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1.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840101
2.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006815
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21299, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers and chatbots have been developed; however, anecdotal evidence suggests that their conclusions are highly variable. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the accuracy of COVID-19 symptom checkers in a statistically rigorous manner. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracies of web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers. METHODS: We identified 10 web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers, all of which were included in the study. We evaluated the COVID-19 symptom checkers by assessing 50 COVID-19 case reports alongside 410 non-COVID-19 control cases. A bootstrapping method was used to counter the unbalanced sample sizes and obtain confidence intervals (CIs). Results are reported as sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). RESULTS: The classification task between COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative for "high risk" cases among the 460 test cases yielded (sorted by F1 score): Symptoma (F1=0.92, MCC=0.85), Infermedica (F1=0.80, MCC=0.61), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (F1=0.71, MCC=0.30), Babylon (F1=0.70, MCC=0.29), Cleveland Clinic (F1=0.40, MCC=0.07), Providence (F1=0.40, MCC=0.05), Apple (F1=0.29, MCC=-0.10), Docyet (F1=0.27, MCC=0.29), Ada (F1=0.24, MCC=0.27) and Your.MD (F1=0.24, MCC=0.27). For "high risk" and "medium risk" combined the performance was: Symptoma (F1=0.91, MCC=0.83) Infermedica (F1=0.80, MCC=0.61), Cleveland Clinic (F1=0.76, MCC=0.47), Providence (F1=0.75, MCC=0.45), Your.MD (F1=0.72, MCC=0.33), CDC (F1=0.71, MCC=0.30), Babylon (F1=0.70, MCC=0.29), Apple (F1=0.70, MCC=0.25), Ada (F1=0.42, MCC=0.03), and Docyet (F1=0.27, MCC=0.29). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the number of correctly assessed COVID-19 and control cases varies considerably between symptom checkers, with different symptom checkers showing different strengths with respect to sensitivity and specificity. A good balance between sensitivity and specificity was only achieved by two symptom checkers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Informática em Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22538, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019462

RESUMO

The current studies revealed inconsistent relationship between reproductive factors and osteoarthritis. Community-based research has not been conducted in China. The study was to examine the association of reproductive factors with the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA).Through a multistage stratified random sampling method, 10 streets or villages from 5 cities in Hunan province were randomly selected, a total 2746 eligible women aged 50 to 83 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire including demographic factors, socio-economic status, reproductive factors, and knee OA was used. According to the criteria of American College of Rheumatology, clinical knee OA was assessed by doctors in community or village health clinics for knee pain, age, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion or for knee pain, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion, and tenderness of the bony navigation of the joint. Self-reported age of menarche, parity, abortion history, and menopausal status were collected.The prevalence of knee OA was 13.44%. Abortion is associated with knee OA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.271, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.007, 1.606), but age at menarche, parity, and menopausal status were not the factors. Furthermore, age (OR = 1.040, 95% CI = 1.020, 1.060), weight (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.004, 1.035), higher education level (OR = 1.530, 95% CI = 1.121, 2.088), higher monthly household income (OR = .583, 95% CI = 0.441, 0.770 for 3000-4999 ¥ and OR = 0.599, 95% CI = 0.431, 0.833 for 5000 ¥ or more), and chronic gastritis (OR = 3.364, 95% CI = 2.548, 4.442) were associated with knee OA.Abortion may increase the risk of knee OA. Special attention should be paid to women with a history of abortion, and women who are planning to abort should be informed of the risk of knee OA later in life. The relationship between abortion and knee OA should be interpreted with caution and further confirmed.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Radiografia/métodos , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance through web or phone-based polling has been used to track the course of infectious diseases worldwide. Our study objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms, and self-reported testing rates of respondents in three different COVID-19 symptom surveys in Canada. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using three distinct Canada-wide web-based surveys, and phone polling in Ontario. All three sources contained self-reported information on COVID-19 symptoms and testing. In addition to describing respondent characteristics, we examined symptom frequency and the testing rate among the symptomatic, as well as rates of symptoms and testing across respondent groups. RESULTS: We found that over March- April 2020, 1.6% of respondents experienced a symptom on the day of their survey, 15% of Ontario households had a symptom in the previous week, and 44% of Canada-wide respondents had a symptom in the previous month. Across the three surveys, SARS-CoV-2-testing was reported in 2-9% of symptomatic responses. Women, younger and middle-aged adults (versus older adults) and Indigenous/First nations/Inuit/Métis were more likely to report at least one symptom, and visible minorities were more likely to report the combination of fever with cough or shortness of breath. INTERPRETATION: The low rate of testing among those reporting symptoms suggests significant opportunity to expand testing among community-dwelling residents of Canada. Syndromic surveillance data can supplement public health reports and provide much-needed context to gauge the adequacy of SARS-CoV-2 testing rates.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Telefone
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance through web or phone-based polling has been used to track the course of infectious diseases worldwide. Our study objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms, and self-reported testing rates of respondents in three different COVID-19 symptom surveys in Canada. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using three distinct Canada-wide web-based surveys, and phone polling in Ontario. All three sources contained self-reported information on COVID-19 symptoms and testing. In addition to describing respondent characteristics, we examined symptom frequency and the testing rate among the symptomatic, as well as rates of symptoms and testing across respondent groups. RESULTS: We found that over March- April 2020, 1.6% of respondents experienced a symptom on the day of their survey, 15% of Ontario households had a symptom in the previous week, and 44% of Canada-wide respondents had a symptom in the previous month. Across the three surveys, SARS-CoV-2-testing was reported in 2-9% of symptomatic responses. Women, younger and middle-aged adults (versus older adults) and Indigenous/First nations/Inuit/Métis were more likely to report at least one symptom, and visible minorities were more likely to report the combination of fever with cough or shortness of breath. INTERPRETATION: The low rate of testing among those reporting symptoms suggests significant opportunity to expand testing among community-dwelling residents of Canada. Syndromic surveillance data can supplement public health reports and provide much-needed context to gauge the adequacy of SARS-CoV-2 testing rates.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Telefone
7.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812963
8.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812771
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 176-181, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087609

