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1.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(5): 630-638, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to disaster-related media may be a risk factor for mental distress, but this has not been examined in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assesses whether exposure to social and traditional media during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with mental distress among U.S. adults. METHODS: Data came from the Understanding America Study, conducted with a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adults who completed surveys online. Participants included 6,329 adults surveyed between March 10 and March 31, 2020. Regression analyses examined the associations of (1) self-reported average time spent on social media in a day (hours) and (2) number of traditional media sources (radio, TV, and newspaper) consulted to learn about COVID-19 with self-reported mental distress (4-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Data were analyzed in April 2020. RESULTS: Participants responding at later survey dates reported more time spent on social media (ß=0.02, 95% CI=0.01, 0.03), a greater number of traditional media sources consulted to learn about COVID-19 (ß=0.01, 95% CI=0.01, 0.02), and greater mental distress (ß=0.07, 95% CI=0.04, 0.09). Increased time spent on social media and consulting a greater number of traditional media sources to learn about COVID-19 were independently associated with increased mental distress, even after adjusting for potential confounders (social media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.05, 0.23; traditional media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.08, 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a greater number of traditional media sources and more hours on social media was modestly associated with mental distress during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Meio Social , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance through web or phone-based polling has been used to track the course of infectious diseases worldwide. Our study objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms, and self-reported testing rates of respondents in three different COVID-19 symptom surveys in Canada. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using three distinct Canada-wide web-based surveys, and phone polling in Ontario. All three sources contained self-reported information on COVID-19 symptoms and testing. In addition to describing respondent characteristics, we examined symptom frequency and the testing rate among the symptomatic, as well as rates of symptoms and testing across respondent groups. RESULTS: We found that over March- April 2020, 1.6% of respondents experienced a symptom on the day of their survey, 15% of Ontario households had a symptom in the previous week, and 44% of Canada-wide respondents had a symptom in the previous month. Across the three surveys, SARS-CoV-2-testing was reported in 2-9% of symptomatic responses. Women, younger and middle-aged adults (versus older adults) and Indigenous/First nations/Inuit/Métis were more likely to report at least one symptom, and visible minorities were more likely to report the combination of fever with cough or shortness of breath. INTERPRETATION: The low rate of testing among those reporting symptoms suggests significant opportunity to expand testing among community-dwelling residents of Canada. Syndromic surveillance data can supplement public health reports and provide much-needed context to gauge the adequacy of SARS-CoV-2 testing rates.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Telefone
3.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006815
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966342

