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1.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(7): 419-427, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report clinical features, gross post mortem and histopathological findings from an investigation into sudden or unexpected death in rabbits that was undertaken during an outbreak of rabbit haemorrhagic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a standard protocol, veterinarians were invited to submit case histories and results of their post mortem examination of pet rabbits that died unexpectedly. Histopathological examination of heart, lungs, liver, spleen and kidney samples was collated with macroscopic appearance and clinical details. RESULTS: Hepatocellular necrosis, characteristic of rabbit haemorrhagic disease, was observed in 185 of 300 (62%) submissions, often accompanied by glomerular thrombosis and changes in other organs. Evidence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease was not apparent on histopathology in 113 of 300 (38%) rabbits. Gross post mortem examination by veterinary practitioners did not always reflect reported histopathological changes. No macroscopic abnormalities were seen in 78/185 (42%) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease cases. Rapid death and death of other rabbits in the household were common features of rabbit haemorrhagic disease. Ante mortem clinical signs included anorexia, collapse, lethargy, seizures, icterus, bleeding from the mouth, dyspnoea, hypothermia, pyrexia, bradycardia or poor blood clotting. CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Rabbit haemorrhagic disease can be suspected from a history of sudden death, especially if multiple rabbits are affected. There is not always macroscopic evidence of the disease but histopathology is useful to support or refute a diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease and provide information about other causes of death.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças , Coelhos , Reino Unido
2.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 247-253, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206794

RESUMO

In north-central Texas streams, seasonal changes in ambient temperature and rainfall result in dynamic variation in microhabitat structure, affecting the distribution and abundance of hosts. Since the complex life cycles of parasites require the presence and interaction of multiple hosts, the seasonal variations in microhabitats could influence parasite component communities within these ecosystems. Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) serves as a host for a variety of larval and adult parasites. Factors that affect helminth component communities in populations of mosquitofish from the Paluxy River were investigated in this study. Gambusia affinis individuals were collected from 3 sites monthly from June 2015 through August 2016. All helminth parasites were collected during necropsy and subsequently identified. From 495 mosquitofish, 5,283 helminths were collected. Component community diversity varied among collection sites and collection dates and was positively influenced by river flow. These results indicate that helminth assemblages infecting mosquitofish in the Paluxy River vary through time and space, as well as in response to environmental variation (i.e., changes in water flow).


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Distribuição Normal , Prevalência , Rios , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Texas
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 121-128, Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098444

RESUMO

Necropsy protocols of the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" were reviewed, ranging the period from 2000 to 2018. Three hundred eighty one necropsies, 25 refrigerated and/or formaline fixed organs, and seven biopsies were received, representing 413 samples. Most of these materials were sent by the "Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre" of "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) and were from municipalities within the range area of LRD-UFPel influence. Of the 413 cases 55 (13.31%) corresponded to metabolic/nutritional diseases; 50 (12.10%) to trauma; 35 (8.47%) to bacterial diseases/toxi-infections; 30 (7.26%) to parasitic diseases; 28 (6.77%) to fungal diseases; four (0.97%) to viral diseases and 17 (4.11%) to other diseases. Cases where it was not possible to determine the etiology, were in severe autolysis or were inconclusive totaled 194 (46.97%). Metabolic/nutritional diseases and traumatic injuries were the main cause of death in wild birds', being Passeriformes the most affected order.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos diagnósticos de causas de morte e de lesões em aves silvestres na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul de 2000 a 2018. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais de aves silvestres encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas no período. Foram recebidos 381 cadáveres para necropsia, 25 órgãos refrigerados e/ou em formol e 7 biopsias, totalizando 413 materiais. A maioria desses materiais foi remetida pelo Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) e provenientes de municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. Dos 413 casos 55 (13,31%) corresponderam a doenças metabólicas/nutricionais; 50 (12,10%) a traumas; 35 (8,47%) a doenças bacterianas/toxi-infecções; 30 (7,26%) a doenças parasitárias; 28 (6,77%) doenças fúngicas; 4 (0,97%) doenças virais e 17(4,12%) outras doenças que não se encaixavam nas categorias. Ainda em nos casos em que não foi possível determinar a etiologia, apresentaram autólise acentuada ou foram inconclusivos somaram 194 (46,97%). As doenças metabólicas/nutricionais e lesões traumáticas foram as principais causas de morte de aves silvestres, sendo a ordem mais afetada a Passeriformes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/lesões , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Biópsia/veterinária , Zoonoses
4.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 51-57, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955661

