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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180007, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-medication involves the concept of the spontaneous search by the individual for some drug that he or she considers appropriate to solve a health problem. Self-medication practice is little explored by the elderly according to other studies based in population data. OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in self-medication practice among the Brazilian elderly between 2006 and 2010. METHODS: This is a population-based study whose data were obtained from the Health, Well-being and Ageing Study (SABE Study). Thesample consisted of 1,257 elderly people in 2006 and 865 in 2010, who used drugs. RESULTS: The findings showed self-medication reduction from 42.3% in 2006 to 18.2% in 2010. In both periods, predominant utilized therapeutic classes were those acting on the nervous system (27.9% in 2006, and 29.6% in 2010) and on the alimentary tract and metabolism (25.5% in 2006, and 35.9% in 2010). The most commonly used medicines in 2006 and 2010 were analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and vitamins. There was a tendency to decrease the use of potentially inappropriate medicines between 2006 (26.4%) and 2010 (18.1%). The elderly themselves were the main responsible for the decision about the drug use in 2006 (62.5%) and 2010 (66.5%). CONCLUSION: Theextent of self-medication practice among the elderly who participated in the study decreased between 2006 and 2010, but the use of medicines that offer risks to health was still reported. Thus, the findings reinforce the importance of monitoring, evaluating, and continuously educating the elderly about risks and benefits of drug consumption, particularly over-the-counter medicines.


Assuntos
Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Polimedicação , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(1): 59-66, jan.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-968607

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar La práctica de La automedicación por los adolescentes em lãs escuelas públicas de Picos-PI. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal que incluyó a 209 adolescentes. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo em lãs reuniones semanales a través de um cuestionario. Resultados: El grupo de edad más frecuente fue de 17 años 94 (44,9%), 122 (58,4%) eranmujeres, vivía con la familia 129 (61,7%) enlas zonas urbanas 179 (85,7%) y católticos149 (71,2%). 209 (100%) se dedican a La automedicación, y fiebreel síntoma principal 120 (57,4%), y la forma de dosificación de latableta más consumido 168 (57,4%). La principal motivación para La automedicación fuel afacilidad de conseguir las drogas fuera de los establecimientos de salud 103 (49,3%), y 141 (67,5%) está de acuerdoen que los anuncios influyenen este comportamento. Conclusión: Los adolescentes practican La automedicacióncon alta frecuencia, que se refiere a lanecesidad de iniciativas estratégicas e ne lámbito local conelfin de reducir esta práctica


Objetivo: Analisar a prática de automedicação por adolescentes da rede estadual de ensino de Picos-PI. Método: Estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado com 209 adolescentes. A coleta de dados ocorreu em encontros semanais por meio de um questionário. Resultados: A faixa etária mais prevalente (94) foi de 17 anos (44,9%);122 (58,4%) do sexo feminino;129 moravam com a família (61,7%); 179 na zona urbana (85,7%);e 149 católicos (71,2%). 209(100%) praticam a automedicação, sendo a febre (120)o principal sintoma (57,4%), e o comprimido(168) a forma farmacêutica mais consumida (57,4%). A principal motivação para automedicação foi a facilidade de conseguir medicamentos fora dos estabelecimentos de saúde (103) (49,3%);e 141 (67,5%) concordam que propagandas influenciam esse comportamento.Conclusão: Os adolescentes praticam automedicação com elevada frequência, o que remete à necessidade de ações estratégicas a nível local com vistas à redução dessa prática


Objective: To analyze the practice of self-medication by adolescents of the Picos-PI state education system. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study with 209 adolescents. The data collection took place in weekly meetings through a questionnaire. Results: The most prevalent age group was 17 years (94.9%), 122 (58.4%) female, living with family 129 (61.7%), urban area 179 (85.7%), , And catholics149 (71.2%). 209 (100%) practice self-medication, fever being the main symptom 120 (57.4%), and the tablet the most consumed pharmaceutical form 168 (57.4%). The main motivation for self-medication was the ease of obtaining drugs outside health facilities 103 (49.3%), and 141 (67.5%) agree that advertisements influence this behavior. Conclusion: Adolescents practice self-medication with high frequency, which points to the need for strategic actions at the local level to reduce this practice


