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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 93-97, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183603

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized based on whether they were generally violent (GV) or family only violent (FO) using self-report or arrest records. Classification criteria to assess recidivism in perpetrators of IPV were evaluated herein to determine the incremental validity of using a perpetrator's criminal history in addition to their self-report information for categorization purposes. The concordance rates for categorizing subtypes of male perpetrators were compared for two methods, namely, self-report versus criminal history data. Categorizations were made based on self-reported history of violence and federal criminal records separately. Between measures consistency was defined as whether or not the self-report categorizations matched federal criminal record categorizations. It was hypothesized that self-report would not be sufficient as the sole method of categorizing male perpetrators, and the use of criminal history data would add to the validity of the categorization system. Self-reports of aggression were higher than criminal records of aggression. Using data sources together may yield the best outcomes for offenders and society. Implications are discussed


Se clasificaron los varones que ejercen violencia en las relaciones de pareja (VP) en función de si eran violentos en general (VG) o solo en el entorno familiar (VF), empleando registros de autoinformes o de arrestos. Se analizaron los criterios de clasificación para evaluar la reincidencia de los infractores de VP con el fin de determinar la validez incremental del uso de los antecedentes penales del infractor, además de la información procedente de su autoinforme para la clasificación. Se compararon los índices de concordancia para categorizar los subtipos de infractores masculinos para dos métodos: los datos procedentes de autoinforme y los de antecedentes penales. La categorización se basó en la historia de violencia autoinformada y en los antecedentes penales por separado. La congruencia entre medidas se definió como la coincidencia o discrepancia de la categorización de autoinforme con la categorización de antecedentes penales. Se planteó la hipótesis de que el autoinforme no bastaba como único método para clasificar a los infractores masculinos y que el uso de datos procedentes de antecedentes penales aumentaba la validez del sistema de categorización. Hubo más autoinformes sobre agresión que antecedentes penales de agresión. El uso conjunto de ambos podría tener mejores resultados, tanto para los delincuentes como para la sociedad. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência de Gênero/classificação , Criminosos/psicologia , Agressão/classificação , Comportamento Perigoso , Violência contra a Mulher , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190016.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors associated with the self-reported medical diagnosis of heart disease in Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, analyzing information from 60,202 adult participants of the Brazilian National Health Survey in 2013. Heart disease was defined by self-reported medical diagnosis of heart disease. We analyzed associations between the occurrence of disease and sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions and lifestyle. A hierarchical binary logistic regression model was used. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of heart disease in Brazil was 4.2% (confidence interval of 95% [95%CI] 4.0 ‒ 4.3) and was associated with females (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1; 95%CI 1.1 ‒ 1.1), people 65 years old or older (OR = 4.7; 95%CI 3.3 ‒ 5.6), poor or very poor health conditions (OR = 4.1; 95%CI 3.5 ‒ 4.6) and fair health conditions (OR = 2.4; 95%CI 2.2 ‒ 2.7), hypertensive individuals (OR = 2.4; 95%CI 2.2 ‒ 2.7), those with increased cholesterol (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 1.5 ‒ 1.8), overweight individuals (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.4 ‒ 1.8) and obese individuals (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.7 ‒ 2.2), sedentary behavior (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.02 ‒ 2.1), former smokers (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.3 ‒ 1.6) or current smokers (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.03 ‒ 1.3) and the consumption of fruits and vegetables 5 or more days each week (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1 ‒ 1.5). CONCLUSION: The importance of knowledge on the prevalence of heart disease and associated risk factors in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized because it guides actions to control and prevent cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190232, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an endemic and epidemic disease in Brazil, with a high burden of disease. Amazonas State has a high risk of transmission. This study aimed to assess the self-reported prevalence of dengue in adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in Manaus Metropolitan Region in 2015. We performed a three-phase probabilistic sampling to collect participants' clinical and sociodemographic data. Self-reported dengue infection in the previous year was the primary outcome. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analysis with robust variance were used to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR) of dengue infections with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Multilevel analysis including city and neighborhood variables was calculated. All analyses considered the complex sampling. RESULTS: Among the 4,001 participants, dengue in the previous year was self-reported by 7.0% (95% CI 6.3%-7.8%). Dengue was more frequent in women(PR 1.51; 95% CI 1.06-2.13), elderly participants (≥60 years old, PR 2.54; 95% CI 1.19-5.45), White and Asian participants (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.23), and individuals who had not received endemic agent visits (PR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.31-3.99). After multilevel analysis, sex was no longer a significant variable, with the remaining associations still significant. CONCLUSIONS: Seven out of 100 inhabitants of Manaus Metropolitan Region reported dengue in the previous year. Dengue was predominantly observed in women, elderly individuals, White and Asian individuals, and individuals who did not receive endemic agent visits. The setting plays an important role in dengue infections.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3503, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409809