RESUMO

The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures are less studied in Bangladeshi context, despite the fact that occupational exposures are serious public health concerns in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate this association considering demographic, health and smoking characteristics of Bangladeshi population. This was a hospital-based quantitative study including 373 participants who were assessed for COPD through spirometry testing. Assessment of occupational exposures was based on both self-reporting by respondents and ALOHA based job exposure matrix (JEM). Here, among the self-reported exposed group (n = 189), 104 participants (55%) were found with COPD compared to 23 participants (12.5%) in unexposed group (n = 184) that differed significantly (p = 0.00). Similarly, among the JEM measured low (n = 103) and high exposed group (n = 236), 23.3% and 41.5% of the participants were found with COPD respectively; compared to unexposed group (14.7%; n = 34), that differed significantly also (p = 0.00). Likewise, participants with longer self-reported occupational exposures (>8 years) showed significantly (p = 0.00) higher proportions of COPD (79.5%) compared to 40.4% in shorter exposure group (1-8 years). Similarly, significant (p = 0.00) higher cases of COPD were observed among the longer cumulative exposure years (>9 years) group than the shorter cumulative exposure years (1-9 years) group in JEM. While combining smoking and occupational exposure, the chance of developing COPD among the current, former and non-smokers of exposed group were 7.4, 7.2 and 12.7 times higher respectively than unexposed group. Furthermore, logistic analysis revealed that after adjustments for confounding risk factors, the chance of developing COPD among the self-reported exposure group was 6.3 times higher (ORs: 6.3, p = 0.00) than unexposed group; and JEM exposure group has odds of 2.8 and 1.1 respectively (p<0.05) for high and low exposures. Further studies are needed to reinforce this association between COPD and occupational exposure in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis infection control is a combination of measures designed to minimize the risk of tuberculosis transmission within populations. Healthcare workers are not sufficiently protected from tuberculosis infection in healthcare facilities where infection control protocols are not followed completely. Studies conducted in Ethiopia about tuberculosis infection control practices were self-report. OBJECTIVE: To assess tuberculosis infection control practices and associated factors among health care workers in hospitals of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. METHOD: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 6 to April 2, 2019. The sample size was 422. The sample was proportionally allocated to each hospital and the respective discipline. Simple random sampling was used to select participants from each discipline. Data were entered into EpiData version 4.4.2.1 and analyzed using SPSS Version 21 software. Multicollinearity and Model goodness-of-fit was checked. A multivariate logistic regression model at 95% CI was used to identify the predictors. RESULT: The response rate was 97.4%. The proportion of good tuberculosis infection control practice was 39.9% [95% CI (35.5, 44.9)]. Knowledge on tuberculosis infection control measures [AOR = 3.65, 95% CI (2.07, 6.43)], educational level of degree and above [AOR = 2.78, 95% CI (1.7, 4.53)] and ever having tuberculosis-related training [AOR = 2.02, 95% CI (1.24, 3.31)] were significantly associated with good tuberculosis infection control practice. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The proportion of good tuberculosis infection control practice among healthcare workers in hospitals of the Gamo Gofa Zone was 39.9%. The good practice of tuberculosis infection control was determined by educational level, working department, knowledge on tuberculosis infection control measures, and having tuberculosis-related training. Hence, training of healthcare workers, targeting diploma-holders in upgrading educational level programs, developing knowledge on tuberculosis infection control measures, and qualitative research to explore reasons for not practicing infection control measures is recommended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Auto-Splicing de RNA Ribossômico , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 321-331, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shoulder release and tendon transfer is frequently performed to address persistent weakness from neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Although postoperative improvements in motion are well described, associated deficits are poorly documented, and functional assessments are lacking. Loss of ability to reach midline can occur with surgery and may result in impairment. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess the gains, losses, functional changes, and patient-reported outcome associated with the authors' surgical approach. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing surgery with 2-year follow-up were included (n = 30). Prospectively recorded assessments by therapists were reviewed. Changes were assessed by t test and Wilcoxon rank sum (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Active external rotation and abduction improved and internal rotation diminished. Aggregate modified Mallet score increased with improvements in all subscales, except that hand to spine was unchanged and hand to belly decreased. Functional assessment using the Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure revealed an increase of aggregate score, with no decline in any subscales. Improvements were in hand to back of head, forward overhead reach, holds plate with palm up, opening large container, and strings bead. Aggregate patient self-report of appearance and function increased (from 18 to 23). Loss of ability to reach midline occurred in three patients (10 percent) who had extended Erb or total palsy and preoperative limitations of internal rotation. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary reconstruction rebalances shoulder motion by increasing external rotation and abduction and reducing internal rotation. In this study, a conservative surgical approach results in overall improvement in task-based abilities and self-reported outcomes and preservation of internal rotation within a functional range. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Paralisia do Plexo Braquial Neonatal/cirurgia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Articulação do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Transferência Tendinosa/métodos , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Tratamento Conservador/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Paralisia do Plexo Braquial Neonatal/fisiopatologia , Paralisia do Plexo Braquial Neonatal/reabilitação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Articulação do Ombro/inervação , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Transferência Tendinosa/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 665-669, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ENT surgeons are likely to be at high risk of coronavirus disease 2019 exposure. METHODS: A national registry of UK ENT surgeons with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 was created with the support of ENT UK. Voluntary entry was made by either the affected individual or a colleague, using a web-based platform. RESULTS: A four-month data collection period is reported, comprising 73 individuals. Coronavirus disease 2019 was test-confirmed in 35 respondents (47.9 per cent). There was a need for hospitalisation in two cases (2.7 per cent) and tragically one individual died. Symptom onset peaked in March. The majority suspected their exposure to have been in the workplace, with a significant proportion attributing their disease to a lack of personal protective equipment at a time before formal guidance had been introduced. CONCLUSION: The registry suggests that a significant number of ENT clinicians in the UK have contracted coronavirus disease 2019, and supports the need for tailored personal protective equipment guidance and service planning.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Otolaringologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810155

