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1.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease 2019) was identified. As there is no any drug to treat this pandemic, the healthcare professionals are disproportionately at higher risk. The mental health outcome is expected to be high. Anxiety is expected to have a significant impact on health professionals, especially among those who work without adequate resources for self-protection. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research was to assess self-reported anxiety symptoms and associated factors among Ethiopian healthcare professionals in the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We have conducted an online cross-sectional study to collect information from healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during the early stage of the outbreak from April 7, 2020 to May 19, 2020. GAD-7 was used for measurement of anxiety. We have used a cut of point of 10 and above to report anxiety symptoms. We have used Google Forms for online data collection and SPSS-22 for analysis. To determine associated factors for anxiety, a binary logistic regression model was used. Variables with p-value < 0.2 during the bivariable binary logistic regression were exported for further analysis in the multivariable binary logistic regression. Finally, variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as significantly associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight healthcare professionals filled the online questionnaire; Majority (71.1%) were males. Significant number of respondents (78.9%) reported lack of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) at the work place. The prevalence of anxiety was 26.8%. Being female (AOR: 1.88; 95% C.I:1.11, 3.19), visiting/treating 30-150 patients per day (AOR: 3.44; 95% C.I:1.51, 7.84), those employed at private healthcare institutions (AOR: 2.40; 95% C.I:1.17, 4.90), who do not believe that COVID-19 is preventable (AOR: 2.04; 95% C.I:1.04, 4.03) and those who reported lack of PPE (AOR: 1.98; 95% C.I:1.04, 3.79) were more likely to be anxious. CONCLUSIONS: The anxiety prevalence among healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during early stage of COVID-19 pandemic was high. This study shows that lack of preventive equipment, being female, contact with many patients, low self-efficacy and working in private health facilities were risk factors for anxiety. Anxiety prevention among health professionals during COVID-19 pandemic requires a holistic approach including provision of sufficient PPE, improving self-efficacy and addressing problems both at public and private institutions and focusing more on female health professionals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1977-1986, 2021 May.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076137