RESUMO

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affects 10-20% of the population and is associated with substantial functional deficits. Here, we identify 42 loci for self-reported daytime sleepiness in GWAS of 452,071 individuals from the UK Biobank, with enrichment for genes expressed in brain tissues and in neuronal transmission pathways. We confirm the aggregate effect of a genetic risk score of 42 SNPs on daytime sleepiness in independent Scandinavian cohorts and on other sleep disorders (restless legs syndrome, insomnia) and sleep traits (duration, chronotype, accelerometer-derived sleep efficiency and daytime naps or inactivity). However, individual daytime sleepiness signals vary in their associations with objective short vs long sleep, and with markers of sleep continuity. The 42 sleepiness variants primarily cluster into two predominant composite biological subtypes - sleep propensity and sleep fragmentation. Shared genetic links are also seen with obesity, coronary heart disease, psychiatric diseases, cognitive traits and reproductive ageing.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Sono/genética , Sonolência , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Polissonografia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Urol ; 202(6): 1217-1223, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High animal protein intake is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. Whether plant based sources of protein are associated with kidney stone risk is not well studied. We examined the association of animal and plant protein intake with the risk of incident kidney stones in Shanghai, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dietary intakes were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Self-reported stone events were ascertained at baseline and at followup visits. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to evaluate the associations of protein intake with the incident stone risk. RESULTS: During 319,211 and 696,950 person-years of followup 1,451 men and 1,202 women, respectively, reported incident stones. The average ± SD intake of animal and plant protein standardized to 2,000 kcal was 31.3 ± 13.7 and 48.4 ± 7.2 gm per day in women, and 30.8 ± 13.3 and 51.3 ± 7.6 gm per day, respectively, in men. On multivariable analysis participants in the highest quintiles of animal and nondairy animal protein intake showed an increased risk of incident stones compared to those in the lowest quintiles (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.32, p=0.03 vs HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.30, p=0.04). Compared to the lowest quintile the highest intake quintiles of the animal-to-plant protein ratios and the nondairy animal-to-plant protein ratios were positively associated with stone risk (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.33, p=0.02 and HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.36, p=0.005, respectively). No association was observed with plant protein intake (ptrend=0.14). CONCLUSIONS: In this population with a relatively low animal protein intake and a high plant protein intake, a greater animal protein intake was associated with a kidney stone risk. Increasing the proportion of plant protein relative to animal protein appeared protective against the risk.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS Genet ; 15(8): e1008277, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369549

RESUMO

Obesity is a worldwide health problem that is closely linked to many metabolic disorders. Regular physical exercise has been found to attenuate the genetic predisposition to obesity. However, it remains unknown what kinds of exercise can modify the genetic risk of obesity. This study included 18,424 unrelated Han Chinese adults aged 30-70 years who participated in the Taiwan Biobank (TWB). A total of 5 obesity measures were investigated here, including body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Because there have been no large genome-wide association studies on obesity for Han Chinese, we used the TWB internal weights to construct genetic risk scores (GRSs) for each obesity measure, and then test the significance of GRS-by-exercise interactions. The significance level throughout this work was set at 0.05/550 = 9.1x10-5 because a total of 550 tests were performed. Performing regular exercise was found to attenuate the genetic effects on 4 obesity measures, including BMI, BFP, WC, and HC. Among the 18 kinds of self-reported regular exercise, 6 mitigated the genetic effects on at least one obesity measure. Regular jogging blunted the genetic effects on BMI, BFP, and HC. Mountain climbing, walking, exercise walking, international standard dancing, and a longer practice of yoga also attenuated the genetic effects on BMI. Exercises such as cycling, stretching exercise, swimming, dance dance revolution, and qigong were not found to modify the genetic effects on any obesity measure. Across all 5 obesity measures, regular jogging consistently presented the most significant interactions with GRSs. Our findings show that the genetic effects on obesity measures can be decreased to various extents by performing different kinds of exercise. The benefits of regular physical exercise are more impactful in subjects who are more predisposed to obesity.


