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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 132, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correct knowledge about transmission of tuberculosis (TB) can influence better health-seeking behaviors, and in turn, it can aid TB prevention in society. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and predictors of self-reported correct knowledge about TB transmission among adults in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the data obtained from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, 2015/16 (MDHS 2015/16). Questions regarding self-reported TB transmission were computed to evaluate the correct knowledge about TB transmission. The factors associated with the correct knowledge about Tb were assessed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of correct knowledge about TB transmission in the general population of Malawian adults was 61.5%. Specifically, the prevalence of correct knowledge about TB transmission was 63.6 and 60.8% in men and women, respectively. Those aged 35-44 years, having secondary or high education, belonging to the richest household, being exposed to mass media, being in professional/technical/managerial, having knowledge that "TB can be cured", and those living in urban areas were significantly associated with correct knowledge about TB transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show that if appropriate strategies for TB communication and education to address the rural masses, young individuals, poor individuals, and individuals in the agriculture sector are put it place, can enhance TB prevention in Malawi.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Autorrelato , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/normas , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 71(5): 289-295, sept.-oct. 2020. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195215

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: El mareo visual surge cuando la compensación de la lesión vestibular se ve interferida por una alta dependencia visual, lo que lleva a una intolerancia en situaciones de conflicto visual. El Visual Vertigo Analogue Scale (VVAS) es un cuestionario autoadministrado, válido y confiable que evalúa específicamente el mareo visual. El uso de cuestionarios en culturas y lenguas diferentes requiere que los ítems sean traducidos y adaptados culturalmente. No existe una versión del VVAS en Argentina. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron traducir y adaptar transculturalmente el VVAS al castellano para su uso en la población argentina, en pacientes con trastornos vestibulares. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo desde noviembre de 2015 y enero de 2016 en el Servicio de Kinesiología de un Hospital público de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires con pacientes argentinos mayores de 18 años que presentaban algún trastorno vestibular. El proceso de traducción y adaptación transcultural se basó en la guía del proceso de adaptación transcultural de mediciones autoadministradas de Beaton et al. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 39 pacientes para la adaptación transcultural del VVAS. Todas las decisiones de los cambios realizados por el comité de expertos fueron para asegurar la equivalencia semántica, idiomática, experimental y conceptual entre las versiones. CONCLUSIÓN: Se ha traducido y adaptado con éxito la versión original del VVAS al castellano para ser utilizado en la población argentina con trastornos vestibulares


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Visual dizziness occurs when high visual dependence interferes with compensation for a vestibular lesion and leads to intolerance in situations of visual conflict. The Visual Vertigo Analogue Scale (VVAS) is a self-administered, valid and reliable questionnaire that serves to assess visual dizziness. The use of questionnaires in different cultures and languages requires that they be translated and adapted to the local culture. There is no version of the VVAS in Argentina. The objectives of this study were to translate and carry out a cross-cultural adaptation of the VVAS into Spanish for use with vestibular patients in Argentina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016 in the Kinesiology Service of a public hospital in the city of Buenos Aires. Patients were Argentines older than 18 years who suffered from a vestibular disorder. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were based on the guide to the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-administered measurements by Beaton et al. RESULTS: 39 patients were included in the VVAS cross-cultural adaptation process. All changes made by the committee of experts were for the purpose of ensuring the semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual equivalence of the two versions. CONCLUSION: The original version of the VVAS has been translated into Spanish and adapted for use in the Argentine population with vestibular disorders


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Traduções , Escala Visual Analógica , Autorrelato/normas , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Comparação Transcultural , Fatores de Tempo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tontura/diagnóstico , Argentina
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 254-261, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192062

RESUMO

