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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 266-279, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) is one of the most widely used measures of psychopathic traits in children. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate an important subgroup of antisocial youth characterized by lack of empathy, guilt and remorse. The aim of the present study was to test the applicability and reliability of the self-reported ICU in a high-risk sample of adolescent boys. METHODS: Participants were 202 adolescent boys (mean age: 16.63 years; SD = 1.71) from institutional care facilities and juvenile detention centres. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to investigate the factor structure of the ICU. In addition, MIMIC modelling (CFA with covariates) was applied to test the convergent validity of the ICU scores by examining relationships with externalizing symptoms (including conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention, proactive-reactive aggression), and prosocial behaviour. RESULTS: We observed that the bifactor model with three correlated specific factors (callousness, uncaring and unemotional) and one general CU traits factor provided the best fit to the data. However, similar to previous studies, low internal consistency was found for the unemotional scale. In line with our expectations, CU traits showed positive associations with externalizing symptoms, and negative associations with prosocial behaviour. CONCLUSION: The ICU is a reliable and valid measure of callous-unemotional traits. Our results support the application of the Hungarian version of the questionnaire.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Emoções , Psicometria , Adolescente , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , Autorrelato
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Discrimination based on sexual orientation can influence vulnerability to HIV, increasing exposure to risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVES: To analyze data using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify groups of individuals with specific patterns of discrimination based on sexual orientation (DSO). METHODS: Cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. LCA was used to characterize discrimination among MSM based on 13 variables in the survey questionnaire. The proportions of men reporting DSO and other variables of interest were estimated using Gile's Successive Sampling estimator. RESULTS: Most MSM were young, single, had a religion, had a high school or college degree, black or brown skin color, and socioeconomic status classified as average. More than half of the participants reported that they had been discriminated against during the last 12 months due to their sexual orientation (65%), more than a third said they had felt afraid of walking in public places during the past 12 months, and about one-fifth of participants reported having been victims of physical or sexual assault due to DSO. DSO was classified into four latent classes: "very high", "high", "moderate" and "low", with estimates of 2.2%, 16.4%, 35.1%, and 46.19%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We observed a high proportion of discrimination against MSM in this study. The use of LCA differentiated parsimoniously classes of discrimination.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Discriminação (Psicologia) , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Autorrelato , Sexismo/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190004, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Travestis and transgender women resort to the use of hormones for body modification. Due to restrictions in the access to health services, self-medication is frequent. The aim of this study was to describe the self-reported prevalence of hormones used by travestis and transgender women in the Federal District. Method: This is a cross-sectional study with Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices questionnaire (KAP) along with travestis and transgender women over 18 years in the FD. Prevalence was calculated using the RDS-II estimator. Logistic models were used to investigate the associated factors. A total of 201 volunteers participated. RESULTS: There was a young sample (median age of 24 years). The overall prevalence of continuous use of hormones was 64.5%. The most used formulation was the combination of estrogen and progesterone (86.2%) by injectable (75.1%) and oral (66%) administration. Most participants (84%) got the hormones without a prescription. Guidance on the use of these hormones came from their peers in 41% of the cases. We observed that the continuous use of hormones is associated with race, income and age, as well as the search for guidance of healthcare professionals, which is also associated with schooling. DISCUSSION: The reality of the process of hormone use by these people in the quest for femininity is reflected in high rates of self-medication. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the visibility of the need to improve the access conditions of these people to health services.


Assuntos
Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Travestismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Travestismo/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190232, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an endemic and epidemic disease in Brazil, with a high burden of disease. Amazonas State has a high risk of transmission. This study aimed to assess the self-reported prevalence of dengue in adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region in 2015. We performed a three-phase probabilistic sampling to collect participants' clinical and sociodemographic data. Self-reported dengue infection in the previous year was the primary outcome. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analysis with robust variance were used to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR) of dengue infections with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Multilevel analysis including city and neighborhood variables was calculated. All analyses considered the complex sampling. RESULTS: Among the 4,001 participants, dengue in the previous year was self-reported by 7.0% (95% CI 6.3%-7.8%). Dengue was more frequent in women(PR 1.51; 95% CI 1.06-2.13), elderly participants (≥60 years old, PR 2.54; 95% CI 1.19-5.45), White and Asian participants (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.23), and individuals who had not received endemic agent visits (PR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.31-3.99). After multilevel analysis, sex was no longer a significant variable, with the remaining associations still significant. CONCLUSIONS: Seven out of 100 inhabitants of Manaus Metropolitan Region reported dengue in the previous year. Dengue was predominantly observed in women, elderly individuals, White and Asian individuals, and individuals who did not receive endemic agent visits. The setting plays an important role in dengue infections.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
5.
Occup Ther Int ; 2019: 2629673, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531007