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent condition leading to a continuous destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. It increases the risk for various systemic diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, screening for periodontitis is important. Screening measures can range from self-reported symptoms to clinical full-mouth periodontal examination. The hypothesis of our study was that self-reported parameters and clinical definition perform equally well in identifying periodontitis patients. The aim of this study was to develop, validate its internal consistency, and evaluate a self-reported instrument against periodontal clinical evaluation for diagnosis of periodontitis in a group of postpartum women, as well as to describe their periodontal status and the risk factors associated with periodontal disease. A cross-sectional study on postpartum women was conducted in a tertiary university hospital, from April 2018 to March 2019. Sociodemographic and behavioral data, periodontal clinical parameters, and self-reported periodontal perception were collected. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to obtain information about perceived periodontal alterations and oral hygiene habits. The utility of the questionnaire was tested against a periodontal diagnosis based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. The questionnaire was applied in 215 postpartum women aged 29.16±5.54 years (mean age (y) ± standard deviation) having the following periodontal status: 16 individuals without periodontal disease (7.44%), 32 individuals with gingivitis (14.88%), 19 individuals with mild periodontitis (8.84%), 132 individuals with moderate periodontitis (61.39%), and 16 individuals with severe periodontitis (7.44%). A significant association was observed between oral hygiene score, smoking status, and periodontal conditions (p<0.05). A significant association between the self-reported items related to "gum swelling", "halitosis", "previous periodontal diagnosis" and "previous periodontal treatment" with clinical periodontitis have been identified (p<0.05). Using self-reported questionnaires for detection of periodontal disease was ineffective in our studied population, since self-reported parameters and clinical definition do not appear to perform equally in identifying periodontitis cases. Clinical periodontal examination remains the gold standard for screening. Periodontitis was frequent in our group and the severity was significantly associated with the oral hygiene score and smoking. These results underline the necessity for periodontal clinical examination during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/etiologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Halitose/epidemiologia , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760125

RESUMO

Mobile phone use is increasing in Sub-Saharan Africa, spurring a growing focus on mobile phones as tools to increase agricultural yields and incomes on smallholder farms. However, the research to date on this topic is mixed, with studies finding both positive and neutral associations between phones and yields. In this paper we examine perceptions about the impacts of mobile phones on agricultural productivity, and the relationships between mobile phone use and agricultural yield. We do so by fitting multilevel statistical models to data from farmer-phone owners (n = 179) in 4 rural communities in Tanzania, controlling for site and demographic factors. Results show a positive association between mobile phone use for agricultural activities and reported maize yields. Further, many farmers report that mobile phone use increases agricultural profits (67% of respondents) and decreases the costs (50%) and time investments (47%) of farming. Our findings suggest that there are opportunities to target policy interventions at increasing phone use for agricultural activities in ways that facilitate access to timely, actionable information to support farmer decision making.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Uso do Telefone Celular/economia , Produção Agrícola/economia , Fazendas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções , Masculino , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia , Zea mays
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the suicide rate in China has decreased over the past 20 years, there have been reports that the younger age group has been experiencing an increased incidence of completed suicide. Given that undergraduate groups are at higher risks of suicidality, it is important to monitor and screen for risk factors for suicidal ideation and behaviors to ensure their well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk and protective factors contributing to suicidality among undergraduate college students in seven provinces in China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 13,387 college students from seven universities in Ningxia, Shandong, Shanghai, Jilin, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Higher scores in the psychological strain, depression, anxiety, stress, and psychache (psychological risk factors for suicidality) and lower scores in self-esteem and purpose in life (psychological protective factors against suicidality) were associated with increased suicidality among undergraduate students in China. Demographic factors which were associated with higher risks of suicidality were female gender, younger age, bad academic results, were an only child, non-participation in school associations, and had an urban household registration. Perceived good health was protective against suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing the common risk and protective factors for suicidality among Chinese undergraduate students is useful in developing interventions targeted at this population and to guide public health policies on suicide in China.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 47(1): 65-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI-22) is a validated self-report measure designed to assess neurobehavioral symptoms (NBS) after mild TBI (MTBI). Psychological and behavioral factors have been shown to be predictors of persistent NBS reporting in veterans; however, there is still a gap in knowledge about these associations in a civilian population presenting for treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to identify the predictors of increased NBS reporting on the NSI-22 in a treatment-seeking population with MTBI. METHODS: Analysis of 80 treatment seeking participants admitted to an interdisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation program with a diagnosis of MTBI. NSI-22 was used to measure NBS reporting. Predictor variables identified by univariate analysis were entered into a multivariable regression model, which was adjusted for demographic variables. RESULTS: Higher NSI-22 scores correlated with increased level of depressive complaints (PHQ-9), higher disability (M2PI), lower satisfaction with life (SWLS), prior MTBI, fewer years of education, absence of motor vehicle collision (MVC), and unemployment at time of assessment. When those variables were used in a multivariable linear regression model, PHQ-9, M2PI, years of education, and absence of MVC remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors and level of societal participation predicted increased NBS as compared with injury severity and time since injury.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Participação Social , Veteranos/psicologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Public insurance (Medicaid) covered 42% of all U.S. births in 2018. This paper describes and analyzes the self-reported experiences of women with Medicaid versus commercial insurance relating to autonomy, control and respectful treatment in maternity care. METHODS: The sampling frame for the Listening to Mothers in California survey was drawn from 2016 California birth certificate files. The 30-minute survey had a 55% response rate. A secondary multivariable analysis of results from the survey included 2,318 women with commercial private insurance (1,087) or public (Medi-Cal) (1,231) coverage. Results were weighted and were representative of all births in 2016 in California. The multivariable analysis of variables related to maternal agency included engagement in decision making regarding interventions such as vaginal birth after cesarean and episiotomy, feeling pressured to have interventions and sense of fair treatment. We examined their relationship to insurance status adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, nativity and attitude toward birth as well as type of prenatal provider, type of birth attendant and pregnancy complications. RESULTS: Women with Medi-Cal had a demographic profile distinct from those with commercial insurance. In multivariable analysis, women with Medi-Cal reported less control over their maternity care experience than women with commercial insurance, including less choice of prenatal provider (AOR 1.61 95%C.I. 1.20, 2.17), or a vaginal birth after cesarean (AOR 2.93 95%C.I. 1.49, 5.73). Mothers on Medi-Cal were also less likely to be consulted before experiencing an episiotomy (AOR 0.30 95%C.I. 0.09, 0.94). They were more likely to report feeling pressure to have a primary cesarean (AOR 2.54 95%C.I. 1.55, 4.16) and less likely to be encouraged by staff to make their own decisions (AOR 0.63 95%C.I. 0.47, 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Childbearing women with public insurance in California clearly and consistently reported less opportunity to choose their care than women with private insurance. These inequities are a call to action for increased accountability and quality improvement relating to care of the many childbearing women with Medicaid coverage.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Respeito , Adulto , California , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Idade Materna , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603352