RESUMO

Abomasal ulcers are difficult to diagnose clinically with limited therapeutic approach to combat the disease. Omental bursitis (OB) and local peritonitis (LP) are known sequelae of abomasal ulcer in cows. In this study, differentiation between OB and LP in regard to clinical symptoms, biochemical analyses and the response to treatment in Buffaloes was done. Twenty buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were admitted with a history of intermittent appetite, wasting and mild abdominal distension during the period between March 2016 and August 2018. All cases were female (12 recently calved, 2 pregnant, 6 non-pregnant) aging from 3 to 9 years and weighing 350-600 kg. For comparison, 10 apparently healthy non-pregnant female buffaloes were used as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of 11 OB and 9 LP in admitted cases. Laboratory analysis revealed hyperproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia in OB. Hypokalemia and hypochloremia were detected in both OB and LP. Ultrasonography showed hypo-anechoic content with echoic stippling surrounded by echogenic wall in OB, whereas echogenic strands interspersed with anechoic fluid was reported in LP. Intra-lesional lavage by normal saline was applied several times under ultrasongraphic guidance followed by gentamicin 10% intramuscular and H2 antagonist intravenous for 5 days as well as parenteral and enteral fluid therapy. Seven cases of OB clinically improved, whereas no improvements were found in LP cases. OB secondary to abomasal ulcer has a good prognosis in contrast to LP. Ultrasonography provides a useful diagnostic tool and therapeutic guidance for such diseases.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Bursite/veterinária , Peritonite/veterinária , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Bursite/complicações , Bursite/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Egito , Feminino , Peritonite/complicações , Peritonite/terapia , Gravidez , Úlcera Gástrica/complicações , Úlcera Gástrica/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 65-70, Jan.-Feb. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088922

RESUMO

O presente trabalho relata o caso de aspergilose sistêmica em um cavalo da raça Quarto de Milha. O animal apresentava quadro de emagrecimento progressivo e alopecia. Os parâmetros avaliados durante o exame clínico encontravam-se de acordo com os valores normais para a espécie. No hemograma verificou-se leucocitose por neutrofilia, sem desvio à esquerda, proteínas plasmáticas totais elevadas e aumento do fibrinogênio, indicando um processo inflamatório acompanhado de desidratação. Os exames bioquímicos séricos demonstraram aumento no valor da ureia. Apesar dos exames realizados e da terapia instituída com antibióticos de amplo espectro e suporte nutricional, após 51 dias de internamento o quadro clínico evoluiu para caquexia e decúbito permanente do paciente, o qual foi submetido à eutanásia seguida de necropsia. Com base nos achados nos exames necroscópico e histopatológico, diagnosticou-se infecção sistêmica por Aspergillus sp., acometendo pulmões, fígado, rins, peritônio parietal e encéfalo. Dentre os fatores predisponentes à relatada infecção fúngica sistêmica, destaca-se o status imunológico debilitado do paciente, possivelmente proporcionado por tratamentos prolongados com antibióticos e anti-inflamatórios esteroidais. O presente trabalho relata o primeiro caso descrito de arpergilose sistêmica no Brasil. O diagnóstico definitivo só foi possível após necropsia e histopatologia, visto que os sinais clínicos inespecíficos não foram determinantes para o diagnóstico em vida.(AU)


This paper reports the case of systemic aspergillosis on a Quarter Horse. The animal had progressive weight loss and alopecia. The parameters evaluated during the clinical examination were in agreement with the normal values for the species. The hemogram showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, without left-sided, elevated total plasma proteins and an increase in fibrinogen, indicating an inflammatory process accompanied by dehydration. Serum biochemical tests showed an increase in the value of urea. Despite the performed tests and established therapy with broad spectrum antibiotics and nutritional support, after 51 days of hospitalization the clinical condition evolved into cachexia and permanent decubitus of the patient which underwent to euthanasia and necropsy. From the findings of necropsy and histopathology, systemic infection was diagnosed by Aspergillus sp., affecting the lungs, liver, kidneys, parietal peritoneum and encephalon. Among the factors predisposing to the reported systemic fungal infection, the patient's weakened immune status is highlighted, possibly due to prolonged antibiotic and steroidal anti-inflammatory treatments. This paper reports the first case described of systemic aspergillosis in Brazil. Definitive diagnosis was only possible after necropsy and histopathology, since nonspecific clinical signs were not determinant for the diagnosis in life.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aspergilose/veterinária , Imunossupressão/veterinária , Cavalos , Autopsia/veterinária
6.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841529