Assuntos
Exercício , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
Med Care ; 57(8): 625-632, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respondents in longitudinal health interview surveys may inconsistently report their chronic diseases across interview waves. Racial/ethnic minority adults have an increased burden of chronic diseases and may dispute chronic disease reports more frequently. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the longitudinal association between race/ethnicity, nativity, and language of interview with disputing previously reported chronic diseases. METHODS: We performed secondary data analysis of nationally representative longitudinal data (Health and Retirement Study, 1998-2010) of adults 51 years or older (n=23,593). We estimated multilevel mixed-effects logistic models of disputes of previously reported chronic disease (hypertension, heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, arthritis). RESULTS: Approximately 22% of Health and Retirement Study respondents disputed prior chronic disease self-reports across the entire study period; 21% of non-Latino white, 20.5% of non-Latino black, and 28% of Latino respondents disputed. In subgroup comparisons of model-predicted odds using postestimation commands, Latinos interviewed in Spanish have 34% greater odds of disputing compared with non-Latino whites interviewed in English and 35% greater odds of dispute relative to non-Latino blacks interviewed in English. CONCLUSIONS: The odds of disputing a prior chronic disease report were substantially higher for Latinos who were interviewed in Spanish compared with non-Latino white or black counterparts interviewed in English, even after accounting for other sociodemographic factors, cognitive declines, and time-in-sample considerations. Our findings point toward leveraging of multiple sources of data to triangulate information on chronic disease status as well as investigating potential mechanisms underlying the higher probability of dispute among Spanish-speaking Latino respondents.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Linguagem , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(1): e12228, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile phone and tablet ownership have increased in the United States over the last decade, contributing to the growing use of mobile health (mHealth) interventions to help patients manage chronic health conditions like diabetes. However, few studies have characterized mobile device ownership and the presence of health-related apps on mobile devices in people with a self-reported history of hypertension. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of smartphone, tablet, and basic mobile phone ownership and the presence of health apps by sociodemographic factors and self-reported hypertension status (ie, history) in a nationally representative sample of US adults, and to describe whether mobile devices are associated with health goal achievement, medical decision making, and patient-provider communication. METHODS: Data from 3285 respondents from the 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed. Participants were asked if they owned a smartphone, tablet, or basic mobile phone and if they had health apps on a smartphone or tablet. Participants were also asked if their smartphones or tablets helped them achieve a health-related goal like losing weight, make a decision about how to treat an illness, or talk with their health care providers. Chi-square analyses were conducted to test for differences in mobile device ownership, health app presence, and app helpfulness by patient characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately 1460 (37.6% weighted prevalence) participants reported a history of hypertension. Tablet and smartphone ownership were lower in participants with a history of hypertension than in those without a history of hypertension (55% vs 66%, P=.001, and 86% vs 68%, P<.001, respectively). Participants with a history of hypertension were more likely to