RESUMO

The crosswise model is an indirect questioning technique designed to control for socially desirable responding. Although the technique has delivered promising results in terms of improved validity in survey studies of sensitive issues, recent studies have indicated that the crosswise model may sometimes produce false positives. Hence, we investigated whether an insufficient understanding of the crosswise model instructions might be responsible for these false positives and whether ensuring a deeper understanding of the model and surveying more highly educated respondents reduces the problem of false positives. To this end, we experimentally manipulated the amount of information respondents received in the crosswise model instructions. We compared a crosswise model condition with only brief instructions and a crosswise model condition with detailed instructions and additional comprehension checks. Additionally, we compared the validity of crosswise model estimates between a higher- and a lower-educated subgroup of respondents. Our results indicate that false positives among highly educated respondents can be reduced when detailed instructions and comprehension checks are employed. Since false positives can also occur in direct questioning, they do not appear to be a specific flaw of the crosswise model, but rather a more general problem of self-reports on sensitive topics. False negatives were found to occur for all questioning techniques, but were less prevalent in the crosswise model than in the direct questioning condition. We highlight the importance of comprehension checks when applying indirect questioning and emphasize the necessity of developing instructions suitable for lower-educated respondents.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Compreensão , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Future Oncol ; 16(29): 2283-2293, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677462

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate how COVID-19 fear and anxiety (COV-FA) affects chemotherapy adherence in patients with cancer. Materials & methods: The records of 3661 patients with chemotherapy (CT) appointments were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The CT postponement rates before and after COVID-19 were 11.6% and 14.2%, respectively (p = 0.017). The rate of COV-FA-related CT postponement after telemedicine was lower than that before (4.6% vs 17.4%; p = 0.012). The median time to come back to treatment of the COV-FA group was 47 days (range 19-72 days). Advanced age (≥60 years) was found to be the independent factor that was predictive of time to come back to treatment (p = 0.043). Conclusion: The CT postponement rate increased after COVID-19. COV-FA-related CT postponement decreased after telemedicine. Advanced age could be predictive of time to come back to treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/reabilitação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/normas , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pacientes não Comparecentes/psicologia , Pacientes não Comparecentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/normas
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3785, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728026