RESUMO

Falls are a well-known danger for older adults. With the worldwide population aging, there has been an increasing interest in assessing the risk of falling. This work presents a novel algorithm for continuous fall risk assessment, relying on a linear regression model whose inputs consist of both measured and self-reported risk factors. Two models were conceived and compared, following two distinct approaches, a theoretical and an empirical one. The system is pervasive and was tested in free-living unsupervised conditions. The results of our fall risk scoring system unveiled a strong correlation with the output of the clinical functional tests POMA and TUG (90% and 89%, respectively), which was deemed a promising outcome concerning the feasibility of pervasive monitoring for fall risk assessment in daily living.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 313-319, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192068

RESUMO

The quality of learning in Higher Education is particularly dependent on students' skills in regulating their cognition. This regulation requires cognitive and metacognitive skills as well as motivational dimensions. Due to its relevance in explaining students' academic achievement and developing lifelong learning skills, it´s important to increase research in the area. This study aims to adapt and validate a short version of the Regulation of Cognition of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to first-year Portuguese university students. A sample of 360 students was considered and was identified a three-dimensional structure (Planning, 4 items; Strategies, 7 items; and Monitoring and evaluation, 7 items) with a second-order factor (Regulation of Cognition). The internal consistency values of the reduced scale are within the acceptable parameters for a self-report scale and the correlations with academic achievement at the end of the first year of the university guarantee the predictive validity of the scale. This short version of regulation of cognition measure allows its use in research with other instruments in larger studies and can function as a diagnostic / screening tool to help students in higher education learning challenges