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported visual impairment among undergraduate students between 18 and 39 years of age at the Federal University of Pelotas, and to validate a question about visual impairment in a subsample of the participants. A cross-sectional study was conducted by asking the question "Do you have any difficulty seeing up close and/or in the distance?" As the gold standard for the validation study, visual acuity (VA) was measured using the Snellen chart. Patients with VA less than 20/40 in either eye were considered to have reduced VA. The prevalence of self-reported visual impairment was 37.3% (95% CI: 35.1-39.6) and VA less than 20/40 in either eye was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.3-8.9). The question revealed sensitivity of 71.4% (95 CI: 57.8-82.7), specificity of 66.9% (95% CI: 63.4-70.2), positive predictive value of 13.8% (95% CI: 10.0-18.3), and negative predictive value of 96.9% (95% CI: 95,1-98.2). The results indicated a high prevalence of self-reported visual impairment among university students. The question showed reasonable sensitivity and specificity and high negative predictive value and may be used for screening for ophthalmological evaluation among young adult university students.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Transtornos da Visão , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(4. Vyp. 2): 80-91, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess subjective sleep and wake disorders (SWD) in patients with osteoarthritis and comorbid end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis (ESRD-HD) compared to patients with osteoarthritis and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as to clarify of the association of subjective sleep characteristics with the levels of anxiety and depression and pain, general health score and laboratory parameters in these cohorts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This pilot case-control study included the patients with stage III hip osteoarthritis with ESRD-HD (n=19) and without CKD (n=19) aged 18-85 years. The patients received the consultations of orthopedic surgeon and internal medicine specialist with anthropometry and clinical and biochemical blood tests. Subjective SWD were assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Berlin questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Subjective general health and osteoarthritis-related pain were assessed with visual analog scales (VAS). RESULTS: Compared to the patients with osteoarthritis and without CKD, the patients with osteoarthritis and ESRD-HD had a lower VAS score for general health (50.00 (40.00-75.00) points and 80.00 (70.00-80.00) points, p=0.014), a higher PSQI (12.0 (8.5-14.5) points and 8.0 (6.0-11.0) points, p=0.046), a higher incidence of RLS (59% and 16.8%, p=0.017) and a lower level of anxiety according to HADS (0.0 (0.0-3.0) points and 3.0 (2.0-5.5) points, p=0.025). The correlation and regression analysis showed the association of PSQI score with VAS score for general health (b= -1.7 points, p=0.002 with adjustment for age, sex and ESRD-HD), as well as the association of SWD with laboratory markers (PSQI score with creatinine level, FSS with eosinophil count, RLS with creatinine, urea and potassium levels). CONCLUSION: The results of our study demonstrated the high incidence of SWD in patients with osteoarthritis. These SWD have complex pathogenesis and require specific approach in patients with osteoarthritis and ESRD-HD.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 90, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO has raised concerns about the psychological consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic, negatively affecting health across societies, cultures and age-groups. METHODS: This online survey study investigated mental health, subjective experience, and behaviour (health, learning/teaching) among university students studying in Egypt or Germany shortly after the first pandemic lockdown in May 2020. Psychological assessment included stable personality traits, self-concept and state-like psychological variables related to (a) mental health (depression, anxiety), (b) pandemic threat perception (feelings during the pandemic, perceived difficulties in describing, identifying, expressing emotions), (c) health (e.g., worries about health, bodily symptoms) and behaviour including perceived difficulties in learning. Assessment methods comprised self-report questions, standardized psychological scales, psychological questionnaires, and linguistic self-report measures. Data analysis comprised descriptive analysis of mental health, linguistic analysis of self-concept, personality and feelings, as well as correlational analysis and machine learning. N = 220 (107 women, 112 men, 1 = other) studying in Egypt or Germany provided answers to all psychological questionnaires and survey items. RESULTS: Mean state and trait anxiety scores were significantly above the cut off scores that distinguish between high versus low anxious subjects. Depressive symptoms were reported by 51.82% of the student sample, the mean score was significantly above the screening cut off score for risk of depression. Worries about health (mental and physical health) and perceived difficulties in identifying feelings, and difficulties in learning behaviour relative to before the pandemic were also significant. No negative self-concept was found in the linguistic descriptions of the participants, whereas linguistic descriptions of feelings during the pandemic revealed a negativity bias in emotion perception. Machine learning (exploratory) predicted personality from the self-report data suggesting relations between personality and subjective experience that were not captured by descriptive or correlative data analytics alone. CONCLUSION: Despite small sample sizes, this multimethod survey provides important insight into mental health of university students studying in Egypt or Germany and how they perceived the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in May 2020. The results should be continued with larger samples to help develop psychological interventions that support university students across countries and cultures to stay psychologically resilient during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Egito/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Linguística , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 561367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113594