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Automedicação/tendências , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Estudante
3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 88-96, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415173

RESUMO

AIM: Despite significant reductions in Driving Under the Influence (DUI) in the United States during recent decades, DUI continues to be a major public health threat. The current study investigated the intersection of two domains known to influence DUI: criminal history and psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: DUI recidivists (N = 743) attending a court-mandated two-week inpatient DUI program completed a computerized mental health assessment as part of their intake to that program. Participants' criminal records were obtained 4-5 years after program attendance. FINDINGS: This study identified three primary repeat DUI offender subtypes with distinct patterns of criminal behavior and psychiatric comorbidity: (Type I) those whose DUI emerges from a pattern of drinking to cope with mood and anxiety problems, (Type II) those whose DUI emerges as part of a larger pattern of externalizing and criminal behavior, and (Type III) those whose DUI offenses reflect more acute triggers and isolated episodes of excessive drinking. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that current treatment models used in DUI programs are inadequate to address the heterogeneity in the population of DUI recidivists and that earlier and more comprehensive screening would allow for better targeting of resources to DUI offender subtypes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Dirigir sob a Influência/psicologia , Automedicação/efeitos adversos , Automedicação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Comorbidade , Dirigir sob a Influência/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/tendências
4.
Int J Drug Policy ; 58: 104-112, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use aiming at increased performance at work or while studying, usually referred to as pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE), has been extensively researched in recent years. While large scale national studies have tried to assess the prevalence of PCE among the general population, cross-cultural comparisons have been hampered by the different definitions and designs included. In addition, the non-medical use of prescription drugs indicated to treat the symptoms of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been the focus of discussion, yet no study has addressed the association between ADHD rates, prescribing behaviour and PCE yet. METHODS: The Global Drug Survey is an annually conducted anonymous web survey on substance use. Two data sets from male and female Global Drug Survey (GDS) participants aged 16 to 65 years with no previous ADHD diagnosis were analysed to assess12-month PCE in 15 countries. GDS2015 (n = 79,640) examined the patterns of and motives for stimulant PCE, while GDS2017 (n = 29,758) focused on both the use of stimulant and sedative drugs for PCE RESULTS: When comparing the study samples 2015 and 2017, PCE with prescription and illegal stimulants and modafinil increased across all countries. People who used stimulant drugs and modafinil for PCE rated the perceived effect on cognitive performance most beneficial, while alcohol was the substance with the most adverse effect. CONCLUSION: The analysis of data on stimulant use for PCE in the largest global sample highlights relatively low-risk PCE use patterns except for participants with illegal stimulant use for PCE. The globalisation of ADHD, physicians' prescribing behaviour and changes in drug policy are likely to influence the country-specific rate of PCE among non-ADHD individuals what calls for further investigation.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Automedicação/tendências , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 26(3): 258-266, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The identification of factors which may influence a patient's decision to self-medicate. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of the adult population (at least 16 years old), using data from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey in Spain, which included 22 188 subjects. Logistic regression models enabled us to estimate the effect of each analysed variable on self-medication. KEY FINDINGS: In total, 14 863 (67%) individuals reported using medication (prescribed and non-prescribed) and 3274 (22.0%) of them self-medicated. Using logistic regression and stratifying by age, four different models have been constructed. Our results include different variables in each of the models to explain self-medication, but the one that appears on all four models is education level. Age is the other important factor which influences self-medication. Self-medication is strongly associated with factors related to socio-demographic, such as sex, educational level or age, as well as several health factors such as long-standing illness or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: When our data are compared to those from previous Spanish surveys carried out in 2003 and 2006, we can conclude that self-medication is increasing in Spain.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
6.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 27(3): 749-769, Jul.-Set. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-895610

