 12 months. The main reasons for SMA were previous successful experience (34.4%) and the illness being 'not serious enough to seek medical care' (25.7%). Of those who self-medicated, 84.1% of used amoxicillin at least once. Wound infection (17.9%) and sore throat (13.9%) were the most self-recognized complaints that required self-medication. Antibiotics were supplied and recommended mostly by the community drug outlets. Only Sex (p = 0.046), knowledge (p = 0.019) and attitude (p < 0.001) of the participants were found significantly associated with the practice of SMA in the multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Though majority of the respondents considered self-medication with antibiotics as inappropriate practice, about half of them were practicing it anyway. Therefore immediate attention from relevant bodies is required.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184682

RESUMO

Background: Indonesian community pharmacies hold a strategic position from which to promote the rational use of medicines by providing appropriate advice for patients requesting self-medication. To date, published studies related to the provision of advice in Indonesian community pharmacies are limited and have been conducted only in more developed western Indonesia. No studies have been undertaken in eastern Indonesia, which is less developed than and culturally different from the western region. Objectives: This paper aims to: (1) describe the types and amount of advice provided by pharmacy staff for three scenarios in a patient simulation study and for two scenarios in pharmacy staff interviews; and (2) ascertain the frequency of appropriate advice given in response to the scenarios. Methods: A patient simulation study was conducted at community pharmacies in an eastern Indonesian provincial capital. Four weeks after completing a patient simulation study, structured interviews with pharmacy staff were conducted. Two cough scenarios and one diarrhoea scenario were developed for the patient simulation study. Meanwhile, two scenarios (an ACE inhibitor-induced cough and a common cough and cold) were developed for pharmacy staff interviews. The types and amount of advice provided by pharmacy staff were recorded on paper and assessed for its appropriateness. The determination of appropriate advice was based on the literature and by consensus of two Indonesian experts. Results: In patient simulation, the most common type of advice provided in all scenarios was product recommendations. In interviews, medical referrals and recommending cough and cold medicine were the most common types of advice provided for ACE inhibitor-induced cough and common cough and cold scenarios respectively. Appropriate advice was provided in less than 0.5% in the patient simulation study, but two-third of participants in the interviews responded to the scenarios appropriately. Conclusions: Pharmacy staff did not provide appropriate advice in practice, although they may have adequate knowledge. A contributing factor was insufficient information gathered in patient encounters. Optimising information-gathering practice by pharmacy staff is needed


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/classificação , Aconselhamento Diretivo/classificação , Prática Profissional/classificação , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação/métodos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional
8.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(4): 888-894, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093938

RESUMO

Background Older kidney transplant recipients take a larger number of medications than younger patients, but there is currently no evidence that this affects health outcomes or that is it associated with potentia medicine-related problems. Objective To evaluate the prevalence and number of potentially inappropriate medications in older kidney transplant recipients and also the possible associated factors (sex, age, comorbidities, number of medications, etc.). Setting A renal post-transplant ambulatory outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. Method PIMs were defined according to the Beers criteria, version 2015. Medications were classified following the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. Chi squared tests and analysis of variance were used for the analyses. Main outcome measure Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications and medication groups with higher prevalence rates of PIMs, including associated factors. Results Among 143 kidney transplant recipients, 77.6% had at least one potentially inappropriate medication as part of their prescription regime. Medication groups that were most implicated in PIM are medicines that act on the alimentary tract and metabolism (55.9%), cardiovascular system (32.2%) and nervous system (21.7%). We detected a high prevalence (63.6%) of self-medication (use of OTC medicines without indication of a healthcare professional) among the population studied. There was a statistically significant association between the number of prescribed medications and the presence of potentially inappropriate medication in the prescription regime (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our data draw attention to the need of medicine therapy management by clinical pharmacists and clinicians in this group of patients and also assessing the real clinical impacts of these medications in the prescription regimes of elderly renal transplant patients.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(4): 523-526, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the reasons of self-medication in rural and urban population.. METHODS: The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Lahore, Pakistan, from March to August 2017, and comprised inhabitants of rural and urban areas of the city regardless of gender and aged 18-50 years. The subjects were enrolled using non probability convenience sampling technique. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, which was validated through content validity index. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. RESULTS: Of the 786 participants, 551(70%) were from the urban areas and 235(30%) were from the rural areas. The mean age of the sample was 30.54±8.50. Overall, 746(95%) were taking medicines without a prescription. Among them, 528(96%) were urban and 218(93%) were rural inhabitants (p<0.07). Besides, 352(47.2%) were males and 394(52.8%) were females (p>0.05). The most frequent reason cited for self-medication was quick relief by 478(64.1%) subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Self-medication prevalence was very high in both urban and rural populations.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Expectorantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(1): 99-112, abr. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008058