RESUMO

Introduction: Although water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions are effective in reducing diarrhea, there are methodological issues regarding the research tools used to evaluate their health impact. Moreover, there is limited research on individuals' subjective interpretations of diarrheal illness which may introduce further limitations in relying on self-reported data. Therefore, we conducted a study that aims to understand adolescents' perceptions of diarrheal illness in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Next, we wish to explore the acceptability of the Bristol Stool Form Scale to assess self-reported diarrhea in water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions involving adolescent participants in low-resource settings. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as part of the formative research phase in the cultural adaptation of Project SHINE, a school-based educational water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention in Thirumalaikodi, Tamil Nadu, India. A convergent parallel mixed-methods study design with a purposive sampling strategy was used. Qualitative data included 10 in-depth interviews with student participants aged 13-14. Quantitative data were collected through interviewer-administered face-to-face surveys (n = 14) and one-week stool diaries (n = 14). Each data set was analyzed separately and compiled during the interpretation of the findings. Results: Across all data sets, diarrhea was reported to be perceived as unhealthy and an irregular occurrence among participants. Participants also reported diarrheal-taboos, local methods to cure or control diarrhea, and discussed how diarrheal illness can lead to absenteeism or withdrawal from school and social activities. Moreover, participants were able to understand and answer questions about their stool using the Bristol Stool Form Scale, suggesting that is an acceptable tool. Discussion: Visual tools demonstrate promise in improving self-reported diarrheal illness among adolescents in low-resource settings in India. However, until we address diarrhea-related taboos it will be difficult to address methodological issues in the assessment and reporting of diarrheal illness among adolescents.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Saneamento , Adolescente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Percepção , Autorrelato
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(4): 1133-1138, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To translate, adapt and validate the Adult Self-Report tool in Urdu language, and to establish internal consistency of its subscales. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2017 to August 2018 at the National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised adult stable psychiatric outpatients and non-clinical subjects from the community. After forward and backward translation of Adult Self-Report, the tool was tested on the subjects who responded on a three-point Likert scale from 'never' to 'very often'. The items were grouped under eight subscales. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 768 participants, 408(53%) were outpatients and 360(47%) were non-clinical subjects. The overall age range was 18-59 years. The tool was found to be effective for Pakistani sample, with root mean square error of approximation (0.03), comparative fit index (0.94) and Tucker-Lewis Index (0.94) values indicating good fit. Also, al items indicated good factor loadings (range: 0.25-0.94). Alpha values indicated that all subscales were internally consistent (range: 0.64-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Adult Self-Report was found to be a comprehensive tool showing a good model fit for Pakistani population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1075, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa cause acute and chronic illness. Co-infections are common and these diseases have a complex etiology that includes zoonoses. For the implementation of appropriate treatment and control strategies, determinants of lay treatment-seeking behavior by the affected communities need to be understood. The objective of this study was to explore, using the socio-ecological model, the determinants of treatment-seeking actions among self-identified febrile illness cases in the Kilombero District of Tanzania. METHODS: Thirty-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 men and 11 women in three villages in Kilombero district. These villages were purposively selected due to malaria endemicity in the area, animal husbandry practices, and proximity to livestock-wildlife interaction, all risk factors for contracting febrile zoonotic infections. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interviews to identify the key determinants of treatment-seeking actions. RESULTS: Study participants attributed febrile illnesses to malaria, typhoid and urinary tract infections. Treatment-seeking behavior was an iterative process, influenced by individual, socio-cultural, ecological and policy factors. Age, expendable income, previous history with a febrile illness, perceptions on disease severity, seasonal livelihood activities and access to timely healthcare were some of the determinants. Self-treatment with pharmaceutical drugs and herbs was usually the initial course of action. Formal healthcare was sought only when self-treatment failed and traditional healers were consulted after the perceived failure of conventional treatment. Delays in seeking appropriate health care and the consultation of medically unqualified individuals was very common. CONCLUSION: The results imply that treatment-seeking behavior is shaped by multiple factors across all levels of the socio-ecological model. Public policy efforts need to focus on facilitating prompt health care seeking through community education on the complicated etiology of febrile illnesses. Improved access to timely treatment and better differential diagnostics by health professionals are essential to ensure correct and appropriate treatment and to reduce reliance of patients on unqualified persons.