own a basic mobile phone only as compared to those without a history of hypertension (16% vs 9%, P<.001). Among those with a history of hypertension exclusively, basic mobile phone, smartphone, and tablet ownership were associated with age and education, but not race or sex. Older adults were more likely to report having a basic mobile phone only, whereas those with higher education were more likely to report owning a tablet or smartphone. Compared to those without a history of hypertension, participants with a history of hypertension were less likely to have health-related apps on their smartphones or tablets (45% vs 30%, P<.001) and report that mobile devices helped them achieve a health-related goal (72% vs 63%, P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing use of smartphones, tablets, and health-related apps, these tools are used less among people with a self-reported history of hypertension. To reach the widest cross-section of patients, a mix of novel mHealth interventions and traditional health communication strategies (eg, print, web based, and in person) are needed to support the diverse needs of people with a history of hypertension.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Computadores de Mão/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(9): 766-777, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the compensatory profile in autism; that is, people with autism spectrum disorder who show few symptoms in their behavioural presentation, despite continuing to report autism-related cognitive difficulties or differences. Even less is known about the specific compensatory strategies that these individuals use to disguise autism at the behavioural surface, both in the clinic and everyday life. It is also currently unclear whether individuals without a formal autism diagnosis, but experiencing autistic-like difficulties, use similar compensatory strategies, potentially enabling them to sit below the diagnostic threshold. This study aimed to investigate social compensatory strategies, and their effect on diagnosis and clinical outcome, in adults with and without autism. METHODS: In this study, individuals aged 18 years or older who responded to a study advert that was distributed worldwide via social media and the UK National Autistic Society formed a convenience sample. Participants self-reported their use and experiences of compensatory strategies using an online platform. Novel analyses, including a qualitative thematic approach, were used to interpret their responses and gain insight into compensatory strategies in autism. FINDINGS: Between Oct 19, 2017, and Jan 2, 2018, 136 adults (58 had a clinical diagnosis of autism, 19 self-identified but were not formally diagnosed as autistic, and 59 were not diagnosed or self-identified, but nevertheless reported social difficulties) completed the online study questions. The findings suggested that there are multiple compensatory strategies with distinct characteristics, individual and environmental factors that modulate compensatory strategy use and success, positive (social relationships, independence, employment) and negative (poor mental health, late diagnosis) outcomes associated with compensatory strategy use, and that individuals without a diagnosis use compensatory strategies that are qualitatively similar to individuals with a diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Increased awareness and measurement of compensatory strategy use in autism should guide future diagnostic guidelines, towards improved diagnostic accuracy and support for people with autism spectrum disorder whose cognitive difficulties are not immediately evident in observable behaviour. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council and UK National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Conscientização , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Social , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Genet Psychol ; 180(4-5): 217-230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305235