RESUMO

Resumo O consumo do metilfenidato vem atingindo níveis elevados no Brasil. Além do aumento significativo do diagnóstico de TDAH, transtorno cujo tratamento é realizado com metilfenidato, há indícios que este incremento se deu pela automedicação. Sabe-se que informações da internet, mais especificamente do Facebook, exercem forte influência em padrões de uso, apontando importantes desdobramentos do processo de farmaceuticalização da sociedade. Os objetivos deste artigo são introduzir a metodologia de pesquisa digital, mais especificamente, a aplicação de softwares de extração de dados de redes sociais (Facebook), e por meio dela mapear as informações sobre o uso deste medicamento nessas redes. O conteúdo, de acesso público, foi analisado e categorizado mediante ancoragem da literatura sobre o tema da farmaceuticalização. O mapeamento permitiu observar que o Facebook oferece importantes espaços virtuais para a circulação de informações, com um alcance de aproximadamente 600.000 pessoas. Os espaços representam fóruns de discussões onde as principais controvérsias sobre os usos do metilfenidato são colocadas: diagnóstico, identidade TDAH, resistência ao uso do medicamento, aquisição. Considerando os principais pontos suscitados por este mapeamento, é possível afirmar que, no caso do consumo do metilfenidato, seu uso apresenta aspectos da farmaceuticalização da vida cotidiana.


Abstract In the last five years, Brazil has presented a significant increase in ADHD diagnosis. Methylphenidate is the drug of choice for treatment and consumption has reached high levels. There is evidence that this increase is due to self-medication. It is known that information from the internet, specifically from Facebook, exerts a strong influence on use patterns, reflecting important developments in the process of pharmaceuticalization. The objectives of this article are to map information on the use of this medicine in virtual networks, by first introducing the digital research methodology, specifically the application of social networking data extraction software (Facebook). The publicly accessed content was analyzed and categorized using anchoring about pharmaceuticalization, provided by the literature. Facebook provides an important virtual environment for the circulation of information on methylphenidate consumption, with a range of about 600,000 people. The virtual discussion forums address the main controversies about methylphenidate use, which are diagnosis, ADHD identity, resistance to the use of the drug and acquisition. This form of information dissemination permits the identification and characterization of non-therapeutic uses of methylphenidate.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Automedicação/tendências , Internet , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Mídias Sociais , Medicalização , Metilfenidato
7.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 15(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165685

RESUMO

Background: Patients' behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. Results: This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%), followed by self-medication (20.9%). The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89). The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Conclusion: Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Automedicação/tendências , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Relações Interprofissionais , Assistência Farmacêutica/métodos , Prática Profissional/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Malásia/epidemiologia , Autocuidado/tendências , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Análise Estatística , Modelos Logísticos , Assistência Farmacêutica
8.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 39(4): 927-934, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28466397

RESUMO

Background Resistance to antibiotics is a major threat to global health and general public play a significant role in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Objective The present study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of the general public towards antibiotic use in China. Setting Randomly selected parks in three cities of western, central and eastern China: Xi'an, Changsha, and Nanjing. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 1400 residents, from January to June 2015. Main outcome measures Knowledge, attitudes and practices scores toward self-medication with antibiotics and compliance with antibiotic regimens. Results The response rate was 86.0% (n = 1204). Only 192 (19.5%) respondents gained a score of 3 or above, and the maximum score of 4, reflecting poor knowledge towards antibiotics. Just over half (54.8%) of respondents incorrectly believed antibiotics were effective against viral infections and only one-third (34.3%) knew that antibiotics were not anti-inflammatories. Nearly half of the respondents (49.0%) had changed the dosage when taking antibiotics, 35.6% switched to another class, 33.4% had not finished the full treatment course and over 60.0% kept leftover antibiotics for future use. Almost half of the respondents (45.7%) stated they had used antimicrobials during the last 6 months and 64.4% of them had self-medicated. Conclusion This study identified serious misconceptions regarding antibiotics use in the Chinese general public. Effective interventions should be developed to provide practical and appropriate advice to effect behaviour change within this population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Opinião Pública , Automedicação/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Automedicação/tendências , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 18(1): 11, 2017 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-prescription access to antimicrobials is common, and self-prescribing is increasingly popular in Russian society. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of community pharmacists regarding antibiotic use and self-medication. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from September-December 2015 of community pharmacists in the Saint-Petersburg and Leningrad region, Russia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess antibiotic use and self-medication practices. The data were analysed using logistic regression and Pearson chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Of the 316 pharmacists (77.07%) who completed the questionnaire, 230 (72.8%) self-medicated with antibiotics. Antibiotics were mostly used to self-treat upper (53.3%) and lower respiratory tract infections (19.3%), relying on their own knowledge (81.5%), previous treatment experience (49%) and patients' prescriptions (17%). The most commonly used antibiotics were macrolides (33.2%). Characteristics such as age, education and experience were related to antibiotic use and self-medication. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that self-prescription of antibiotics is a common practice amongst pharmacists in Saint Petersburg and also identified personal and professional characteristics of pharmacists strongly associated with self-medication.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Farmácias/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Automedicação/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmácias/tendências , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/tendências , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Automedicação/psicologia , Automedicação/tendências , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 14(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-158873