Assuntos
Malária , Animais , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Febre/terapia , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Autorrelato , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1081, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As children show a more complex but less structured movement behavior than adults, assessment of their many spontaneous and impulsive movements is a challenge for physical activity (PA) assessment. Since neither questionnaires nor accelerometers enable optimal detection of all facets of PA, a multimodal, combined approach of self-reported and device-based methods is recommended. Based on the number of days on which the participants reached the physical activity (PA) values given in the WHO guideline, this study examines 1) the difference between self-reported and device-based, measured PA and 2) whether PA differences between age and gender groups obtained by two methods are comparable. METHODS: Participants aged 6-17 years were randomly chosen and data were collected representatively at 167 sample points throughout Germany within the Motorik-Modul Study. PA of n = 2694 participants (52.3% female) was measured using the ActiGraph accelerometer (ACC) and a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The sample was divided into three age groups (6-10 yrs. n = 788, 11-13 yrs. n = 823, 14-17 yrs. n = 1083). Numbers of days per week with at least 60 min moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) were analyzed for both methods. RESULTS: Only every 25th respondent (4%) reaches the WHO standard of 60 min MVPA every day if measured with ACC. Self-reported PA was slightly higher (9%) (meanPAQ = 3.82 days; meanACC = 2.34 days; Fmethod = 915.85; p = <.001; fCohen = .64). The differences between the methods are significantly smaller in younger children than in the older age groups (Fage = 264.2, p < .001; fCohen = .48). The older the subjects are, the lower is the proportion of those who meet the WHO guideline on each day, with girls meeting the guideline less frequently than boys in all age groups. CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents living in Germany show a very low adherence to the WHO guideline on PA. While younger children are much more active with their free play, especially children over 10 years of age and especially girls should be the target of programs to increase PA.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Exercício Físico , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 4): e20200151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to estimate the incidence and the risk factors for severe acute postoperative pain self-reported on the first day after hospital discharge. METHODS: cohort study with 279 children from both sexes (5-12 years old), indicated for ambulatory surgery in two Brazilian hospitals. Children were assessed at the pre-surgery, immediate postoperative and first postoperative day. Faces Pain Scale-Revised and Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale Modified were used. Severe postoperative pain was defined as score ≥6. Cox regression analyses were used. RESULTS: the incidence of severe postoperative pain was 15.8% (95%CI:10.7%-20.4%) on the first postoperative day. Preoperative anxiety (HR=2.23; p=0.049), severe preoperative pain (HR=2.78; p=0.031) and having undergone two surgical procedures (HR=2.91; p=0.002) were associated with severe postoperative pain. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence of severe postoperative pain self-reported after hospital discharge was high. Anxiety and severe preoperative pain, in addition to performing two surgical procedures at the same time were confirmed as risk factors.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Dor Pós-Operatória , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Autorrelato
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e043722, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Racism is a critical determinant of health and health inequities for children and youth. This protocol aims to update the first systematic review conducted by Priest et al (2013), including a meta-analysis of findings. Based on previous empirical data, it is anticipated that child and youth health will be negatively impacted by racism. Findings from this review will provide updated evidence of effect sizes across outcomes and identify moderators and mediators of relationships between racism and health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analysis will include studies that examine associations between experiences of racism and racial discrimination with health outcomes of children and youth aged 0-24 years. Exposure measures include self-reported or proxy reported systemic, interpersonal and intrapersonal racism. Outcome measures include general health and well-being, physical health, mental health, biological markers, healthcare utilisation and health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies from the earliest time available to October 2020 will be conducted. A random effects meta-analysis will examine the average effect of racism on a range of health outcomes. Study-level moderation will test the difference in effect sizes with regard to various sample and exposure characteristics. This review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will provide evidence for future research within the field and help to support policy and practice development. Results will be widely disseminated to both academic and non-academic audiences through peer-review publications, community summaries and presentations to research, policy, practice and community audiences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020184055.