RESUMO

Since the work of Tower in the 1950s, we have come to expect lower neuron density in the cerebral cortex of larger brains. We studied dolphin brains varying from 783 to 6215g. As expected, average neuron density in four areas of cortex decreased from the smallest to the largest brain. Despite having a lower neuron density than smaller dolphins, the killer whale has more gray matter and more cortical neurons than any mammal, including humans. To begin a study of non-dolphin toothed whales, we measured a 596g brain of a pygmy sperm whale and a 2004g brain of a Cuvier's beaked whale. We compared neuron density of Nissl stained cortex of these two brains with those of the dolphins. Non-dolphin brains had lower neuron densities compared to all of the dolphins, even the 6215g brain. The beaked whale and pygmy sperm whale we studied dive deeper and for much longer periods than the dolphins. For example, the beaked whale may dive for more than an hour, and the pygmy sperm whale more than a half hour. In contrast, the dolphins we studied limit dives to five or 10 minutes. Brain metabolism may be one feature limiting dolphin dives. The brain consumes an oversized share of oxygen available to the body. The most oxygen is used by the cortex and cerebellar gray matter. The dolphins have larger brains, larger cerebellums, and greater numbers of cortex neurons than would be expected given their body size. Smaller brains, smaller cerebellums and fewer cortical neurons potentially allow the beaked whale and pygmy sperm whale to dive longer and deeper than the dolphins. Although more gray matter, more neurons, and a larger cerebellum may limit dolphins to shorter, shallower dives, these features must give them some advantage. For example, they may be able to catch more elusive individual high-calorie prey in the upper ocean.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Mergulho/fisiologia , Golfinhos/fisiologia , Neurônios/patologia , Baleias/fisiologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Mapeamento Encefálico/veterinária , Contagem de Células , Cerebelo/patologia , Golfinhos/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/veterinária , Fatores de Tempo , Orca/anatomia & histologia , Orca/fisiologia , Baleias/anatomia & histologia
7.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e5, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793309

RESUMO

Infectious arthritis or tenosynovitis in broiler and breeder chickens results in major loss of productivity because of reduced growth and downgrading at processing plants. The most common causative agents of avian infectious arthritis are the bacterium Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reoviruses (ARVs) (family Reoviridae, genus Orthoreovirus). In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of these two pathogens in arthritis or tenosynovitis lesions of broilers and breeder flocks in southern Brazil using molecular detection. Tissue sections from tibiotarsal joints with visible lesions from 719 broilers and 505 breeders were analysed using pathogen-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. In breeders, 41.2% (n = 296) of lesions were positive for M. synoviae, 26.4% (n = 190) were positive for ARV, while co-infection was present in 12.2% (n = 88) of the samples. In broilers, 20.8% (n = 105) of lesions were positive for M. synoviae, 11.9% (n = 60) for ARV and 7.7% (n = 39) of these cases were positive for both pathogens. Post-mortem examination revealed lesions with varying degrees of gross pathological severity. Histopathological examination showed intense, diffuse lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrates with heterophil accumulation, primarily in the synovial capsule and digital flexor tendon, in all samples. Improved strategies for early detection and control of these major avian pathogens are highly desirable for preventing the spread of infection and reducing economic losses in the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Artrite/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Tenossinovite/veterinária , Animais , Artrite/epidemiologia , Artrite/microbiologia , Artrite/patologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Brasil , Galinhas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Orthoreovirus Aviário/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/patologia , Tenossinovite/epidemiologia , Tenossinovite/microbiologia , Tenossinovite/patologia
8.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e4, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793310