La calidad del aprendizaje en la Educación Superior depende, especialmente, de las habilidades de los estudiantes para regular su cognición. Esta regulación requiere habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas, así como dimensiones motivacionales. Dada su relevancia en el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de habilidades para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, es importante aumentar la investigación en el campo. Este estudio pretende adaptar y validar una versión abreviada de la dimensión Regulación de la Cognición del Metacognitive Awareness Inventory para estudiantes universitarios portugueses de primer año. Se empleó una muestra de 360 estudiantes y se identificó una estructura tridimensional (Planificación, 4 ítems; Estrategias, 7 ítems; y Monitoreo y evaluación, 7 ítems) con un factor de segundo orden (Regulación de la cognición). Los valores de consistencia interna de la escala reducida son aceptables para una escala de auto-informe y las correlaciones con el logro académico al final del primer año de la universidad garantizan su validez predictiva. Esta versión abreviada para medir la regulación de la cognición puede usarse en investigación junto con otros instrumentos en estudios más amplios y puede funcionar como una herramienta de diagnóstico para ayudar a los estudiantes en los desafíos del aprendizaje en la enseñanza superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição , Estudantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autorrelato , Portugal , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 88-92, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study reports preliminary results from the multicentre project on the approbation of the Russian language version of the "The Communication Checklist-Self Report" (RL-CC-SR) and its first use in schizophrenia (SZ), aiming to evaluate the contribution of language disturbances in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study evaluated patients' clinical state with the Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP), and assessed language and communication disturbances (LCD) with the RL-CC-SR in all participants (213 healthy controls (HC), 83 SZ patients, 31 SZ first-degree relatives). Data from the current sample of SZ (n=50), and HC (n=213) was analysed to calculate the relationships between LCD, social and clinical variables using descriptive statistics methods, T-test and Pearson's correlations (SPSS-26, 2019). RESULTS: The quotient scores (<6) and raw scores on all three CC-SR subscales demonstrated prominent LCD in SZ: (i) language structure (LS) (SZ:11.92±8.01, HC:7.54±5.91; p<0.001), (ii) pragmatic skills (PS) (SZ:11.30±10.07, HC:8.71±7.39; p=0.040), (iii) social engagement (SE) (SZ:31.94±11.76, HC:19.42±10.35; p<0.001). In SZ, Pearson correlations of LS scores were significant for the DIP-items Odd Speech (p=0.033), and Social Engagement - Blunted Affect (p=0.042). PS was related to early disease onset (p=0.027), poor premorbid work adjustment (p=0.003), along with LS (p=0.005), and was also linked to poor premorbid social adjustment (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: SZ patients are aware of their LCD at all levels of language structure, pragmatics, and nonverbal communication, but are unable to compensate. Disturbances of LS and PS in SZ patients relate to their poor social adjustment and functioning, and may prove to be associated with the primary negative symptoms domain of the disorder and its generally poor outcome.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Esquizofrenia , Autorrelato , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Ajustamento Social
13.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 34(3): 265-272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870955

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine the associations of self-reported presence of tinnitus with subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) as assessed by Axis I of the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and with psychologic characteristics as assessed by Axis II. METHODS: This retrospective controlled study included 108 consecutive TMD patients referred to the Tel Aviv University Orofacial Pain Clinic. Each patient received full Axis I and Axis II diagnoses according to the DC/TMD. The patients were asked about currently experiencing tinnitus. Pearson chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to test the associations between categorical variables. Mann-Whitney test was used to assess differences in continuous variables between categories. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Thirty-three (30.6%) TMD patients reported experiencing tinnitus. There was a significantly higher prevalence of myofascial pain with referral (P = .008) and nonspecific physical symptoms (P = .014) among the TMD patients who reported tinnitus. In addition, those patients reported significantly longer pain duration compared to TMD patients without tinnitus (P = .039). CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the necessity of assessing both Axes I and II according to the DC/TMD in future studies and supports creating a standardized tinnitus screener tailored to TMD patients for future studies on tinnitus in TMD patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Zumbido , Dor Facial , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato
14.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 34(3): 273-280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870956

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine if the existence of an association between self-reported awake oral behaviors and orofacial pain depends on the belief of patients that these behaviors are harmful to the jaw and to investigate if an additional variable (ie, somatic symptoms, depression, and/or anxiety) indirectly affects the association between the causal attribution belief and the report of awake oral behaviors. METHODS: Prior to the first clinical visit, patients referred to a specialized clinic for complaints of orofacial pain and dysfunction completed a digital questionnaire. Data of 329 patients diagnosed with myalgia according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (82.4% women; mean ± SD age = 41.9 ± 14.7 years) were analyzed. RESULTS: Causal attribution belief moderated the association between awake oral behaviors and orofacial pain intensity. In addition, the relationship between causal attribution belief and self-reported oral behaviors was partially mediated by the presence of somatic symptoms (8%), depression (9%), and anxiety (16%). CONCLUSION: Awake oral behaviors were positively associated with orofacial pain, but only under the condition of a strong belief of the patients in causal attribution of these behaviors to the jaw pain complaint. No such association was present in case of a low causal attribution belief. It appeared that, within this patient cohort, the relationship between causal attribution belief and self-reported oral behaviors was (in part) the result of shared psychologic risk factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Vigília , Dor Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e114, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901729