RESUMO

Hikikomori (social withdrawal that lasts six months or longer) is a growing problem among Japanese adolescents and young adults, with recent estimates that approximately 1% of Japanese youths will suffer from an episode of hikikomori in their lifetimes. What remains unclear is whether hikikomori is a culture-bound syndrome or a condition impacting youths around the globe. Hence, the self-reported prevalence and psychosocial correlates of past experiences with hikikomori were examined in cross-sectional samples of university students from Singapore (n = 147), Nigeria (n = 151), and the United States (n = 301). Following tests of measurement invariance, comparisons showed that past experiences with hikikomori were related to elevated levels of current loneliness and depressive symptoms in each sample. However, analyses also revealed evidence of cultural variation in both the prevalence and the psychosocial correlates associated with past experiences of hikikomori, which taken together, provide preliminary evidence that the culture-bound characterization of hikikomori may not be appropriate.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Singapura/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Obes ; 9(5): e12331, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293064

RESUMO

Researchers, policymakers and clinicians commonly use height and weight to determine body mass index (BMI) and classify weight status. Self-report measures are widely used but often result in misreported height and weight and, consequentially, underestimation of BMI and-potentially-weight status misclassification. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in objective and self-reported height, weight and BMI values and to find whether discordance is associated with other anthropometric measures, fitness and physical activity. Data were collected from college students through: (a) a pre-consultation online questionnaire where participants self-reported gender, height and weight; (b) an objective fitness assessment that assessed height, weight, body fat percentage, abdominal girth and predicted aerobic fitness; and (c) a post-assessment electronic survey that assessed physical activity. Parametric and non-parametric analyses examined differences between groups. Objective and self-reported height and weight data were collected from 1061 participants, 224 of whom also provided physical activity data. Women significantly under-reported weight (P = .003, η2 = 0.02), and both genders over-reported height (P < .001, η2 ≥ 0.07), resulting in a significant difference between BMIs calculated using the different measures (P < .001, η2 ≥ 0.07) and the weight status misclassification of ~15% of participants. Significant differences were found in anthropometrics, fitness and physical activity based on reporting differences for weight (P ≤ .015) and BMI (P ≤ .015). Students demonstrated a tendency to under-report weight and over-report height, resulting in weight status misclassification. Those who under-reported weight tended to be in poorer health as indicated by lower aerobic fitness and higher abdominal girth and body fat percentage in particular. Further research is required to establish the link between under-reporting weight and over-reporting physical activity.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Exercício , Aptidão Física , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adiposidade , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 111, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) is a health measure used in studies of older adults. The objective of this study is to analyze SRH as a predictor of mortality in the institutionalized older population and the characteristics of those who do not provide information about their SRH on health questionnaires. METHODS: This is a 15-year follow-up study of older adult residents in nursing or care homes in of Madrid, Spain. SRH was measured on a 5-point Likert type scale. The association between answering the SRH question and socio-demographic and health characteristics was evaluated through prevalence ratio (PR), estimated by Poisson regression models. Survival rates associated with SRH were studied through a multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: The sample has a mean age of 83.4 (standard deviation, SD = 7.3), with 75.7% women. Twelve percent did not answer the SRH item. Those who did not answer showed a higher probability of disability (Barthel index, PR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.86) and/or dementia (PR = 8.03, 3.38-19.03). A trend for higher mortality was observed in those persons who did not respond (adjusted hazard ratio HR = 1.26, 0.75-2.11). The mortality rate was 32% higher for those who declared poor SRH in comparison with those who reported good SRH (adjusted HR = 1.32, 1.08-1.6). CONCLUSIONS: There is an elevated number of people who do not respond to the SRH item, mainly those with disabilities and cognitive deterioration. Lack of response to SRH is a good indicator of 15-year mortality for persons institutionalized in care or nursing homes.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Espanha , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Eat Behav ; 34: 101302, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated prospective relationships of the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a self-report measure of hedonic hunger, with weight outcomes and dieting in U.S. young adults. METHODS: PFS (PFS-aggregate and subscales: PFS-available, PFS-present, PFS-tasted) was assessed in waves (W, years) 5 and 6 of a nationally representative cohort of 10th graders assessed annually (baseline n = 2785, 83% retention at W7). Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), 1-year stability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were examined. Analyses accounting for the complex survey design examined cross-sectional associations of W6 PFS with W6 BMI and dieting, and prospective relationships of PFS in each wave with BMI, 1-year BMI change (BMIΔ, W6-W5 and W7-W6), overweight/obesity onset (OWOB, moving to a higher risk weight category) and dieting in the following wave. Multiple imputations addressed missing data. RESULTS: Baseline participant mean ±â€¯SE age was 20.3 ±â€¯0.02 years. Mean BMI increased by approximately 0.6 kg/m2 from W5 through W7; OWOB occurred in 7.4% of participants between W5-W6; 9.0% between W6-W7. Approximately half the sample reported dieting in each wave. W6 weight outcomes were not associated with W6 PFS, but W6 dieting frequency was positively associated with W6 PFS-available, PFS-present, and PFS-aggregate (but not PFS-tasted) in multivariable models. PFS was not prospectively associated with weight outcomes. Positive prospective associations of PFS with dieting frequency were inconsistent across waves and with respect to inclusion of covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Greater PFS is associated with dieting cross-sectionally but was not a reliable indicator of susceptibility to future weight outcomes or dieting in young adults.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Fome/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recompensa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Qual Life Res ; 28(11): 3093-3105, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243620