RESUMO

Adenoviral infections may cause mild to severe morbidity or fatality in a large array of animal species. In crocodilians, hatchlings under 5 months of age are usually affected. However, there is a paucity of information on actual incidences in hatchlings originating from South Africa. Two cases of adenoviral hepatitis in crocodile hatchlings about 2 weeks old, bred on a commercial farm in South Africa, are described. Both hatchlings showed typical clinical signs of hepatitis. The identification of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the liver was used to differentiate between adenoviral hepatitis and chlamydial hepatitis. Although vertical transmission has never been proven in crocodiles, the young age of the affected hatchlings raises the possibility of vertical transmission. The lack of epidemiological information on adenoviral hepatitis in crocodiles highlights the need for further characterisation of the virus and targeted surveillance.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Jacarés e Crocodilos/virologia , Hepatite Animal/fisiopatologia , Hepatite Animal/virologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , África do Sul
9.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 499-504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervicothoracic vertebral subluxation in sheep presents as a postural and locomotor disorder, and has been described in several breeds in Australia and overseas. Cervical myopathy may also be present in these cases. CASE REPORT: A New South Wales sheep producer reported a postural and locomotor disorder with a low prevalence in his Poll Merino stud flock, affecting neonate, weaner and adult sheep. Animals with postural abnormalities, variable degrees of ataxia and proprioceptive deficits involving both fore and hind limbs were described. Abnormalities of the cervicothoracic vertebral column were identified grossly during necropsy, with misalignment and consequent narrowing of the posterior cervical spinal canal. Lesions ranging from pallor (cellular degeneration) to white streaky lesions with pinpoint haemorrhage (necrosis) were identified in the cervicothoracic paravertebral musculature of affected animals. Boney abnormalities were further characterised by imaging studies. Pedigree analysis of the very extensive breeding and disease incident records available for this flock suggested that the disease was inherited. A similar case recognised in a separate New South Wales Poll Merino flock is also described. CONCLUSION: This report describes an entity of cervicothoracic vertebral subluxation in two Poll Merino sheep flocks, with cervical myopathy also identified in one, with preliminary evidence in the primary case that there is likely to be a hereditary basis. The two cases outlined in this report resemble the findings of several historical investigations into ovine flock postural disorders in Australia and beyond.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Vértebras Torácicas/patologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Cruzamento , Eutanásia Animal , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/patologia , New South Wales , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
10.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e5, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714113

RESUMO

Mortality in cattle associated with ingestion of cocoons (matlhoa in Setswana) of both Gonometa postica and Gonometa rufobrunnea is rare and has only previously been reported in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia. A case history of gradual weight loss, bloat, dyschezia with dry faeces and laboured gait, resulting in sudden death after drinking water and associated with ingestion of pupal cocoons of Gonometa spp., was reported by keepers at Mmaditau crush in Botswana in 2013. The crush was a shared holding in a communal area with 15 registered animal keepers. The objective of this study was to profile the history, clinical signs, post-mortem findings, morbidity and mortality from the outbreak using the descriptive study method. Altogether, 81 cattle out of a total of 507 died of impaction from August to December 2013. On autopsy, a loosely connected mass of ingesta, intertwined in ropy silky strands, was observed. It was concluded that there is no readily accessible and available form of treatment at crush level, leaving only evasive husbandry practices as the feasible option. To aid evasive husbandry management practices, temporal and spatial monitoring of population dynamics of Gonometa spp. is recommended, particularly during a drought spell when animals are prone to develop pica, as the basis for an early warning system to farmers.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Mariposas , Gastropatias/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Surtos de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Pupa , Rúmen/patologia , Gastropatias/etiologia , Gastropatias/mortalidade
11.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 153-160, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625452

RESUMO

Granuloma disease in a flock of free range productive layers in the Netherlands in 2017 is described. The disease resembled granuloma outbreaks in layers caused by Tetratrichomonas gallinarum in 2013 and occurred in the same area in which the rearing farm considered as the source of the 2013 outbreaks was located. Between 55 and 84 weeks of age mortality was 20.3% (breeder's norm 3.9%). All dead hens examined (n = 20) showed granulomas especially in liver and ceca. Nine hens with or without liver and/or ceca granulomas were examined for trichomonads in mentioned organs by in situ hybridization (ISH), nested PCR, and cloning and sequencing. Ceca were also examined by culture. T. gallinarum ISH was positive in all livers and ceca with granulomas and negative in case granulomas were absent. T. gallinarum strain 13/16632, which caused the 2013 outbreaks was found in 4/8 hens with granulomas. Moreover, other trichomonads were detected: a T. gallinarum strain GPO-like and a Simplicimonas sp. strain GABC1-like. Mixed infections also occurred. Infectious causes of granuloma disease other than the afore-mentioned trichomonads could be excluded. Trichomonad DNA was not detected in environmental samples and wild ducks originating from the farm of concern, except for one duck in which the same Simplicimonas sp. as in hens was detected, leaving the source of the T. gallinarum infection in hens unknown. It is concluded that the herein described granuloma disease likely was caused by T. gallinarum strain 13/16632. However, the pathogenicity of the other trichomonads found remains to be clarified.