RESUMO

Background: Occupational therapy and occupational science are founded on the theoretical core assumption that occupation and quality of life (QoL) are closely related. However, such theoretical core assumptions must be supported through empirically based research. Objective: To investigate the association between QoL and occupation, here self-reported and observed ADL abilities as a part of occupation, among people with advanced cancer, including determining whether self-reported or observed ADL ability had the stronger association with QoL. Methods: The study was nested in a cross-sectional study. The association between ADL ability and QoL among 108 people with advanced cancer was investigated using the ADL Interview (ADL-I), the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Results and Conclusions: Results showed that high observed ADL motor ability was associated with high QoL. In contrast, observed ADL process ability and self-reported ADL ability were not significantly associated with QoL. Oppositely expected, observed ADL ability had a stronger association with QoL than self-reported ADL ability. Thereby, the study to some extent contributes knowledge confirming the theoretical core assumptions about the relation between occupation, here performance of ADL, and QoL.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Neoplasias/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Terapia Ocupacional , Ocupações , Autorrelato
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16894, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490374

RESUMO

Hypertension is a common global health problem including China. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and awareness of hypertension, and evaluate risk factors associated with hypertension among multi-ethnic population in northwest China using a random sampling cross-sectional data.A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2014 and 2015 as part of a nationwide survey using stratified four-stage random sampling in Xinjiang. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or taking anti-hypertensive medication. In addition, the prevalence of hypertension (SBP ≥ 130 or DBP ≥ 80 mm Hg) was also estimated according to the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) High Blood Pressure Guideline. Awareness of hypertension was based on self-report. An optimized risk score model was used to assess the risk and determine the predictive power of risk factors on hypertension.Totally 6722 subjects aged ≥18 years were enrolled and prevalence of hypertension was 24.3%, while the prevalence of hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline was approximately twice as high as that based on 2010 Chinese guideline (37.6%). Among individuals with hypertension, 55.5% were aware of their condition. Six potential factors were estimated to be associated with increased risk of hypertension including age, ethnicity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), waistline circumference, and comorbidity. In the analyses of calculated risk score, BMI ≥ 28.0 corresponded to the highest risk score of 23 points. The area under the receiver operation curve for the multivariable prediction model was 0.803 (95%CI: 0.789-0.813).There is a considerable prevalence of hypertension among Xinjiang adults, northwest China; awareness of hypertension is low. Excess weight loss may be a vital strategy for controlling hypertension, particularly if accompanied with other preventive measures in this region.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Psychother ; 72(3): 67-74, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533456

RESUMO

Using data from 202 patients with depression, the authors conducted a psychometric evaluation of the Dutch translation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale-Self-Report and an initial psychometric evaluation of the newly developed Interpersonal Psychotherapy Skills Scale-Self-Report.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/educação , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Autorrelato
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1937-1938, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438416

RESUMO

For the treatment of smartphone addiction, it is important to understand users' smartphone usage patterns. Most of the studies are based on self-report surveys. However, there are differences between self-reported usage and real usage. For a better understanding of usage patterns, this study identified demographic and social factors that affect smartphone usage self-report levels. Also, it was confirmed that the influencing factors differ depending on the smartphone usage content by application category.


Assuntos
Autorrelato , Smartphone , Comportamento Aditivo , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e048, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432924

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and its relationship with the number of primary teeth with developmental defects of enamel (DDE). A representative population-based sample of 731 schoolchildren was randomly selected from the public school system in Curitiba, Brazil. Schoolchildren aged 8 years with fully erupted permanent first molars and incisors were eligible for the study. MIH and DDE were classified by four calibrated examiners (kappa > 0.75) according to EAPD criteria and to the FDI-modified DDE index. Clinical data were collected in a school environment. Socioeconomic information was collected through a self-administered semistructured questionnaire applied to the children's caregivers. Statistical analyses were carried out using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance (α = 0.05). MIH prevalence was 12.1% (95%CI: 10-15), and opacities were the most prevalent defect. Socioeconomic factors were not associated with MIH. Children with demarcated opacity in primary teeth presented a higher prevalence of MIH than those without DDE in primary teeth. In the multiple analysis, the increase of one primary tooth affected by demarcated opacity increased the prevalence of MIH by 33% (PR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.15-1.53, p < 0.001). Asian children had a higher prevalence of MIH (PR = 2.91, 95%CI: 1.08-8.09 p = 0.035) than did Caucasian children.Conclusion: Based on these findings, the prevalence of MIH in Curitiba was 12.1%. Demarcated opacity in primary teeth could be considered a predictor of MIH.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/epidemiologia , Dente Decíduo , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo/patologia , Masculino , Dente Molar/patologia , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dente Decíduo/patologia
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190050, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460665