RESUMO

Heartburn and acid regurgitation are the cardinal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and occur commonly in the Canadian population. Multiple non-prescription treatment options are available for managing these symptoms, including antacids, alginates, histamine-H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). As a result, pharmacists are ideally positioned to recommend appropriate treatment options based upon an individual’s needs and presenting symptoms, prior treatment response, comorbid medical conditions, and other relevant factors. Individuals who experience mild heartburn and/or have symptoms that occur predictably in response to known precipitating factors can manage their symptoms by avoiding known triggers and using on-demand antacids and/or alginates or lower-dose non-prescription H2RAs (e.g. ranitidine 150 mg). For those with moderate symptoms, lifestyle changes, in conjunction with higher-dose non-prescription H2RAs, may be effective. However, for individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms that occur frequently (i.e. ≥2 days/week), the non-prescription (Schedule II) PPI omeprazole 20 mg should be considered. The pharmacist can provide important support by inquiring about the frequency and severity of symptoms, identifying an appropriate treatment option, and recognizing other potential causes of symptoms, as well as alarm features and atypical symptoms that would necessitate referral to a physician. After recommending an appropriate treatment, the pharmacist can provide instructions for its correct use. Additionally, the pharmacist should inquire about recurrences, respond to questions about adverse events, provide monitoring parameters, and counsel on when referral to a physician is warranted. Pharmacists are an essential resource for individuals experiencing heartburn; they play a crucial role in helping individuals make informed self-care decisions and educating them to ensure that therapy is used in an optimal, safe, and effective manner (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/tendências , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Autocuidado/métodos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Estilo de Vida
12.
Rev. fitoter ; 16(2): 153-163, dic. 2016. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-161081

RESUMO

La hoja de coca es una droga vegetal con implicaciones medicinales y culturales diferentes a las de la cocaína, sustancia que se ha convertido en una droga de abuso. La hoja de coca posee un potencial terapéutico en el tratamiento de la astenia, de los dolores bucales o del tracto gastrointestinal, en la obesidad, especialmente si se encuentra asociada a diabetes tipo II, y en programas de entrenamiento para el ejercicio físico. Bajo valoración psiquiátrica podría ser útil en el tratamiento del síndrome ansioso depresivo y en la terapia de deshabituación de cocaína y alcohol. No se ha observado toxicidad aguda, adicción ni síndrome de abstinencia en consumidores habituales de hoja de coca. Se requieren más estudios clínicos que permitan establecer la posología más adecuada para cada una de las indicaciones (AU)


A folha de coca é um fármaco vegetal com implicaçóes medicinais e culturais diferentes das da cocaina, uma substancia que se tornou uma droga de abuso. A folha de coca tem potencial terapéutico no tratamento da astenia, dor oral ou do trato gastrointestinal, obesidade, especialmente se esta estiver associada a diabetes tipo II e também em programas de preparaçáo física, para aumento da resisténcia. Sob avaliaçáo psiquiátrica pode ser útil no tratamento da síndrome ansiosa depressiva, e também na terapia de desabituaçáo de cocaina e álcool. Nao se observou toxicidade aguda, dependencia ou sindroma de abstinencia em consumidores habituais de folha de coca. Sáo necessários mais estudos clínicos que permitam estabelecer a posologia mais adequada para cada uma das possiveis indicaçóes terapéuticas (AU)