Assuntos
Racismo , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Metanálise como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Autorrelato , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 159, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) was developed to accurately assess the pain, urinary symptoms, and quality of life related to chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). This study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptations of the NIH-CPSI. METHOD: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and SciELO databases were searched from their established year to September 2020. Cross-cultural adaptations and the quality control of measurement properties of adaptations were conducted by two reviewers independently according to the Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures and the Quality Criteria for Psychometric Properties of Health Status Questionnaire. RESULTS: Area total of 21 papers with 16 adaptations, and six studies of the original version of the NIH-CPSI were enrolled in the systematic review. Back translation was the weakest process for the quality assessment of the cross-cultural adaptations of the NIH-CPSI. Internal consistency was analyzed for most of the adaptations, but none of them met the standard. Only 11 adaptations reported test reliability, then only the Arabic-Egyptian, Chinese-Mainland, Danish, Italian, Persian, and Turkish adaptations met the criterion. Most adaptations reported the interpretability, but only the Danish adaptation reported the agreement. The other measurement properties, including responsiveness, and floor as well as ceiling effects were not reported in any of the adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality of the NIH-CPSI cross-cultural adaptations was not organized as expected. Only the Portuguese-Brazilian, Italian, and Spanish adaptations reached over half the process for the cross-cultural adaptation. Only the Turkish adaptations finished half of the measurement properties of cross-cultural adaptations.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Prostatite/fisiopatologia , Prostatite/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Avaliação de Sintomas/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Traduções , Estados Unidos
12.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 1867-1878, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068441

RESUMO

Cancer causes substantial emotional and psychosocial distress, which may be exacerbated by delays in treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased wait times for many patients with cancer. In this study, the psychosocial distress associated with waiting for cancer surgery during the pandemic was investigated. This cross-sectional, convergent mixed-methods study included patients with lower priority disease during the first wave of COVID-19 at an academic, tertiary care hospital in eastern Canada. Participants underwent semi-structured interviews and completed two questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Qualitative analysis was completed through a thematic analysis approach, with integration achieved through triangulation. Fourteen participants were recruited, with cancer sites including thyroid, kidney, breast, prostate, and a gynecological disorder. Increased anxiety symptoms were found in 36% of patients and depressive symptoms in 14%. Similarly, 64% of patients experienced moderate or high stress. Six key themes were identified, including uncertainty, life changes, coping strategies, communication, experience, and health services. Participants discussed substantial distress associated with lifestyle changes and uncertain treatment timelines. Participants identified quality communication with their healthcare team and individualized coping strategies as being partially protective against such symptoms. Delays in surgery for patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in extensive psychosocial distress. Patients may be able to mitigate these symptoms partially through various coping mechanisms and improved communication with their healthcare teams.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Depressão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Nova Escócia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Angústia Psicológica , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/normas , Incerteza
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25920, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011061

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Anxiety and depression are often symptoms present in people who suffer from chronic pain, compromising the quality of life of these individuals. The objective of this study was to assess whether a pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment, in addition to psychological support intervention, can decrease chronic pain, thereby improving quality of life and restoring psychological well-being.Fifty outpatients with a diagnosis of chronic pain, without any benefit from traditional drug therapies, were selected to perform a PRF treatment in combination with a psychological intervention. They were evaluated before and after the intervention through the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II for anxiety and depression symptomatology, respectively, the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36) was used to assess the subject's quality of life, and the Numerical Rating Scale was used for pain assessment.The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a significant difference in Beck Depression Inventory-II (P < .001), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (P < .01), and Numerical Rating Scale (P = .004). In the SF-36 scores, we observed a significant difference between T0 and T1 in both mental (P < .001) and physical (P < .001) dimensions.This study shows that a chronic pain reduction leads to a decrease of anxiety-depressive symptoms and an improvement in quality of life. PRF seems to be an appropriate method to reduce the chronic pain that influences psychological well-being and quality of life.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Tratamento por Radiofrequência Pulsada/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 656988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959584