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The excessive sitting time involved in activities of low energy expenditure (sedentary behavior) can contribute to the development of chronic diseases. Assessing factors related to this behavior in a population is important to identify its most vulnerable segments. OBJECTIVE: To describe sitting time distribution in the adult population of São Paulo City according to sociodemographic and environmental characteristics and health conditions. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 2,512 individuals, aged 20 to 65 years, who participated in the Health Survey in the City of São Paulo (Inquérito de Saúde no Município de São Paulo - ISA-Capital) 2015. Data relating to sitting time were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), initially analyzed continuously, and, afterward, dichotomized by the median to analyze categorical variables. RESULTS: The total sitting time median in the sample was 180 min/day. The variables that, after adjustments, remained related to sedentary behavior were: schooling (prevalence ratio - PR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI 1.35 - 1.48); marital status (PR = 1.05; 95%CI 1.02 - 1.08); neighborhood safety (PR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93 - 0.99); age (PR = 0.91; 95%CI 0.87 - 0.95); income (PR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.00 - 1.15); self-rated health (PR = 1.03; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.07), and gender (PR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.94 - 0.99). CONCLUSION: The most vulnerable groups to sedentary behavior in this population are: younger males, with higher schooling and income, who live in neighborhoods considered safe, unmarried, and with negative self-rated health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 266: 30-36, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A great number of weight loss interventions have been delivered through digital solutions. Analysis of the effectiveness in terms of weight loss is fundamental to understand the real potential of digital technologies as tools for delivery of weight loss interventions. For this, we need accurate and reliable anthropometric data. For reasons of convenience, self-reported weight and height often replace actual measurements in these interventions. This might lead to misclassification of BMI status during selection of participants and to bias in the assessment of the outcomes. Therefore, it is fundamental to have validation studies of self-reported web-based data. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to validate online self-reported height, weight and BMI in a POEmaS trial subsample. METHODS: We included 12.5% of the POEmaS' population (n=159). Anthropometric data reported on the web-platform were compared to measured data by paired T-tests. Agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman plots. Multinomial regression was used to investigate factors associated with self-reported weight validity. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between reported and measured weight (0.4 kg, SD 1.7; p=0.13) and BMI (0.03 kg/m2, SD 0.87; p=0.06). Reported height was on average 0.4 cm (SD 1.2) higher than the measured ones (p<0.001). For all anthropometric data, >=95% of the cases were within the limits of agreement. Higher measured BMI was the only factor associated with low accuracy of weight report. Each unit increase in BMI increased the odds that the reported weight was lower than the one measured (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.01-1.26). DISCUSSION: Self-reported weight and BMI change showed good agreement with measured ones. Since these are the primary outcomes of the POEmaS trial, the findings of the validation study suggest that the outcomes' accuracy is high and that it does not vary across gender, age, study group. These findings are relevant to digital health researchers and assessors and suggest that digital health interventions for weight loss might rely on self-reported assessment of outcomes. This might be particularly useful when other modes of assessment, such as anthropometry and e-scales, are not feasible or not available. However, we acknowledge that these results might not be applicable to low educated populations.


Assuntos
Estatura , Perda de Peso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Internet , Autorrelato
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1637-1638, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438268

RESUMO

Self-reported anthropometric data in web-based weight loss interventions may be inaccurate. We studied the agreement between online self-reported and measured weight in the course of the POEmaS randomized controlled trial. Measured weight was not different from reported one (-0.4 kg; 95%CI -0.93 to 0.12). 95.6% of the cases were within the limits of agreement (Bland-Altman method). Self-reported weight collected online was accurate, which suggests that interventions and outcomes assessment can rely on these data.