Coca leaf is a herbal drug with medicinal and cultural implications different from those of cocaine, a substance that has become a drug of abuse. Coca leaf has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthenia, oral pain or gastrointestinal tract pain, obesity, especially if it is associated with type II diabetes, and in physical exercise training programs. Under psychiatric assessment may be useful in the treatment of anxiety-depressive syndrome and in the dishabituation therapy of cocaine and alcohol. No acute toxicity, addiction or withdrawal symptoms have been observed in regular coca leaf users. Further clinical studies are required to establish the most suitable dosage for each of the possible therapeutic indications (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Coca/química , Cocaína/química , Astenia/tratamento farmacológico , Automedicação/tendências , Cocaína/farmacocinética , Cocaína/uso terapêutico , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Chá/química , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/história , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico
13.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 54(5): 390-8, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26932303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess self-medication practices and to evaluate the impact of obtaining medical knowledge on self-medication among medical and pharmacy students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A well-validated questionnaire that included 3 sections about self-medication was administered to the subjects after introducing the term "self-medication" verbally. RESULTS: 1,317 students had participated in the study and were subgrouped according to their academic level into seniors and juniors. Compared to the general population rate of 42.5%, self-medication practice was reported by (1,034, 78.5%) of the students and most common amongst pharmacy students (n = 369, 82.9%) compared to Pharm.D. (n = 357, 77.9%) and medical students (n = 308, 74.4%) (p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between juniors and seniors (557, 79.1% vs. 477, 77.8%, p = 0.59, respectively). Headache (71.2%) and common cold (56.5%) were frequent ailments that provoked self-medication. Analgesics (79.9%) and antibiotics (59.8%) were frequently used to self-treat these aliments. Reasons for self-medication included previous disease experience (55.7%); minor aliments (55.3%); and having enough medical knowledge (32.1%). Medicines were used according to instructions obtained mainly from the leaflet (28.8%); pharmacist (20.7%); and university courses (19.7%). Senior students were more aware of the risk of self-medication than junior students. The majority of students frequently advise other people about self-medication (83.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Self-medication was common among students irrespective to their level of medical knowledge. Obtaining medical knowledge increased the students' awareness of the risk of self-medication which may result in practicing responsible self-medication. However, medical teaching institutions need to educate students about the proper use of medicines as a therapeutic tool.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Automedicação , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Farmácia , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Automedicação/efeitos adversos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Addict ; 24(5): 403-9, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26009867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illicit use of buprenorphine has increased in the U.S., but our understanding of its use remains limited. This study aims to explore Web-forum discussions about the use of buprenorphine to self-treat opioid withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: PREDOSE, a novel Semantic Web platform, was used to extract relevant posts from a Web-forum that allows free discussions on illicit drugs. First, we extract information about the total number of buprenorphine-related posts per year between 2005 and 2013. Second, PREDOSE was used to identify all posts that potentially contained discussions about buprenorphine and opioid withdrawal. A total number of 1,217 posts that contained these terms were extracted and entered into NVivo data base. A random sample of 404 (33%) posts was selected and content analyzed. RESULTS: Buprenorphine-related posts increased over time, peaking in 2011. The posts were about equally divided between those that expressed positive and negative views about the effectiveness of buprenorphine in relieving withdrawal symptoms. Web-forum participants emphasized that buprenorphine's effectiveness may become compromised because of the "size of a person habit," and/or when users repeatedly switch back and forth between buprenorphine and other illicit opioids. Most posts reported use of significantly lower amounts of buprenorphine (≤2 mg) than doses used in standard treatment. Concomitant use of other psychoactive substances was also commonly reported, which may present significant health risks. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the usefulness of Web-based data in drug abuse research and add new information about lay beliefs about buprenorphine that may help inform prevention and policy measures.