RESUMO

La automedicación es una práctica riesgosa cuyas consecuencias incluyen enmascaramiento de una enfermedad, aparición de reacciones adversas, interacciones medicamentosas, aumento de la resistencia a ciertos tipos de fármacos y farmacodependencia. El objetivo fue determinar el perfil de automedicación en funcionarios de una industria farmacéutica. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, con muestreo no probabilístico y por conveniencia realizado de octubre a noviembre del 2015, a 61 funcionarios que trabajan en una planta industrial farmacéutica. Las edades estaban comprendidas entre 20 y 30 años, en su mayoría mujeres. Consumían medicamentos 97% de los funcionarios. El 53% se automedicaba para patologías menores y 90,3% lo hacía según necesidad. Utilizaban mezcla de analgésicos y antiinflamatorios. Los motivos más frecuentes, 58% dijo no tener tiempo para ir al médico y 42% fue un familiar o amigo el que le sugirió el medicamento que debía consumir. De los que se automedicaban, el 74% consideraba que la publicidad no es importante para elegir un medicamento, el 81% utilizaba la información del prospecto. El 48% no recibía información sobre el medicamento en la farmacia y el 93% consideraba que la automedicación es peligrosa. La automedicación es una práctica común en la población de funcionarios estudiada y en su entorno social inmediato, a pesar de que la mayoría de la población entiende que la automedicación constituye una práctica riesgosa(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Farmacêuticos , Estudos Transversais , Uso de Medicamentos
12.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 46: e64-e71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the prevalence of children's and adolescents' pain experiences and use of medicine and examined the relationships between pain experiences, medication knowledge, literacy, and use of medicine. METHOD: A probability-proportionate-to-size sampling method was used to systematically draw a random sample of schools. In 2014, a national representative sample of 2309 students from 35 primary schools (5th-6th grade), 2700 students from 30 middle schools, and 2013 students from 20 high schools completed the online survey. RESULTS: Overall, 85.6% of children and adolescents reported experiencing pain during the past year that included headache (63.0%), throat ache (59.3%), muscle ache (58.3%), stomach pain (42.9%), menstrual pain (girls: 42.1%), and dental pain (38.5%). Children and adolescents had taken cold/cough medicine (48.1%), acetaminophen (15.0%), antacids (14.8%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (10.5%) in the past year. Multivariate analysis results indicated that after controlling for pain experiences children and adolescents who had lower levels of medication knowledge and literacy were more likely to use pain medication and antacids more frequently. In addition, children and adolescents who had lower medication knowledge, lower literacy, asked doctors to prescribe antacids, and co-administered with antacids were more likely to report long-term use of antacids. CONCLUSIONS: Lower levels of medication knowledge and literacy among children and adolescents were associated with more frequent use of pain medication and antacids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Alfabetização em Saúde , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/epidemiologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Taiwan/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 153, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-medication practice is the selection and use of medicines by individuals or a member of the individual's family without physician's order to treat self-recognized or self-diagnosed conditions. It is highly prone to inappropriate use and wastage of resources, increase drug resistance pathogens and adverse reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess self-medication practices and associated factors among households at Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: This community based cross-sectional study was conducted among households at Gondar town from March to June, 2018. The overall prevalence of self-medication practices among households at Gondar town were 50.2%. The odds of self-medication practices among unmarried participants (AOR = 3.12; 95% CI 2.35, 5.34), influenced by peer (AOR = 3.58; 95% CI 2.89, 7.28), poor perceived quality of health care services (AOR = 4.67; 95% CI 2.56, 7.96) and access to pharmacy (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI 1.65, 6.76) were higher compared with their counterparts. In the contrary, the lesser odd was observed among knowledgeable participants about medications (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.16, 0.39) compared with non-knowledgeable. Therefore, improving perception of participants about quality of services, conducting awareness creation and managing negative effects of peer may reduce self-medication practices.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212875, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818373