RESUMO

The aim of the present infodemiological study was to evaluate whether the COVID-19 outbreak has influenced the volume of content related to the dental treatment needs of Brazilian Twitter users to summarize the trends, and to identify the perceptions of the treatment needed. We collected tweets related to dental care needs of individuals exposed to the COVID-19 outbreak scenario between March 23 to May 4, 2020 and of those not exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic (unexposed group) on the same reported days of 2019 using the terms "dentista (dentist), dente (tooth), siso (third molar), and aparelho (orthodontic appliance)." Descriptive analysis was performed to provide summary statistics of the frequencies of tweets related to different dental treatment needs and also the differences in volume content between the years 2019 and 2020. Moreover, the data were analyzed by qualitative analysis using an inductive approach. A total of 1,763 tweets from 2020 and 1,339 tweets from 2019 were screened. Those tweets posted by non-Brazilian users, duplicates, and those unrelated to dental treatment needs were removed and, therefore 1,197 tweets from 2020 and 719 tweets from 2019 were selected. Content volume related to dental treatment needs greatly increased during the COVID-19 outbreak. Findings from the word cloud and content analysis suggest that dental pain, related or not to the third molar, and problems with orthodontic appliances were the topics most commonly related to dental treatment needs discussed during the COVID-19 outbreak, mainly conveying anxiety and distress. The volume of tweets related to dental treatment needs posted by Brazilian users increased during the COVID-19 outbreak and self-reported pain and urgencies were the most popular topics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Humanos , Pandemias , Autorrelato , Mídias Sociais
16.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 296-305, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational pesticide poisoning is an important public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) among the vegetable and fruit farmers in Karacabey District in northwest Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 565 farmers. The dependent variable of the study is APP defined according to the World Health Organization's APP case definition matrix. The study's independent variables are the farmers' sociodemographic characteristics and the preventive measures they use when they are applying pesticides. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis analyzed the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 64 (11.3%) farmers reported APP and 75% of them presented to a health institution due to symptoms. The factors associated with increased risk of APP were: illiteracy (odds ratio (OR)=2.5), 14 years and less farming experience (OR=3.3), not reading the pesticide labels (OR=6.4), and contact with liquid pesticides (OR=2.3). -Conclusions: The study shows that approximately one out of ten farmers experience APP. Training programs should be planned and monitored to improve farmers' awareness of the dangers of pesticides, and they should be encouraged to adopt and implement protective measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Frutas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Autorrelato , Turquia , Verduras
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886671

RESUMO

As COVID-19 is rapidly unfolding in the United States, it is important to understand how individuals perceive the health and economic risks of the pandemic. In the absence of a readily available medical treatment, any strategy to contain the virus in the US will depend on the behavioral response of US residents. In this paper, we study individual's perceptions on COVID-19 and social distancing during the week of March 10-16, 2020, a week when COVID-19 was officially declared to be a pandemic by WHO and when new infections in the US were more than doubling every three days. Using a nationally representative sample of 5,414 respondents 18+ years of age from the Understanding America Study (UAS), we find that perceptions about COVID-19 health risks and economic consequences in the US population were largely pessimistic and highly variable by age and education. US residents who are young and do not have a college degree perceived a lower risk of getting infected but a higher probability of running out of money than others. Most individuals reported taking some steps to distance themselves from others but important differences emerge by gender and by source of information on COVID-19. Using state and day fixed-effect regressions, we show that perceptions of the health risks closely followed the number of COVID-19 cases in the country, and perceptions of the economic consequences and the prevalence of social distancing were driven upwards by both national and state-level cases. Unless addressed by effective health communication that reaches individuals across all social strata, variations in perceptions about COVID-19 epidemic raise concerns about the ability of the US to implement and sustain the widespread and restrictive policies that are required to curtail the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pessimismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Autorrelato , Isolamento Social , Estados Unidos
18.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 18(2): 340-341, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793329