RESUMO

Physical and social environments of parks and neighborhoods influence park use, but the extent of their relative influence remains unclear. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the physical and social environment of parks and both observed and self-reported park use in low-income neighborhoods in New York City. We conducted community- (n = 54 parks) and individual-level (n = 904 residents) analyses. At the community level, observed park use was measured using a validated park audit tool and regressed on the number of facilities and programmed activities in parks, violent crime, stop-and-frisk incidents, and traffic accidents. At the individual level, self-reported park use was regressed on perceived park quality, crime, traffic-related walkability, park use by others, and social cohesion and trust. Data were collected in 2016-2018 and analyzed in 2019-2020. At the community level, observed park use was negatively associated with stop-and-frisk (ß = -0.04; SE = 0.02; p < 0.05) and positively associated with the number of park facilities (ß = 1.46; SE = 0.57; p < 0.05) and events (ß = 0.16; SE = 0.16; p < 0.01). At the individual level, self-reported park use was positively associated with the social cohesion and trust scale (ß = 0.02; SE = 0.01; p < 0.05). These results indicate that physical and social attributes of parks, but not perceptions of parks, were significantly associated with park use. The social environment of neighborhoods at both community and individual levels was significantly related to park use. Policies for increasing park use should focus on improving the social environment of parks and surrounding communities, not only parks' physical attributes. These findings can inform urban planning and public health interventions aimed at improving the well-being of residents in low-income communities.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Meio Social , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Autorrelato
15.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 29(2): 157-165, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043399

RESUMO

Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is commonly assessed using self-report items based on its symptoms as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) that are scored on a dichotomous scale (yes/no) to indicate symptom presence; however, scoring items on a dichotomy may result in relatively limited sensitivity for research. Thus, we developed a 13-item measure of CUD, the Self-Reported Symptoms of CUD (SRSCUD), based on the 11 symptoms described in the DSM-5 that is scored on a 4-point response scale indicating degree of severity. In the present study, we conduct an initial evaluation of the psychometric properties of the SRSCUD. Past-month cannabis users (N = 2,077) were recruited from nine universities in nine states throughout the U.S. Each item of the SRSCUD loaded saliently onto a single factor of CUD symptoms in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The SRSCUD was strongly correlated with measures of cannabis use, dependence severity, and cannabis-related problems. In addition, the SRSCUD was moderately positively correlated with a well-known risk factor for CUD (coping motives) and moderately negatively correlated with a well-known protective factor for CUD (protective behavioral strategies). These correlations mostly remained statistically significant while controlling for CUD symptom count and diagnosis using dichotomized SRSCUD items. Receiver operator characteristic curve analyses revealed that the SRSCUD had excellent sensitivity/specificity for predicting probable CUD. Although more research evaluating performance of the SRSCUD compared to a clinical diagnosis is needed, we found preliminary evidence for construct validity of this measure. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/diagnóstico , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(5): 786-794, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939509