RESUMO

Benefits of antibiotics are threatened by the self-medication, people's lack of knowledge and inappropriate use of antibiotics, especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine knowledge; attitudes and practices toward antibiotics use in an urban community, and evaluate the factors that are associated with antibiotic use. Between January and March 2015, a cross sectional and prospective study was conducted in all pharmacies within the Douala IV health district, Cameroon. Anonymous interviews including both open and closed ended questions were conducted in participants selected by convenience sampling Descriptive and logistic regression analysis were performed using StataSE11 software (version 11 SE) and R software (version 3.1.1) in data analysis. Overall 402 (33.7%) of 1,192 customers purchased antibiotics and of these, 47% bought antibiotics without a prescription. 60.7% of purchased antibiotics was for adult 'patients and around 60% of parents carried out self-medication on their children. The vast majority reported that all microbes can be treated with antibiotics (88.3%). The belief that antibiotics are appropriate for bacterial infections was more common among those with a higher level education (OR = 4.03, 95%CI:1.89-8.57, p<0.0001) and among public/private servants (OR = 2.47, 95%CI:1.21-5.08, p = 0.013). Physicians provide less explanations about antibiotics are and their potential side effects than the pharmacy auxiliaries (OR = 0.205, 95%CI = 0.09-0.46, p<0.0001), but more than pharmacists (OR = 3.692, 95%CI:1.44-9.25, p = 0.005). Indications on antibiotics use were 7 times more given to customers with a prescription compared to those without a prescription (OR = 7.37, 95% CI = 2.13-25.43, p = 0.002). Adult male (OR = 2.32, 95%CI:1.24-4.34, p = 0.009) and higher education (OR = 2.05, 95%CI:1.08-3.89, p = 0.027) were significantly associated with self-medication. Misuse, little "practical knowledge" and high self-medication confirm the unsatisfactory prescription and dispensing practices of the antibiotics in our country. These results highlight the important of the development and implementation appropriate guidelines for the responsible use of antibiotics for health care providers and health education targeting community members themselves.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Farmácias , Automedicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Camarões , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/efeitos adversos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Automedicação/efeitos adversos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 17(1): 0-0, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184613

RESUMO

Objective: The use of antibiotics without prescription is common in Colombia as well as in other developing countries. The objective of this study is to explore the attitudes and motivations associated with the use of antibiotics without prescription. Methods: Focus group sessions were held with residents of Bogotá. Different socioeconomic groups were approached to identify possible differences of opinion. A semi-structured interview guide was used to guide the discussion, with thematic analysis used to identify central themes. Results: In total, 21 people, aged between 25 and 50 years participated in four focus groups. The results suggest that the use of antibiotics without prescription is common practice. The main reasons included barriers to access to prescribed medications due to limited health insurance. Even those with adequate access to health insurance report being willing to use a treatment without a prescription if they have confidence in its effectiveness. The relationship with the physician is important, but pharmacy storekeepers are also highly trusted. While some participants understood that antibiotics can cure infections but cause serious adverse events, several misconceptions about antibiotics therapy were identified. These included a lack of knowledge of resistance transmissibility among communities. Conclusions: The results have implications for interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate use of antibiotics, highlighting i) how lack of access to timely care creates an incentive to self-prescribe, ii) the key role that pharmacy storekeepers play in the Colombian healthcare system and the need to include them in interventions, and iii) the misconceptions about inappropriate use of medications that need to be addressed by educational programs. These findings provide insights to other countries where antibiotics misuse is also a problem