Assuntos
Granuloma/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Tricomoníase/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Galinhas , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Patos , Feminino , Granuloma/parasitologia , Granuloma/patologia , Países Baixos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Trichomonas/genética , Tricomoníase/patologia
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634942

RESUMO

A 5-year-old German-Holstein cow was presented with a swelling of the head which had been present for 3 months. Clinical examination revealed a 15 × 20 × 15 cm firm mass on the right side of the head. The cow was lethargic, showed an extended head and neck posture, nasal stridor, mucopurulent nasal discharge, and inspiratory dyspnea with labored breathing. Furthermore, dysphagia as well as moderate to strong salivation were evident. Radiological examination revealed a diffuse, poorly defined mass with different densities overlying the bony structures of the skull. Endoscopic examination confirmed a space-occupying mass in the pharyngeal area. Sonographically, the swelling presented as a compact, clearly inhomogeneous tissue with focal areas of different echogenicity. Necropsy of the euthanized cattle confirmed the presence of a tumor that had already metastasized to the lungs. Histologically and immunohistochemically, the tumor presented as a spindle-cell, vimentin-expressing soft tissue sarcoma, most likely compatible with fibrosarcoma.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Mandibulares/veterinária , Sarcoma/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Eutanásia Animal , Feminino , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , Neoplasias Mandibulares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Mandibulares/patologia , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/secundário
15.
Aust Vet J ; 97(11): 452-464, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swine dysentery (SD) caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an important disease in Australia. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the macrolide antibiotic kitasamycin for use in SD control. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of kitasamycin, tylosin and lincomycin for 32 Australian isolates of B. hyodysenteriae were evaluated. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were examined. Isolate '13' with a low kitasamycin MIC was used to challenge weaner pigs. Sixty pigs were housed in 20 pens each containing three pigs: pigs in four pens received 2 kg/tonne of a product containing kitasamycin (3.1% active) prophylactically in their food starting 4 days before B. hyodysenteriae challenge (group 1); pigs in four pens were challenged and received the same dose therapeutically once one pig in a pen showed diarrhoea (group 2); four pens were challenged and received 4 kg/tonne of the product therapeutically (group 3); four pens were challenged but not medicated (group 4); two pens were unmedicated and unchallenged (group 5) and two pens received 2 kg/tonne and were unchallenged (group 6). Pigs were monitored for B. hyodysenteriae excretion and disease. RESULTS: Macrolide resistance was widespread, and mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were identified in 23 isolates. Four isolates with kitasamycin MICs < 5 µg/mL were considered susceptible. Following experimental challenge, 10 of 12 unmedicated pigs developed SD. No pigs receiving kitasamycin prophylactical or therapeutically developed SD. Medicated pigs shed low numbers of B. hyodysenteriae in their faeces. CONCLUSIONS: Kitasamycin can help control SD in pigs infected with susceptible isolates of B. hyodysenteriae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brachyspira hyodysenteriae/efeitos dos fármacos , Disenteria Bacilar/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Kitasamicina/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disenteria Bacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/patologia , Genes de RNAr/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Austrália Ocidental
17.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e7, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368316

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to gain better insight into factors associated with the capture-related mortality rate in cheetahs. A link to an online questionnaire was sent to zoo and wildlife veterinarians through the Species Survival Plan Programme and European Endangered Species Programme coordinators and via the 'Wildlife VetNet' Google group forum. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions relating to the veterinarians' country of residence and experience, the medicine combinations used, standard monitoring procedures, capture-related complications and mortalities experienced in this species under different capture conditions. In addition, necropsy data from the national wildlife disease database of the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa were examined for cases where anaesthetic death was listed as the cause of death in cheetahs. A total of 75 veterinarians completed the survey, with 38 from African countries and a combined total of 37 from Europe, the United States (US) and Asia. Of these, 24% (n = 18/75) had experienced at least one capture-associated cheetah mortality, with almost all of the fatalities (29/30) reported by veterinarians working in Africa. A lack of anaesthetic monitoring and the absence of supplemental oxygen were shown to be significant risk factors for mortality. Hyperthermia, likely to be associated with capture stress, was the most common reported complication (35%). The results suggest that free-ranging rather than habituated captive cheetahs are particularly at risk of dying during immobilisation and transport. The capture-related fatalities in this species do not appear to be associated with either the veterinarian's level of clinical experience or the immobilisation agents used.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Anestésicos Dissociativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/veterinária , Mortalidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Autopsia/veterinária , Bases de Dados Factuais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Imobilização/métodos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tranquilizantes/efeitos adversos , Médicos Veterinários
18.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 80: 49-55, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443833