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the EQ-5D-Y (3 levels) with a focus on feasibility, reliability, and construct validity. METHODS: Respondents were recruited from the general populations of three cities in Japan. First, children and adolescents responded to the EQ-5D-Y and PedsQL by self-report. Parents were also asked to evaluate the health states of their children/adolescents using proxy versions of these questionnaires. Next, the EQ-5D-Y was mailed to their residence approximately 2 weeks later, and both children/adolescents and their parents responded to the questionnaire. Reliability was confirmed by self-report test-retest methods and a comparison of self-report responses with proxy responses. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated between responses to the EQ-5D-Y and both responses to and scores of the PedsQL in order to assess construct validity. RESULTS: A total of 654 children/adolescents from aged 8 to 15 (median age: 11) responded to the questionnaires at both the first- and second-stage surveys. Test-retest agreement was sufficiently high and was influenced by age. Proxy test-retest results revealed that parents' responses were more reliable compared to the self-report results. Some correlations (|r| > 0.3) between items of the EQ-5D-Y and PedsQL were found. Meanwhile, no correlations were found between proxy responses to the EQ-5D-Y and self-report responses to the PedsQL. CONCLUSIONS: The EQ-5D-Y demonstrates reliability and validity among children/adolescents and their parents in Japan. Construct validity of the EQ-5D-Y by self-report was confirmed through comparisons with the PedsQL. Proxy responses to the EQ-5D-Y were more reliable compared to the self-report results, but construct validity was not confirmed in the proxy version.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pais , Procurador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(9): 1232-1239, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Involuntary child removal via the child protection system disproportionately affects marginalized women, yet the impacts on maternal health are under-investigated. This study prospectively examined the association of child removal with self-rated health of mothers who are sex workers. Given high levels of intergenerational family separation in this population, particularly among Indigenous sex workers, we also estimated joint effects of child removal spanning two generations. METHODS: Analyses drew on 2010-2015 data from AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access), a prospective cohort of sex workers (n = 950) in Vancouver, Canada. Using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we modeled the association of past child removal and current self-rated health in a sample of 466 sex workers who ever had a live birth. Joint effects of child removal and history of removal from own parents were also investigated. RESULTS: Of 466 sex workers, 180 (38.6%) reported child removal at baseline and 147 (31.6%) had a history of removal from own parents. In main effects model, child removal was associated with increased odds of poorer self-rated health [odds ratio (OR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 2.16]. Joint effects model showed higher odds of poorer self-rated health (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.27, 3.27) among women with intergenerational family separation. CONCLUSION FOR PRACTICE: Child removal was negatively associated with sex workers' health that was worsened when family separation spanned two generations. Findings underscore need to develop sex worker and Indigenous-led family support services, along with tailored interventions to address health needs of those separated from their children.


Assuntos
Separação da Família , Mães/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(7): 613-617, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-gravity (G) training is used to educate trainee pilots about anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM) in an environment similar to that of a real fighter aircraft, and to enhance their G tolerance. The success or failure of high-G training could be multifactorial, but most previous studies have only focused on the effect of pilots' physical condition.METHODS: A total of 138 male trainee pilots participated in this study. All trainee pilots had received AGSM training from experienced instructors and then underwent centrifuge high-G training. Participants completed questionnaire surveys about body size, lifestyle, self-reported AGSM proficiency, resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC), and depression level (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D).RESULTS: Of the 138 subjects, 100 (72.5%) successfully completed high-G training without experiencing G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) within two trials; these were allocated to the success group. The remaining 38 (27.5%) subjects who completed the training after three or more attempts, or who failed to complete the training at all, were allocated to the failure group. Multivariate analyses revealed that the success of centrifuge training was positively associated with age and self-reported AGSM proficiency, and negatively associated with depression level.DISCUSSION: The success of high-G training was significantly associated with self-reported AGSM proficiency and depression level. Instructors should emphasize the importance of AGSM proficiency and offer practice-based learning to trainee pilots. In addition, they should pay attention to not only trainee pilots' physical condition, but also their psychological status.Yun C, Oh S, Shin YH. AGSM proficiency and depression are associated with success of high-G training in trainee pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(7):613-617.


Assuntos
Centrifugação/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Hipergravidade/efeitos adversos , Militares/educação , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Aeronaves , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Pilotos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Manobra de Valsalva , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 23-32, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183539

RESUMO

The current work aimed to analyse the prospective effects of parenting practices on adolescent problematic behaviour taking into account the mediation effects of deviant affiliations in normative Spanish adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of 663 adolescents aged 12 to 15 (M = 12.49, SD = 0.68) and gender-balanced (54.3% male) were recruited from 13 state secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain). Two structural equation models were tested separately on violent behaviour, nonviolent antisocial behaviour, and substance use: the parenting model analysed parental knowledge and parental support through deviant peers, and the sources model analysed adolescent disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation through deviant peer affiliations. The results of the parenting model indicated that the effects of parental knowledge on all the types of problematic behaviour were significantly mediated by deviant peer affiliations. In addition, the direct effect of parental knowledge was significant on substance use for males. Regarding the sources model, the results indicated that the effects of adolescent disclosure were significantly mediated by deviant peer affiliations on all the types of problematic behaviour only for females. No significant effects of parental support, parental control, and parental solicitation were found. Methodological and practical implications of these findings are discussed