Assuntos
Combinação Buprenorfina e Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Combinação Buprenorfina e Naloxona/efeitos adversos , Hidrocodona , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Oxicodona , Automedicação/psicologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/reabilitação , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 37(2): 373-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25616627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide data indicate that self-medication is frequently used inappropriately. Although self-medication is encouraged in most of the countries by introducing over-the-counter drugs, it bears the risk of misuse of drugs issued on prescription due to low observance of legislation of medicines requiring prescription by some pharmacies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the self-medication practice, with an emphasis on self-medication with prescription-only medications. SETTING: Households in Novi Sad city, Serbia. METHOD: The study was conducted over 8 month period (December 2011-July 2012) and involved a random sample of households. The questionnaire-based study and personal insight into household drug supplies was performed by a trained interviewer. Main outcome measure Number of drugs obtained without prescription or without consulting a physician in surveyed households. RESULTS: The total number of drug items present in the 383 households was 4,384 with a median of 11 drugs per household. More than a half of drugs in households were prescription-only medication (58.5 %). Approximately one third of prescription-only medications were obtained without prescription. The most common drugs obtained without prescription were anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products and antibacterials for systemic use. Ibuprofen and diclofenac were the most common self-medicated drugs. Number of prescription-only medications bought with ought prescription was significantly higher in households with children under 12 years of age compared to other types of households. CONCLUSION: Our survey indicated that self-medication with prescription drugs appeared to be a rather common practice, which is far away from the concept of "responsible self-medication", especially regarding antibiotics.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Farmácias , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Automedicação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmácias/tendências , Automedicação/tendências , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 109(3): 209-13, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25595797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2003, a study in Mali showed that 87% of episodes of uncomplicated malaria were first treated at home. We investigated whether treatment-seeking patterns in Mali had changed 10 years later. METHODS: In 2013, we repeated the retrospective treatment-outcome study on 400 children with presumed malaria in the same area. RESULTS: Most children with reported uncomplicated malaria were still first treated at home (76% [196/258] in 2013 vs 85% in 2003; p=0.006), rather than in modern health centres (20% [52/258] in 2013 vs 12% in 2003; p=0.01). Overall, 58% of children with uncomplicated malaria were treated with herbal medicine alone, a significant increase from 24% 10 years earlier (p<0.001). This was associated with an increase in use of Argemone mexicana decoction from 8% to 26% (p<0.001), with a reported cure or improvement in 100% of cases among those aged >5 years. For severe malaria, first treatment was sought less often from a traditional healer compared with 10 years earlier (4% vs 32%; p<0.001) and more often from a modern health centre (29% vs 17%; p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Two trends that emerged are that there is a greater use of modern health facilities for treatment of severe malaria, and a greater use of traditional medicine alone for treatment of uncomplicated malaria.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Africana/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Medicina Herbária/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mali , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 69(4): 369-375, 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-778739

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e caracterizar alguns aspectos relacionados a automedicação em pacientes atendidos em urgência odontológica infantil em um centro de especialidades médicas e odontológicas. Os pais ou responsáveis por crianças com idade entre 2 e 9 anos que procuraram atendimento odontológico no período entre outubro e novembro de 2012, responderam a um questionário aplicado de forma randomizada. Apesar dos pais/responsáveis revelaram que a receita deve ser inalterada e intransferível (73,2%; p<0,05), a maioria dos entrevistados (67,2%) é favorável à automedicação e a reutilização de receitas antigas foi a forma mais utilizada para praticá-la (27,9%). Houve associação coerente entre o tipo de medicamento utilizado com os problemas de urgência odontológica, como emprego de analgésicos em casos de dor (65,3%; p<0,05), antitérmico para febre (67,0%; p<0,05) e anti-inflamatório em caso de edema (57,6%; p<0,05) e a maioria dos responsáveis que exerce a automedicação é do gênero feminino. O estudo mostrou que a automedicação é exercida em larga escala pelos usuários do serviço, podendo levar à utilização de doses inadequadas ou a resistência aos antibióticos pelos pacientes...