Assuntos
Estatura , Perda de Peso , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Internet , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autorrelato
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16681, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374050

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure is a prerequisite to get access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and social support. Increased disclosure of HIV status has been shown to reduce mother-to-child transmission and high-risk sexual behaviors. Limited studies were conducted to get an insight into HIV disclosure among people living with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) in Liangshan.Our study aimed to investigate the status and associated characteristics of HIV disclosure among PLWHA in Liangshan.We conducted a cross-sectional study using a stratified, convenience sampling method from August to December in 2017. All of the participants were from Liangshan, a typical impoverished mountainous area which also has a long history of drug production and drug trade. Each participant completed a structured questionnaire including HIV disclosure status, demographic and HIV-related characteristics, social support, and perceived HIV-related stigma. We performed a binary regression analysis to detect associated characteristics of HIV disclosure among PLWHA in Liangshan.A final sample size of 318 participants was included in this study. The overall prevalence of HIV disclosure was 83.6% (266/318). In binary logistic regression analysis, PLWHA who had higher educational levels, and got infected by sexual transmission were less likely to disclose their HIV status (both P < .05). HIV nondisclosure was correlated with a higher level of perceived HIV-related stigma (P < .01).The prevalence of HIV disclosure was relatively low in Liangshan. Healthcare workers are suggested to conduct more counseling and education to promote safe sexual behaviors and reduce perceived stigma among PLWHA, then enhance HIV serostatus disclosure.


Assuntos
Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16693, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393371

RESUMO

To strengthen rural health services, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies to promote health workforce development. This study aims to understand the current status of village doctors and to explore the factors associated with village doctors' job satisfaction in western China. It also attempts to provide references for further building capacities of village doctors and promoting the development of rural health service policy.A multistage stratified sampling method was used to obtain data from a cross-sectional survey on village doctors across 2 provinces of western China during 2012 to 2013. Quantitative data were collected from village doctors face-to-face, through a self-administered questionnaire.Among the 370 respondents, 225 (60.8%) aged 25 to 44 years, and 268 (72.4%) were covered by health insurance. Their income and working time calculated by workloads were higher than their self-report results. Being healthy, working fewer years, and having government funding and facilities were the positive factors toward their job satisfaction. Village doctors working with government-funded village clinics or facilities were more likely to feel satisfied.Problems identified previously such as low income and lack of insurance, heavy workload and aging were not detected in our study. Instead, village doctors were better-paid and better-covered by social insurance than other local rural residents, with increased job satisfaction. Government policies should pay more attention to improving the quality of rural health services and the income and security system of village doctors, to maintain and increase their job satisfaction and work enthusiasm. Further experimental study could evaluate effects of government input to improve rural health human resources and system development.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Médicos/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Fortalecimento Institucional , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/legislação & jurisprudência , Autorrelato
16.
Cancer Invest ; 37(7): 299-310, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379217

RESUMO

Age-related decreases in Quality of Life (QoL) are often compounded by comorbidities, including cancer. This study aimed to examine QoL changes before and after a new cancer diagnosis using data from the National Health and Aging Trend Study (NHATS), linked to Medicare claims (N = 136). There was a significant increase in the relative odds of fair/poor self-reported health and needing help with Activities of Daily Living. There was also a marginal increase in depression, but no change in anxiety or pain scores. Results underscore importance of considering pre-cancer QoL when making treatment decisions for older adult cancer patients.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/psicologia , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16085, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277103