The existence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is the core concept of Schema Therapy (ST). Several studies have demonstrated that EMSs are involved in many psychiatric disorders. The Young Schema Questionnaire is a self-report measure developed to assess the 18 EMSs and has long form (YSQ-L) and short form (YSQ-S) versions. It is currently in its third version (YSQ-S3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that aims to validate the YSQ-S3 according to the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. A non clinical sample of 1372 Italian population was involved in this research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the latent structure of the YSQ-S3, including both first- and second-order structures. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the YSQ-S3 and anxiety and mood symptoms were calculated to measure construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of almost all EMSs were higher than 0.7, which indicated good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability was excellent. CFA supports the new proposed organization of EMSs into four domains. Regarding concurrent validity, each schema in the YSQ-S3 was highly correlated with anxiety and mood symptoms. The new four-domains model of the YSQ-S3 has demonstrated that it can be a useful and valid tool for clinicians and researchers in the self-report measurement of EMSs


La existencia de esquemas maladaptativos tempranos (EMTs) es el concepto central de Schema Therapy (ST). Varios estudios han demostrado que los EMS están involucrados en muchos trastornos psiquiátricos. El Young Schema Questionnaire es una medida de autoinforme desarrollada para evaluar los 18 EMTs y tiene versiones de forma larga (YSQ-L) y forma corta (YSQ-S). Actualmente se encuentra en su tercera versión (YSQ-S3). Hasta donde tenemos conocimiento, este es el primer estudio que tiene como objetivo validar la versión italiana del YSQ-S3 de acuerdo con la nueva organización propuesta de EMTs en cuatro dominios. Una muestra no clínica de 1372 estudiantes italianos participó en esta investigación. El análisis factorial confirmatorio (CFA) se realizó para examinar la estructura latente del YSQ-S3, incluidas las estructuras de primer y segundo orden. Se calcularon la omega coeficiente de McDonald y la correlación interclase para evaluar la consistencia interna y la fiabilidad test-retest. Las correlaciones entre el YSQ-S3 y la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo se calcularon para medir la validez de constructo. El omega de McDonald de casi todos los EMTs fue superior a 0.7, lo que indicó una buena confiabilidad interna, y la confiabilidad test-retest fue excelente. CFA apoya la nueva organización propuesta de EMS en cuatro dominios. Con respecto a la validez concurrente, cada esquema en el YSQ-S3 estaba altamente correlacionado con la ansiedad y los síntomas del estado de ánimo. El nuevo modelo de cuatro dominios del YSQ-S3 ha demostrado que puede ser una herramienta útil y válida para los médicos e investigadores en la medición del autoinforme de los EMTs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Modelos Psicológicos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicoterapia , Autorrelato/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Am Heart J ; 228: 36-43, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than half of patients with cardiometabolic disease consistently take prescribed medications. While health insurers and some delivery organizations use claims to measure adherence, most clinicians do not have access during routine interactions. Self-reported scales exist, but their practical utility is often limited by length or cost. By contrast, the accuracy of a new 3-item self-reported measure has been demonstrated in individuals with HIV. We evaluated its concordance with claims-based adherence measures in cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: We used data from a recently-completed pragmatic trial of patients with cardiometabolic conditions. After 12 months of follow-up, intervention subjects were mailed a survey with the 3-item measure that queries about medication use in the prior 30 days. Responses were linearly transformed and averaged. Adherence was also measured in claims in month 12 and months 1-12 of the trial using proportion of days covered (PDC) metrics. We compared validation metrics for non-adherence for self-report (average <0.80) compared with claims (PDC <0.80). RESULTS: Of 459 patients returning the survey (response rate: 43.5%), 50.1% were non-adherent in claims in month 12 while 20.9% were non-adherent based on the survey. Specificity of the 3-item metric for non-adherence was high (month 12: 0.83). Sensitivity was relatively poor (month 12: 0.25). Month 12 positive and negative predictive values were 0.59 and 0.52, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A 3-item self-reported measure has high specificity but poor sensitivity for non-adherence versus claims in cardiometabolic disease. Despite this, the tool could help target those needing adherence support, particularly in the absence of claims data.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Disponibilidade de Medicamentos Via Internet , Consulta Remota/métodos , Consulta Remota/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 253, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) as a source of income is rapidly gaining importance in the economically difficult times in Zimbabwe. Besides limited epidemiological data, no data about the self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of artisanal and small-scale gold miners exist. The aim of the project was to access HRQoL of ASGM workers to improve the data base and compare the data to the urban Zimbabwean population. METHODS: Data from 83 artisanal and small-scale gold miners in Kadoma, Zimbabwe was analysed. The HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) accompanied by the cognition add-on questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L+C) and associated visual analogue scale (VAS). We described the EQ-5D dimensions and VAS values and computed health utility (HU) values using the Zimbabwean tariff. The proportions of miners reporting no problem in each EQ-5D dimension were compared with corresponding proportions reporting any problem (moderate or severe), and mean HU and VAS values were analysed across subgroups of the sample. To test differences between subgroups, Fisher's exact test was used and between urban and mining population, Student's t-test was used. RESULTS: The reported health states of miners were homogenous, with a large amount (42%) reporting 'full health'. Mean (SD) VAS and HU values were 81.0 (17.5) and 0.896 (0.13), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that miners with a lower education reported significantly more problems in the dimension of daily activities and miners with mercury contact had more problems in the dimensions of pain/discomfort and cognition. Comparison between mining and urban population showed that in the oldest age group, self-rated VAS values of miners were significantly higher than of their urban counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in the HRQoL of mining and urban populations. However, the reason might be adverse health effects faced by the urban population that do not apply to rural mining areas. A higher education level of miners can improve the HRQoL, which is especially impaired by problems in the cognition dimension.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