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Social , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Grupos Focais/estatística & dados numéricos , Opinião Pública , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 159, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30727984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although over the counter (OTC) drugs are believed to be relatively safe, their inappropriate use could have serious implications. The aim of the study was to assess the practice of self-medication, prevalence of risky practice and its associated factors in pharmacy outlets of Asmara, Eritrea. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 609 customers in 20 pharmacy outlets in Asmara between August and September, 2017. Two-stage cluster sampling was employed and data were collected using a structured questionnaire through face to face exit interviews. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were performed using SPSS (version 22). RESULTS: Of the 609 customers, 93.7% had practiced self-medication with OTC drugs; of which 81.8% were at risky practice. On average, each participant was using OTC drugs at least once a month (Median = 1, IQR = 3.67). Educational level (p < 0.0001), religion (p = 0.047), occupation (p = 0.027) and knowledge regarding OTC drugs (p = 0.019) were significantly associated with risky practice. Respondents with elementary and below educational level were fifteen times (AOR = 15.49, CI: 1.97, 121.80) at higher risk compared to those with higher education, and students were almost three times (AOR = 2.96, CI: 1.13, 7.73) at higher risk than governmental employees. Furthermore, respondents with below average score in knowledge were more likely to be engaged in risky practice (AOR = 1.83, CI: 1.11, 3.04) compared to those with above average score. The most frequently preferred OTC drug group was analgesics (34.3%) followed by antipyretics (15.7%) and cough and cold preparations (14.2%). About 14% of the respondents admitted that they had taken more than the recommended dose and 6.9% had experienced drug related problems following the consumption of OTC drugs. Always, 35% of the respondents read package insert(s) and 73.9% check expiry dates while purchasing OTC drugs. Refrigerating OTC drugs, where it is not recommended, was also one of the prominent risky practices. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that inappropriate self-medication practice with OTC drugs was prevalent requiring early intervention to minimize the risks.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/psicologia , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Farmácias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180007, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-medication involves the concept of the spontaneous search by the individual for some drug that he or she considers appropriate to solve a health problem. Self-medication practice is little explored by the elderly according to other studies based in population data. OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in self-medication practice among the Brazilian elderly between 2006 and 2010. METHODS: This is a population-based study whose data were obtained from the Health, Well-being and Ageing Study (SABE Study). Thesample consisted of 1,257 elderly people in 2006 and 865 in 2010, who used drugs. RESULTS: The findings showed self-medication reduction from 42.3% in 2006 to 18.2% in 2010. In both periods, predominant utilized therapeutic classes were those acting on the nervous system (27.9% in 2006, and 29.6% in 2010) and on the alimentary tract and metabolism (25.5% in 2006, and 35.9% in 2010). The most commonly used medicines in 2006 and 2010 were analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and vitamins. There was a tendency to decrease the use of potentially inappropriate medicines between 2006 (26.4%) and 2010 (18.1%). The elderly themselves were the main responsible for the decision about the drug use in 2006 (62.5%) and 2010 (66.5%). CONCLUSION: Theextent of self-medication practice among the elderly who participated in the study decreased between 2006 and 2010, but the use of medicines that offer risks to health was still reported. Thus, the findings reinforce the importance of monitoring, evaluating, and continuously educating the elderly about risks and benefits of drug consumption, particularly over-the-counter medicines.