RESUMO

Management of COVID-19 in Nepal will certainly benefit from the experiences of other countries. However, they are less likely to be suitable for Nepal both in terms of context and resource availability. Social contact pattern studies have shown that understanding the nature of human-to-human contacts can help describe the dynamics of infectious disease transmission. The findings of such studies will help the country prepare itself for future outbreaks, inform mathematically modelling and public health interventions that match domestic capabilities. Methods such as self-reported contact diary can be used to conduct such studies following a feasibility study. Keywords: Contact diary;COVID-19; disease transmission; social contact pattern.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Autorrelato , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 704, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Africa, considerable HIV-burden exists among women. Anti-retroviral (ARV) based prevention products could decrease this burden, and their uptake could be increased if they also protect against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI). METHODS: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken in South Africa (2015) through a household survey of adult females (n = 158) and adolescent girls (n = 204) who self-reported HIV-negative status. The DCE was used to project the uptake (percentage using product) of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), vaginal rings, and injectable long-lasting ARV agents among these women, and how uptake could depend on whether these products protect against pregnancy or STI acquisition. Uptake estimates were used to model how each product could decrease a women's HIV acquisition risk. RESULTS: In adolescent women, there will be limited uptake (< 6% for any product) and impact (< 4% decrease in HIV acquisition risk) of new products unless they provide pregnancy protection, which could quadruple use and impact. Adult women have weaker preference for pregnancy protection, with moderate use (< 17% for each) and impact (< 14 percentage point decrease) if they only provide HIV protection. All women had highest preference for injectable ARVs, with oral PrEP having high preference if injectable ARVs are not available. Adult women will use the ring, but adolescent women will not. Importantly, even with three additional prevention products, all providing pregnancy and STI protection, > 14% of women will remain unprotected and > 31% of the baseline acquisition risk will remain. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating multiple prevention components into new ARV-based prevention products may increase their uptake and impact among women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Autorrelato , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 719, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) face considerable mental and physical stress caring for patients with Covid-19. They are at higher risk of acquiring and transmitting this virus. This study aims to assess perception and attitude of HCWs in Saudi Arabia with regard to Covid-19, and to identify potential associated predictors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, HCWs at three tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia were surveyed via email with an anonymous link, by a concern scale about Covid-19 pandemic during 15-30 April, 2020. Concerns of disease severity, governmental efforts to contain it and disease outcomes were assessed using 32 concern statements in five distinct domains. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of high concern scores. RESULTS: A total of 844 HCW responded to the survey. Their average age was 40.4 ± 9.5 years, 40.3% were nurses, 58.2% had direct patient contact, and 77.3% were living with others. The majority of participants (72.1%) had overall concern scores of 55 or less out of a maximum score of 96 points, with an overall mean score of 48.5 ± 12.8 reflecting moderate level of concern. Three-fourth of respondents felt at risk of contracting Covid-19 infection at work, 69.1% felt threatened if a colleague contracted Covid-19, 69.9% felt obliged to care for patients infected with Covid-19 while 27.7% did not feel safe at work using the standard precautions available. Nearly all HCWs believed that the government should isolate patients with Covid-19 in specialized hospitals (92.9%), agreed with travel restriction to and/or from areas affected by Covid-19 (94.7%) and felt safe the government implemented curfew and movement restriction periods (93.6%). Predictors of high concern scores were; HCWs of Saudi nationality (p < 0.001), younger age (p = 0.003), undergraduate education (p = 0.044), living with others (p = 0.003) working in the western region (p = 0.003) and direct contact with patients (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the high concern among HCWs about Covid-19 and identifies the predictors of those with highest concern levels. To minimize the potential negative impact of those concerns on the performance of HCWs during pandemics, measures are necessary to enhance their protection and to minimize the psychological effect of the perceived risk of infection.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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