El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo analizar los posibles efectos de las prácticas parentales sobre el comportamiento problemático en adolescentes españoles normativos, teniendo en cuenta los efectos de mediación de la afiliación con iguales desviados. Para ello, se utilizó una muestra de 663 adolescentes de 12 a 15 años (M = 12.49, DT = 0.68) equilibrada por género (54.3% varones) de 13 centros públicos de secundaria de Galicia (NO de España). Se analizaron dos modelos de ecuaciones estructurales por separado para conducta violenta, comportamiento antisocial no violento y consumo de sustancias: el modelo de crianza que analiza el conocimiento parental y el apoyo parental a través de los iguales desviados y el modelo de fuentes que analiza la autorrevelación adolescente, control parental y solicitud parental a través de la afiliación con iguales desviados. Los resultados del modelo de crianza indicaron que los efectos del conocimiento parental sobre todos los tipos de comportamiento problemático estuvieron significativamente mediados por la afiliación con iguales desviados. Además, el efecto directo del conocimiento parental fue significativo sobre el consumo de sustancias para los varones. Con respecto al modelo de fuentes, los resultados indicaron que solo para las mujeres los efectos de la autorrevelación adolescente estuvieron significativamente mediados por la afiliación con iguales desviados sobre todos los tipos de comportamiento problemático. No se encontraron efectos significativos del apoyo, el control y la solicitud parentales. Se discuten las implicaciones metodológicas y prácticas de estos hallazgos


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Características da Família , Distribuição por Sexo , Socialização , Comportamento Social , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Urol ; 202(4): 779-786, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145033

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined prospective associations between physical activity and a range of lower urinary tract symptoms in parous middle-aged women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used prospectively collected data on women participating in the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children). Physical activity levels were self-reported at a mean ± SD age of 37.2 ± 4.6 years and translated into MET hours per week. A total of 4,126 and 2,770 women reported symptoms of lower urinary tract symptoms, including stress, urgency and mixed incontinence, at 3 and 11.5 years of followup, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of any lower urinary tract symptoms at 3 and 11.5 years of followup was 15% and 23% at a mean age of 40.5 and 49.3 years, respectively. At 3 years of followup women in the highest category of physical activity (43.2 MET hours or more per week) had lower odds of stress incontinence (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.80) than women in the lowest category (0 MET hours per week). At 11.5 years of followup women in the highest category of physical activity had lower odds of stress incontinence (aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.82), urgency incontinence (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20-0.67) and mixed incontinence (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.19-0.63) compared to women in the lowest physical activity category. CONCLUSIONS: Greater physical activity is associated with reduced odds of lower urinary tract symptoms, especially stress incontinence, among middle-aged parous women. Further research is necessary to examine the impact of different types of physical activity on lower urinary tract symptoms.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/epidemiologia , Sistema Urinário/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/prevenção & controle , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/prevenção & controle
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(5): e10737, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health insurers and policymakers are trying to prevent and reduce cardiovascular diseases due to obesity. A smart belt that monitors activity and waist circumference is a new concept for conquering obesity and may be a promising new strategy for health insurers and policymakers. OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study evaluated whether the use of a smart belt was associated with a decrease in waist circumference. METHODS: In the manufacturer's database, there were data on a total of 427 men at baseline. A total of 223, 81, and 27 users kept using the smart belt for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. Paired t tests and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to identify the change in waist circumference at specified time intervals (at 4, 8, and 12 weeks). In addition, a linear mixed model was used to incorporate all users' waist circumference data at each time point. Preexisting data on waist circumference and self-reported demographics were obtained from the manufacturer of the smart belt (WELT Corporation, South Korea). RESULTS: Compared with baseline, the waist circumference (cm) decreased significantly at all time points: -0.270 for week 4, -0.761 for week 8, and -1.972 for week 12 (all P<.01). Although each paired t test had a different sample size because of loss to follow-up, the differences between baseline and each subsequent week increased. Equal continuous reduction in waist circumference was observed with the ANOVA and mixed model analysis (beta=-0.158 every week). CONCLUSIONS: The smart belt is a newly developed, wearable device that measures real-time steps, sedentary time, and waist circumference. In this study, we showed that wearing the smart belt was associated with reducing waist circumference over 12 weeks. This direct-to-consumer smart health device may contribute toward reducing the risk of obesity and related conditions and controlling increasing health costs for health insurers.


Assuntos
Circunferência da Cintura , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/normas , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/estatística & dados numéricos
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