6.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2445-2453, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Social determinants of health (SDOH) have been previously associated with incident stroke. Although SDOH often cluster within individuals, few studies have examined associations between incident stroke and multiple SDOH within the same individual. The objective was to determine the individual and cumulative effects of SDOH on incident stroke. METHODS: This study included 27 813 participants from the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study, a national, representative, prospective cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. SDOH was the primary exposure. The main outcome was expert adjudicated incident stroke. Cox proportional hazards models examined associations between incident stroke and SDOH, individually and as a count of SDOH, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The mean age was 64.7 years (SD 9.4) at baseline; 55.4% were women and 40.4% were blacks. Over a median follow-up of 9.5 years (IQR, 6.0-11.5), we observed 1470 incident stroke events. Of 10 candidate SDOH, 7 were associated with stroke (P<0.10): race, education, income, zip code poverty, health insurance, social isolation, and residence in one of the 10 lowest ranked states for public health infrastructure. A significant age interaction resulted in stratification at 75 years. In fully adjusted models, among individuals <75 years, risk of stroke rose as the number of SDOH increased (hazard ratio for one SDOH, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.02-1.55]; 2 SDOH hazard ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.12-1.71]; and ≥3 SDOH hazard ratio, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.21-1.89]) compared with those without any SDOH. Among those ≥75 years, none of the observed effects reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Incremental increases in the number of SDOH were independently associated with higher incident stroke risk in adults aged <75 years, with no statistically significant effects observed in individuals ≥75 years. Targeting individuals with multiple SDOH may help reduce risk of stroke among vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/normas , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia
7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 212-219, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare data on both alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences between intensive longitudinal data collection and the retrospective Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview. METHOD: Heavy drinking college students (n = 96; 52% women) completed daily reports across a 28-day period to assess alcohol use and positive and negative consequences of drinking. They returned to the lab at the end of this period to complete a TLFB assessing behavior over those same 28 days. First, t tests were used to compare variables aggregated across the full 28 days at the between-person level. Next, hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine within-person differences between methods for each variable in weekly and daily increments. RESULTS: Many alcohol use and consequence variables were significantly different when derived from self-reports during TLFB versus daily reports. In contrast to prior work, we found that higher estimates of drinking were reported retrospectively on the TLFB than on the daily reports. In addition, discrepancies were greater on some variables for heavier drinkers and when more time had elapsed between the end of the daily reporting period and TLFB collection. CONCLUSIONS: Recall of drinking behavior during TLFB and daily reports may differ in systematic ways, with discrepancies varying based on participant and methodological characteristics.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Coleta de Dados/normas , Rememoração Mental , Autorrelato/normas , Adolescente , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(15): 253-260, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are an increasingly serious public health problem in Western societies, including Germany. The tendency of overweight and obese people not to classify themselves as such limits the efficacy of information on the health risks of these conditions and lessens the motivation to change behavior accordingly. In this article, we summarize the available study data on the selfperception of weight class. We present and discuss the differences between selfreported body-mass index (BMI) category and the actual category of the BMI when it is calculated from the individual's measured height and weight. METHODS: We systematically searched the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in August 2017 for pertinent publications. The study protocol was published in the PROSPERO register (CRD42017064230). Meta-analyses were calculable for a number of subgroup analyses. RESULTS: A total of 50 studies from 25 countries were identified that contained findings on self-estimation of weight in a total of 173 971 study participants. The percentage of correct self-categorizations of BMI category varied from 16% to 83%, with marked heterogeneity of the population groups studied. In Europe, women overestimated their BMI category three times as often as men (RR: 3.22; 95% confidence interval: [2.87; 3.62], I2 = 0%). Most erroneous classifications were based on underestimates. Study participants of normal weight were more likely than others to categorize their BMI correctly. In European studies, 50.3-75.8% categorized their BMI correctly. Low socioeconomic status was associated with an incorrect perception of BMI. CONCLUSION: The self-assignment of BMI categories is often erroneous, with underestimates being more common than overestimates. Physicians should take particular care to provide appropriate information to persons belonging to groups in which underestimating one's BMI is common, such as overweight people and men in general.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Autorrelato/normas , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico
9.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(1): 103-110, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Monitoring grip strength at home may detect improvement between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatments in patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies (CINs). METHODS: Fifteen patients recorded grip strength each day, from one IVIg treatment until the next. We analyzed grip strength changes comparing thresholds of 8 kPa and 14 kPa. "Random" fluctuations of grip strength were distinguished from treatment response by smoothing the data. RESULTS: "Random" fluctuations of at least 8 kPa occurred in 27% of patients. Smoothed daily grip strength increased by at least 8 kPa above baseline in 11 (73%) patients. Grip strength increased by at least 8 kPa for 3 consecutive days in 9 (60%) patients, and 5-day block mean increased by at least 8 kPa in 10 (67%) patients. DISCUSSION: Home monitoring of grip strength confirmed treatment response in most patients with CINs on IVIg. To detect improvement in an individual patient, we suggest a threshold of at least 8 kPa on 3 consecutive days or on 5-day block mean.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/tendências , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/diagnóstico , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polirradiculoneuropatia Desmielinizante Inflamatória Crônica/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato/normas
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 141, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Feeling Word Checklist (FWC) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess therapists' countertransference (CT) feelings. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a brief, 12-item version of the Feeling Word Checklist (FWC-BV). The second aim was to validate the factor structure by examining the associations between the FWC-BV factors, patients' personality pathology and therapeutic alliance (TA). METHODS: Therapists at 13 different outpatient units within the Norwegian Network of Personality Disorders participated, and the study includes therapies for a large sample of patients (N = 2425) with personality pathology. Over a period of 2.5 years, therapists completed the FWC-BV for each patient in therapy every 6 months. Statistical methods included exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis. Internal consistency was estimated using Mc Donald's coefficient Omega (ωt). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II (SCID II) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were used as diagnostic instruments, and patient-rated TA was assessed using the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-SR). RESULTS: Factor analyses revealed three clinically meaningful factors: Inadequate, Idealised and Confident. These factors had acceptable psychometric properties. Most notably, a number of borderline PD criteria correlated positively with the factors Inadequate and Idealised, and negatively with the factor Confident. All the factors correlated significantly with at least one of the WAI-SR subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The FWC-BV measures three clinically meaningful aspects of therapists' CT feelings. This brief version of the FWC seems satisfactory for use in further research and in clinical contexts.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Contratransferência , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 206: 103066, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247968

RESUMO

Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to execute future intended actions and may be negatively affected by impulsivity. The current study aimed to address questions on (1) relationships of PM with facets of impulsivity; (2) psychometric properties of a PM task, in particular convergent validity with self-reported PM; and (3) whether external support of the encoding process would improve PM or affect relationships with impulsivity. 245 participants performed the experiment online. Participants completed either a baseline version of the task, which combined blocks of an ongoing working memory task with PM trials involving a varying stimulus requiring an alternative response; or a version that provided external support of encoding by requesting that participants visualize and execute the intended prospective action before each block. The Prospective-Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and Short Version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (SUPPS) were used to assess self-reported prospective memory and facets of impulsivity. Reliability of PM performance was good and remained acceptable even with the exclusion of participants with low scores. PM performance was associated with self-reported PM, explaining variance in addition to that explained by working memory performance. PM performance was also negatively associated with impulsivity, in particular sensation seeking and positive urgency, but only in the baseline task. Support did not cause overall improvements in performance. In conclusion, results provided further evidence for a relationship between facets of impulsivity and PM. PM as assessed via the current task has good psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/normas , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(2): e16105, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daily diaries are extensively used for examining participants' daily experience in behavioral and medical science. However, little attention is paid to whether participants recall their experiences within the time frames prescribed by the task. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe survey respondents' self-reported recall time frames and to evaluate the impact of different daily diary items on respondents' reported affective states. METHODS: In this study, 577 participants completed a mood survey with one of the following 4 time frame instructions: (1) today, (2) since waking up today, (3) during the last 24 hours, or (4) in the last day. They were also asked to indicate the periods they considered when answering these items and to recall the instructional phrases associated with the items. RESULTS: Almost all participants in the today (141/146, 96.6%) and since waking up today (136/145, 93.8%) conditions reported using periods consistent with our expectations, whereas a lower proportion was observed in the during the last 24 hours (100/145, 69.0%) condition. A diverse range of responses was observed in the in the last day condition. Furthermore, the instructions influenced the levels of some self-reported affects, although exploratory analyses were not able to identify the mechanism underlying this finding. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results indicate that today and since waking up today are the most effective instructional phrases for inquiring about daily experience and that investigators should use caution when using the other 2 instructional phrases.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Diários como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 40, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UK Biobank is a large prospective cohort study containing accelerometer-based physical activity data with strong validity collected from 100,000 participants approximately 5 years after baseline. In contrast, the main cohort has multiple self-reported physical behaviours from > 500,000 participants with longer follow-up time, offering several epidemiological advantages. However, questionnaire methods typically suffer from greater measurement error, and at present there is no tested method for combining these diverse self-reported data to more comprehensively assess the overall dose of physical activity. This study aimed to use the accelerometry sub-cohort to calibrate the self-reported behavioural variables to produce a harmonised estimate of physical activity energy expenditure, and subsequently examine its reliability, validity, and associations with disease outcomes. METHODS: We calibrated 14 self-reported behavioural variables from the UK Biobank main cohort using the wrist accelerometry sub-cohort (n = 93,425), and used published equations to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEESR). For comparison, we estimated physical activity based on the scoring criteria of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and by summing variables for occupational and leisure-time physical activity with no calibration. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data from the UK Biobank repeat assessment (n = 18,905) collected a mean of 4.3 years after baseline. Validity was assessed in an independent validation study (n = 98) with estimates based on doubly labelled water (PAEEDLW). In the main UK Biobank cohort (n = 374,352), Cox regression was used to estimate associations between PAEESR and fatal and non-fatal outcomes including all-cause, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and cancers. RESULTS: PAEESR explained 27% variance in gold-standard PAEEDLW estimates, with no mean bias. However, error was strongly correlated with PAEEDLW (r = -.98; p < 0.001), and PAEESR had narrower range than the criterion. Test-retest reliability (Λ = .67) and relative validity (Spearman = .52) of PAEESR outperformed two common approaches for processing self-report data with no calibration. Predictive validity was demonstrated by associations with morbidity and mortality, e.g. 14% (95%CI: 11-17%) lower mortality for individuals meeting lower physical activity guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The PAEESR variable has good reliability and validity for ranking individuals, with no mean bias but correlated error at individual-level. PAEESR outperformed uncalibrated estimates and showed stronger inverse associations with disease outcomes.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Autorrelato/normas , Acelerometria , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Reino Unido
15.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 55, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between mental illness and mental health is gaining focus in research and practice. This study aimed to investigate the association of mental disorders with positive mental health (PMH), overall health and quality of life. In addition, the role of PMH in mediating the relationships between mental disorders and health outcomes was assessed. METHODS: The study sample comprised 2270 residents aged 18 years and above who participated in a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey estimating the lifetime prevalence of mood, anxiety and alcohol use disorders, and health outcomes (self-reported overall health, quality of life and PMH) in Singapore. The Positive Mental Health Instrument was used to estimate the level of Total PMH among the respondents with and without mental disorders. Associations between mental disorders and health outcomes were assessed through regression models. Path analyses were conducted to investigate mediating role of PMH. RESULTS: Total PMH (Mean ± SD) was significantly lower among individuals having any of the studied lifetime mental disorders (4.23 ± 0.64 versus 4.50 ± 0.67 among those without these disorders). Although having a mood or anxiety