RESUMO

Several recent studies suggest that placebos administered without deception (i.e., non-deceptive placebos) can help people manage a variety of highly distressing clinical disorders and nonclinical impairments. However, whether non-deceptive placebos represent genuine psychobiological effects is unknown. Here we address this issue by demonstrating across two experiments that during a highly arousing negative picture viewing task, non-deceptive placebos reduce both a self-report and neural measure of emotional distress, the late positive potential. These results show that non-deceptive placebo effects are not merely a product of response bias. Additionally, they provide insight into the neural time course of non-deceptive placebo effects on emotional distress and the psychological mechanisms that explain how they function.


Assuntos
Placebos/administração & dosagem , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 65(3): 268-286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727274

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of genes associated with normal-range birth weight (2500-4500 grams) on self-rated health in mid-to-late life course. Fifty-eight previously identified genetic variants that explain the variation in the normal-range birth weight were used to construct a genetic measure of birth weight for the non-Hispanic white sample from the Health and Retirement Study. Our results show that the genetic tendency toward higher birth weight predicts better self-rated health in mid-to-late life course net of various demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral factors. We also examine the heterogeneous effects of birth-weight genes across birth cohorts and age groups. Moreover, to clarify the paradox that higher birth weight can predict both better self-rated health and higher BMI, we show the positive association between birth weight genes and BMI can only hold within the normal-range BMI (18 ≤ BMI < 30). Overall, these findings suggest the genetic factors underlying the normal-range birth weight can have life-courseimpacts on health.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Nível de Saúde , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is unreliable, and negligible information on the mental health and trauma-exposure of asylum-seekers and displaced refugees in the Iraqi Kurdistan region. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how responsible the ethno-religious origins are, for the prevalence of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in displaced Iraqi asylum-seekers and refugees residing in the Iraqi Kurdistan region. METHODS: Structured interviews with a cross-sectional sample of 150 individuals, comprised of three self-identified ethno-religious groups (50 participants in each): Christians, Muslims, and Yazidis. RESULTS: 100% prevalence of trauma exposure and 48.7% of current PTSD among refugees, 70% PTSD rate of Yazidi participants, which is significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to 44% of Muslim participants and 32% of Christian participants. These findings were corroborated using the self-rated PTSD, DSM-5 Checklist, with more severe PTSD symptom scores (p < 0.001) obtained among Yazidis (43.1; 19.7), compared to Muslims (31.3; 20.1) and Christians (29.3; 17.8). Self-rated depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) were also higher (p < 0.007) among Yazidis (12.3; 8.2) and Muslims (11.7; 5.9), compared to Christians (8.1; 7).


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cristianismo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Refugiados/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Tokyo subway sarin attack in 1995 was an unprecedented act of terrorism that killed 13 people and sickened more than 6,000. The long-term somatic and psychological effects on its victims remain unknown. METHODS: We conducted analyses on the self-rating questionnaire collected annually by the Recovery Support Center (RSC) during the period from 2000 to 2009. The RSC is the only organization that has large-scale follow-up data about sarin attack victims. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms was calculated over 10 years. We also evaluated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress response (PTSR), defined as a score ≥ 25 on the Japanese-language version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The multivariate Poisson regression model was applied to estimate the risk ratios of age, gender, and year factor on the prevalence of PTSR. RESULTS: Subjects were 747 survivors (12% of the total) who responded to the annual questionnaire once or more during the study period. The prevalence of somatic symptoms, especially eye symptoms, was 60-80% and has not decreased. PTSR prevalence was 35.1%, and again there was no change with time. The multivariate Poisson regression model results revealed "old age" and "female" as independent risk factors, but the passage of time did not decrease the risk of PTSR. CONCLUSIONS: Although symptoms in most victims of the Tokyo subway sarin were transient, this large-scale follow-up data analysis revealed that survivors have been suffering from somatic and psychological long-term effects.


Assuntos
Terrorismo Químico , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Miose/epidemiologia , Sarina/envenenamento , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miose/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Ferrovias , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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