This paper aims to evaluate and characterize some aspects of patients self-medication. The study was conducted at children’s dental emergency sector in a center of medical and dental specialties. A randomized questionnaire was applied for parents or guardians of children aged 2 to 9 years who sought dental care in the period between October and November 2012. Although the parents/guardians claim that prescription should be unchanged and nontransferable (73.2%; p <0.05), most of the surveyed people (67.2%) are in favor of self-medication. The reuse of old prescription was the most used way to practice it (27.9%). There was consistent association between the type of drug used with emergency dental problems such as use of analgesics in case of pain (65.3%; p <0.05), antipyretic for fever (67.0%; p <0, 05) and anti-inflammatory in cases of edema (57.6%; p <0.05) and the women practice self-medication more often. The study showed that self-medication is exercised largely by service users, which may lead to the use of inadequate doses or resistance to antibiotics by patients...


Assuntos
Humanos , Automedicação , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Odontopediatria , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
J Psychopharmacol ; 28(8): 780-8, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24569095

RESUMO

The NBOMe compounds are a novel series of hallucinogenic drugs that are potent agonists of the 5-HT2A receptor, have a short history of human consumption and are available to buy online, in most countries. In this study, we sought to investigate the patterns of use, characteristics of users and self-reported effects. A cross-sectional anonymous online survey exploring the patterns of drug use was conducted in 2012 (n = 22,289), including questions about the use of 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, and 25I-NBOMe and comparison drugs. We found that 2.6% of respondents (n = 582) reported having ever tried one of the three NBOMe drugs and that at 2.0%, 25I-NBOMe was the most popular (n = 442). Almost all (93.5%) respondents whose last new drug tried was a NBOMe drug, tried it in 2012, and 81.2% of this group administered the drug orally or sublingually/buccally. Subjective effects were similar to comparison serotonergic hallucinogens, though higher 'negative effects while high' and greater 'value for money' were reported. The most common (41.7%) drug source was via a website. The NBOMe drugs have emerged recently, are frequently bought using the internet and have similar effects to other hallucinogenic drugs; however, they may pose larger risks, due to the limited knowledge about them, their relatively low price and availability via the internet.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Internacionalidade , Fenetilaminas/administração & dosagem , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev inf cient ; 85(3)2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-59779

RESUMO

Se realiza un estudio con el objetivo de describir algunos aspectos sobre la automedicación en pacientes adultos, en la comunidad Samán Llorón, del municipio San Fernando, Estado Apure, en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, desde junio de 2011 hasta noviembre de 2013. El universo estuvo constituido por los 399 pacientes automedicados, que cumplieron criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, grupo farmacológico automedicado y personal que propició la automedicación. Hubo predominio del grupo de edades de 60-69 años, se identificaron a los analgésicos antiinflamatorios no esteroideos como los medicamentos de mayor consumo. Los amigos y vecinos se describieron como los que más propiciaron la automedicación, por lo que se describió una alta frecuencia de automedicación. Se recomendó fortalecer el accionar del médico de Barrio Adentro y de las defensoras de salud para contrarrestar la automedicación(AU)


A study to describe some aspects of self-medication in adult patients in the community Saman LLoron, San Fernando city, Apure State in Venezuela is done from June 2011 to November 2013. The universe consisted of 399 patients with self medication, whom fulfilled criteria of inclusion and exclusion. The variables were the following: age, self-medication and the staff who provided the drugs to patients there was a prevalence of age 60-69 years .anti inflammatory drugs were identified as non-steroidal drugs increasing consumption. Friends and neighbors were described as the most important providers of the self medication, so that a high frequency of self medication was described, too. It is recommended, the strengthening of actions of the Barrio Adentro doctors and health personal to avoid self-medication


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Automedicação/tendências , Automedicação
20.
Subst Abus ; 34(3): 248-55, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23844955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past several years, many states, including Colorado, have approved medical marijuana legislation. There is concern that increased access to and visibility of medical marijuana may lead to harmful use. METHODS: This study examined changes in patients' marijuana use in 12 health care settings through a statewide screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) initiative. RESULTS: Beginning in 2009, the odds of screening positive for risk-prone marijuana use significantly increased, coinciding with dramatic increases in use of Colorado's medical marijuana program. Young males were most likely to screen positive. Among users, there was a small, statistically significant increase in severity of use over time. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that health care providers may be serving increasing numbers of patients using marijuana for medical or recreational purposes.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal/administração & dosagem , Assunção de Riscos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colorado , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/tendências , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/tendências
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