RESUMO

Injury of suspensory ligament (SL) branch is a frequently diagnosed problem in horses of different ages and disciplines. This case reports for the first time the ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 10-year-old draught horse with traumatic chronic SL branch desmitis of 8 months duration. The horse had a grade 3 of 5 left hindlimb lameness with a moderately hot, painful, and diffuse swelling from the tarsus till the hoof. Ultrasonography, both SL branches appeared as enlarged hyperechogenic structures with poor demarcation of their margins and massive periligamentous echogenic materials consistent with fibrosis. Computed tomography showed no osseous lesions but did show enlarged, hypodense, and heterogeneous SL branches with an evidence of periligamentar and peritendenious adhesions and air entrapment areas intermingled within fibrous adhesion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed no abnormal signal intensity received from the proximal part of SL and its body. There were high and intermediate signal intensities received from inflammatory fluid and periligamentar fibrous adhesions, respectively, around SL branches. Both CT and MRI findings were confirmed by gross postmortem examination. In conclusion, CT and MRI are valuable tools for diagnosis of extensive adhesions associated with chronic SL branch desmitis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
19.
Aust Vet J ; 97(9): 323-332, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328258

RESUMO

Haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) causes clinical haemorrhagic enteritis in young poults and/or subclinical immunosuppression which is often associated with colibacillosis. This disease is controlled with live vaccines worldwide, however, importation of HEV vaccines or cells that support HEV propagation are not permitted in Australia. A major experiment in isolators was conducted to test the safety and efficacy of a putative HEV vaccine. The study had a factorial design with four factors namely vaccination age (28 and 42 days of age), vaccine dose (0, 105 , 106 , 107 genomic copies of HEV vaccine), challenge with HEV (yes, no) and vaccination-challenge interval (7, 21 or 42 days). A total of 315 poults were used providing 6-8 birds per treatment combination. Turkey growth rate, mortality, pathological findings, anti-HEV antibodies and viral load were examined. Vaccination lead to significant increases in anti HEV antibody over the following 2-4 weeks. Overall, vaccination with 106 and 107 was protective against increase in relative splenic weight and splenic viral load in challenged birds. Clinical haemorrhagic enteritis was not induced by any treatment but there was an increased incidence of airsacculitis in groups receiving either HEV vaccine or challenge virus compared to the negative control birds (25.8-29.3% vs. 9.4%, P < 0.05). Growth rate, mortality and relative bursal weight were unaffected by vaccination. This laboratory level study indicates that the putative vaccine is safe and likely to be efficacious, but may cause elevated levels of airsacculitis. These findings require confirmation in larger scale field trials.


Assuntos
Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Perus , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Autopsia/veterinária , Enterite/imunologia , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Feminino , New South Wales , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
20.
Aust Vet J ; 97(9): 351-356, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310015

RESUMO

Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are experiencing significant declines across the northern part of their range. However, unbiased, population-level estimates of mortality are rarely reported, as it's difficult to quantify causes of mortality robustly in this cryptic species. We aimed to determine the relative importance of carpet python (Morelia spilota) predation in a free-living koala population and describe the characteristic pathological findings during necropsy. In total, 503 koalas were captured, underwent veterinary examination and telemetric tagging, and were monitored after release over a four-year period. Mortalities were detected when activity data reported by K-Tracker® biotelemetry collars indicated low or zero activity, or during routine field monitoring events. Experienced koala veterinarians performed thorough, standardised necropsy examinations on retrieved carcasses to determine causes of death. The three, sometimes subtle, cardinal signs used to definitively diagnose carpet python-caused deaths of koalas were a U-shaped primary bite site, slicking of the fur by python saliva (particularly around the face), and diffuse, uniform pulmonary congestion. We found that carpet pythons were important predators of koalas, second only to wild dogs (dingoes and dingo hybrids (Canis familiaris dingo)), accounting for 11.6% of predation deaths and 7.2% of total deaths. Less than half (38%) of the koalas killed by carpet pythons were ingested. Though carpet pythons are known predators of koalas, their relative importance as a cause of mortality hasn't previously been recognised. Population viability analyses and conservation management plans benefit from robust cause-of-death data collected during longitudinal monitoring studies, requiring telemetry methods that facilitate rapid detection of mortalities.


Assuntos
Boidae , Phascolarctidae , Comportamento Predatório , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Masculino , Queensland/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/mortalidade , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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