RESUMO

Studies on hypertension (HTN) in Tibetans who live in high altitude areas are less and whether total homocysteine level (tHcy) is associated with blood pressure (BP) levels or HTN status in Tibetans is unknown.A total of 1486 Tibetans with complete information from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Lhasa Chengguan County of Tibet were included in this study. Demographic data, self-reported history of disease, and life styles were collected using a questionnaire. Blood tHcy, creatinine, fasting plasma-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and BP were measured with equipment.The median tHcy level of the whole population was 14.60 (13.17-16.50) µmol/L, and the prevalence of HTN was 26.99%. Regression models, adjusted for possible covariates, showed that an average increase of 1 lnHcy (log transformation of tHcy level) was associated with an increase of 3.78 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP, P = .011) and 3.02 mmHg of diastolic BP (DBP, P = .003). The prevalence of HTN, levels of SBP and DBP in the third (OR for HTN: 1.60, P = .026; ß for SBP: 3.41, P = .004; ß for DBP: 2.57, P = .002) and fourth (OR for HTN: 2.19, P < .001; ß for SBP: 5.08, P < .001; ß for DBP: 3.09, P < .001) quartile of tHcy level were higher than those in the first quartile.THcy is associated with BP levels and HTN status among Tibetans. Both HTN management and tHcy level should be paid more attention in Tibetans.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Altitude , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Tibet/epidemiologia
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(3): 179-188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problem behaviour theory postulates that different forms of norm violations cluster and can be explained by similar antecedents. One such cluster may include cyberbullying and cyberhate perpetration. A potential explanatory mechanism includes toxic online disinhibition, characterised by anonymity, an inability to empathise and to recognise and interpret social cues. The current study to develop a better understanding of the relationship between cyberhate and cyberbullying to inform effective intervention and prevention efforts. AIMS: To test the link between cyberbullying and cyberhate and whether this relationship was moderated by toxic online disinhibition. METHODS: Self-report questionnaires on cyberbullying, cyberhate, and toxic online disinhibition were completed by 1,480 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old (M = 14.21 years; SD = 1.68). RESULTS: Increases in cyberbullying perpetration and toxic online disinhibition were positively related to cyberhate perpetration. Furthermore, cyberbullies reported more cyberhate perpetration when they reported higher levels of toxic online disinhibition and less frequent cyberhate perpetration when they reported lower levels of toxic online disinhibition. CONCLUSION: The current study provides evidence of a possible link between cyberbullying and cyberhate perpetration, moderated by toxic online disinhibition. This suggests that, to be effective, prevention and intervention programmes should (i) consider the co-occurrence of varying forms of cyberaggression and (ii) consider potential effects of the online environment on aggressive online behaviour among young people.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Ódio , Inibição (Psicologia) , Internet , Adolescente , Agressão , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Problema , Autorrelato
19.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 111, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) is a health measure used in studies of older adults. The objective of this study is to analyze SRH as a predictor of mortality in the institutionalized older population and the characteristics of those who do not provide information about their SRH on health questionnaires. METHODS: This is a 15-year follow-up study of older adult residents in nursing or care homes in of Madrid, Spain. SRH was measured on a 5-point Likert type scale. The association between answering the SRH question and socio-demographic and health characteristics was evaluated through prevalence ratio (PR), estimated by Poisson regression models. Survival rates associated with SRH were studied through a multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: The sample has a mean age of 83.4 (standard deviation, SD = 7.3), with 75.7% women. Twelve percent did not answer the SRH item. Those who did not answer showed a higher probability of disability (Barthel index, PR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.86) and/or dementia (PR = 8.03, 3.38-19.03). A trend for higher mortality was observed in those persons who did not respond (adjusted hazard ratio HR = 1.26, 0.75-2.11). The mortality rate was 32% higher for those who declared poor SRH in comparison with those who reported good SRH (adjusted HR = 1.32, 1.08-1.6). CONCLUSIONS: There is an elevated number of people who do not respond to the SRH item, mainly those with disabilities and cognitive deterioration. Lack of response to SRH is a good indicator of 15-year mortality for persons institutionalized in care or nursing homes.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Espanha , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(27): 604-607, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295233

RESUMO

Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure contributes to ill health and disease, including heart disease, lung cancer, and stroke (1). Although cigarette smoking has declined among U.S. workers, workplace exposure to SHS remains high, particularly among workers in certain industries, such as construction (2,3). Implementation of smoke-free laws has proven to be beneficial in reducing SHS exposure in general (1). CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement to assess the prevalence of self-reported workplace SHS exposure among nonsmoking workers by smoke-free policy status in the workers' states of residence and in detailed industry categories and subcategories. In 2015, 19.9% of nonsmoking workers reported any exposure to SHS at work during the 12 months preceding the interview, and 10.1% reported frequent exposure (twice a week or more). Nonsmoking workers who resided in states with comprehensive smoke-free laws in all three categories of venues (private worksites, bars, and restaurants) were least likely to report frequent exposure to workplace SHS. Nonsmoking workers employed in the commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance industry reported the highest prevalences of any workplace SHS exposure (65.1%), whereas the construction industry had the highest reported number of exposed workers (2.9 million); these industry categories/subcategories include outdoor workplaces and other settings that are unlikely to be protected by smoke-free laws. Identifying specific at-risk workplaces and implementing targeted intervention strategies could help reduce SHS exposure at work and protect workers' health.


Assuntos
não Fumantes , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho , Indústria da Construção , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Restaurantes , Autorrelato , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
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