RESUMO

Hearing loss is associated with higher health care spending and use, but little is known about the unmet health care needs of people with hearing loss or difficulty. Analysis of 2016 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data for beneficiaries ages sixty-five and older reveals that those who reported a lot of trouble hearing in the past year were 49 percent more likely than those who reported no trouble hearing to indicate not having a usual source of care. Compared with those who reported no trouble hearing, those who reported some trouble hearing were more likely to indicate not having obtained medical care in the past year when they thought it was needed, as well as not filling a prescription, with the risk for both behaviors being greater among those reporting a lot of trouble hearing versus a little. Interventions that improve access to hearing services and aid communication may help older Medicare beneficiaries meet their health care needs.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva , Medicare , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Audição , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Humanos , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e042726, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study protocol outlines the evaluation of the pictorial support in person-centred care for children (PicPecc). PicPecc is a digital tool used by children aged 5-17 years to self-report symptoms of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, who undergo high-dose methotrexate treatments. The design of the digital platform follows the principles of universal design using pictorial support to provide accessibility for all children regardless of communication or language challenges and thus facilitating international comparison. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Both effect and process evaluations will be conducted. A crossover design will be used to measure the effect/outcome, and a mixed-methods design will be used to measure the process/implementation. The primary outcome in the effect evaluation will be self-reported distress. Secondary outcomes will be stress levels monitored via neuropeptides, neurosteroids and peripheral steroids indicated in plasma blood samples; frequency of in-app estimation of high levels of distress by the children; children's use of analgesic medicine and person centeredness evaluated via the questionnaire Visual CARE Measure. For the process evaluation, qualitative interviews will be carried out with children with cancer, their legal guardians and case-related healthcare professionals. These interviews will address experiences with PicPecc in terms of feasibility and frequency of use from the child's perspective and value to the caseworker. Interview transcripts will be analysed using an interpretive description methodology. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Swedish Ethical Review Authority (reference 2019-02392; 2020-02601; 2020-06226). Children, legal guardians, healthcare professionals, policymaking and research stakeholders will be involved in all stages of the research process according to Medical Research Council's guidelines. Research findings will be presented at international cancer and paediatric conferences and published in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT04433650.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Autorrelato , Suécia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 454, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, Coronavirus disease-19 has created unprecedented challenges to public health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of COVID-19 because of their profession. There are limited studies conducted in Ethiopia among HCWs regarding their compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. Therefore, this study intended to assess HCWs' compliance with measures to prevent COVID-19, and its potential determinants in public hospitals in Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A self-administered, multicenter hospital-based cross-sectional survey was proposed to 422 randomly selected HCWs working in seven public hospitals in Western Ethiopia identified as COVID-19 referral centers. Data were entered into Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 24. Binary logistic regression was used to identify potential determinants of outcome variables at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Out of 422 completed questionnaires, the overall HCWs' compliance with COVID-19 prevention is 22% (n = 404). In multivariate regression analysis, factors such as spending most of caring time at bedside (AOR = 1.94, 95%CI, 1.06-3.55), receiving training on infection prevention/COVID-19 (AOR = 1.86, 95%CI, 1.04-3.33), reading materials on COVID-19 (AOR = 2.04, 95%CI, 1.14-3.63) and having support from hospital management (AOR = 2.09, 95%CI, 1.20-3.64) were found to be significantly associated with COVID-19 preventive measures. Furthermore, inadequate supplies of appropriate personal protective equipment (83.2%), insufficient supportive medications (78.5%), and lack of provision of adequate ventilation (77.7%) were the barriers to COVID-19 prevention most frequently mentioned by participants. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight HCWs' poor compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. Providing information and refreshing training to improve the level of healthcare workers' adherence with COVID-19 prevention is as imperative as increasing staff commitment to supply resources necessary to protect HCWs and to reduce healthcare-associated infections transmission of SARS-COV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e129, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006340

RESUMO

During the first wave of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 epidemic in the Netherlands, notifications consisted mostly of patients with relatively severe disease. To enable real-time monitoring of the incidence of mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - for which medical consultation might not be required - the Infectieradar web-based syndromic surveillance system was launched in mid-March 2020. Our aim was to quantify associations between Infectieradar participant characteristics and the incidence of self-reported COVID-19-like illness. Recruitment for this cohort study was via a web announcement. After registering, participants completed weekly questionnaires, reporting the occurrence of a set of symptoms. The incidence rate of COVID-19-like illness was estimated and multivariable Poisson regression used to estimate the relative risks associated with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors and pre-existing medical conditions. Between 17 March and 24 May 2020, 25 663 active participants were identified, who reported 7060 episodes of COVID-19-like illness over 131 404 person-weeks of follow-up. The incidence rate declined over the analysis period, consistent with the decline in notified cases. Male sex, age 65+ years and higher education were associated with a significantly lower COVID-19-like illness incidence rate (adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84), 0.77 (0.70-0.85), 0.84 (0.80-0.88), respectively) and the baseline characteristics ever-smoker, asthma, allergies, diabetes, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease and children in the household were associated with a higher incidence (RRs of 1.11 (1.04-1.19) to 1.69 (1.50-1.90)). Web-based syndromic surveillance has proven useful for monitoring the temporal trends in, and risk factors associated with, the incidence of mild disease. Increased relative risks observed for several patient factors could reflect a combination of exposure risk, susceptibility to infection and propensity to report symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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