Assuntos
Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Polimedicação , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Public Health ; 168: 92-101, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a practice of global concern with a higher incidence within the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite worldwide efforts to control and promote the rational use of antibiotics, the continuing practice of SMA systematically exposes individuals and communities to the risk of antibiotic resistance and a host of other antibiotic side-effects. This systematic scoping review maps evidence on the factors influencing SMA in these settings. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic scoping review. METHODS: The search strategy involved electronic databases including PubMed, Web of science, Science Direct, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, BioMed Central, and the World Health Organization Library. PRISMA P guidelines and Arksey and O'Malley's framework were used. Thematic analysis was used to identify the factors that influence the practices of SMA in LMICs. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT), version 2011, was used to assess the quality of the included primary studies. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies included participants from the following LMICs: Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Yemen. The findings of the review emphasized a considerable high prevalence of SMA, ranging from 8.1% to 93%, with an association with the level of education, monthly income, and gender of participants. Accessibility, affordability, and conditions of health facilities, as well as the health-seeking behavior, are factors that influence SMA in LMICs. Health conditions such as a sore throat, common cold, cough, headache, toothache, flu-like symptoms, pain relief, fever, runny nose, toothache, upper respiratory tract infections, and urinary tract infection were the major complaints that led to the practices of SMA. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable level of research evidence predominantly in some LMICs from Asia, with less evidence from African LMICs. Sociocultural determinants of health associated with the structure and conditions of health system as well as the health-seeking behavior are the main factors influencing SMA. Contextual and comprehensive studies on the factors influencing the non-prescribed use of antibiotics are needed to enable evidence-based strategies to correctly address the utilization of antibiotics and contain the problem of antimicrobial resistance, especially within the LMICs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42017072954.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 234: 21-26, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641103

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mexico ranks second in the world for obesity prevalence. In Mexico, obese and overweight subjects commonly seek alternative treatments for weight-loss, including the use of herbal products. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-medication with herbal products for weight-loss among overweight and obese subjects residing in four states (Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, State of Mexico, and Mexico City) from central Mexico. In addition, the factors related to self-medication among patients were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1404 overweight and obese subjects were interviewed. A chi-square test examined associations between socio-demographic and socio-economic information, and self-medication with herbal products for weight-loss. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-medication was 42.9% among the participants who used herbal products for weight-loss. The female gender was the strongest factor (OR: 2.20 (1.75-2.77) associated with self-medication for weight-loss, followed by a low educational level (elementary and middle school) [OR: 1.80 (1.31-2.44)], and a middle-socioeconomic status [OR: 1.75 (1.21-2.52)]. The main herbal products used for weight-loss were based on: i) green tea, Camellia sinensis (12.7% of frequency), ii) aceitilla, Bidens odorata (6.6%), and iii) soybean, Glycine max (5.3%). In addition, 65% of the respondents considered herbal products ineffective for weight-loss after 6 months of use. CONCLUSION: Due to the high incidence of overweight and obesity in Mexico, there is a high prevalence (42.9%) of self-medication using natural products for weight-loss, particularly in women from Central Mexico. This study indicates the important need to educate patients about the harmful effects of consuming these products.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Pharm Fr ; 77(3): 198-204, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to: (i) quantify the number of pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) linked to spontaneous requests for the two oral target molecules, ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine (ii) analyse the causes and proposed solutions (iii) quantify the number of registrations in the patient's pharmaceutical record and identify the various causes of non-registration. METHODS: The study was conducted over a 2 weeks' period in the months of February and April 2014 in 482 pharmacies affiliated to the training supervisor associations of 8 French Faculties of Pharmacy. Data regarding spontaneous requests for the target molecules was collected, with due respect to a patient care flow chart at the pharmacy, by incorporating the systematic proposal for registration of the medication in the patient's pharmaceutical record. Each PI was the subject of a notification made with reference to a standardized grid. RESULTS: A total of 12,160 dispensations were made over the two weeks of the study. Overall 815 of them gave rise to an PI (6.7%), justified in almost half of the cases by a contraindication. The alternative proposed by the dispensing pharmacist was accepted in more than 9 out of 10 cases. In half of the cases, the dispensing pharmacist had access to the patient's French healthcare card; more than 2/3 of the dispensations thus led to the registration of the medication in the patient's pharmaceutical record. CONCLUSION: The pairing of the two tools, these being the notification grid and the pharmaceutical record, aims to maximize dispensation security while patients are being guided in their approach to self-medication.


Assuntos
Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pseudoefedrina/uso terapêutico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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