disorder was associated with significantly lower Total PMH even after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, similar relationship was not observed for alcohol use disorders. History of any mental disorders was also associated with lower overall health and quality of life. Total PMH mediated the relationships between mental disorders and overall health and quality of life by reducing the effect sizes for the associations between mental disorders and these health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorders were associated with poor health outcomes in affected individuals. This study showed that PMH can mediate the relationships between mental disorders and health outcomes, and act as an underlying mechanism to improve overall health and quality of life in individuals with mental disorders. Findings thus highlight the significance of incorporating mental health promotion and interventions in clinical populations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato/normas , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 74(5): 359-365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125217

RESUMO

Background: Subjective memory deficits are common in depression and during series of treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). There is a need for feasible assessment of memory deficit. In the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT, patients' subjective memory function is rated by a clinician. Self-ratings would be easier to administer.Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the consistency between self-reported and physician estimated subjective memory in depressed patients treated with ECT.Methods: Fifty-two inpatients treated with ECT for major- or bipolar depression were recruited and 41 of them completed the study protocol. Each patient rated their own subjective memory and had it rated in an interview by a physician both before/in the beginning of the ECT series and after the ECT series. The patients' memory was rated and self-rated with the memory item in the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). We then analyzed correlations, and differences in distributions, between self-reported assessment and physician estimates of patients' subjective memory.Results: The correlations between the self-reported and the physician estimated ratings of subjective memory were 0.699 (p < .01) in baseline ratings and 0.651 (p < .01) in post-treatment ratings. These correlations were relatively high compared to a previous study on self-reported vs. physician estimated CPRS ratings.Conclusions: Based on the results in this study, we propose that patients' self-ratings of subjective memory in association with ECT can be used instead of a physician's rating of patients' subjective memory.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Papel do Médico/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato/normas , Suécia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 65, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to physical therapy ranges from 14 to 70%. This could adversely affect physical functioning and requires careful monitoring. Studies that describe designing and validation of adherence measuring scales are scant. There is a growing need to formulate adherence measures for this population. The aim was to develop and validate a novel tool named as the General Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (GRAS) to measure adherence to physical therapy treatment in Pakistani patients attending rehabilitation clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: A month-long study was conducted in patients attending physical therapy sessions at clinics in two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. It was done using block randomization technique. Sample size was calculated based on item-to-respondent ratio of 1:20. The GRAS was developed and validated using content validity, factor analyses, known group validity, and sensitivity analysis. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to determine cut-off value. Reliability and internal consistency were measured using test-retest method. Data was analyzed through IBM SPSS version 23. The study was ethically approved (IRB-NOV:15). RESULTS: A total of 300 responses were gathered. The response rate was 92%. The final version of GRAS contained 8 items and had a content validity index of 0.89. Sampling adequacy was satisfactory, (KMO 0.7, Bartlett's test p-value< 0.01). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor model that was fixed and confirmed at a 2-factor model. Incremental fit indices, i.e., normed fit index, comparative fit index and Tucker Lewis index, were reported > 0.95 while absolute fit index of root mean square of error of approximation was < 0.03. These values indicated a good model fit. The value for Cronbach (α) was 0.63 while it was 0.77 for McDonald's (ω), i.e., acceptable. Test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.88, p < 0.01. Education level was observed to affect adherence (p < 0.01). A cut-off value of 12 was identified. The sensitivity and accuracy of the scale was 95%, and its specificity was 91%. CONCLUSION: The scale was validated in this study with satisfactory results. The availability of this tool would enhance monitoring for adherence as well as help clinicians and therapists address potential areas that may act as determinants of non-adherence.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/reabilitação , Cooperação do Paciente , Serviço Hospitalar de Fisioterapia/normas , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/normas , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/psicologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(1): 104-114, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There has been considerable work validating self-reported drug use with bioassays, but these studies have not been conducted with respondents on the roadway. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of drivers' self-reported drug use. METHOD: This study analyzed 2007 and 2013-2014 data from nationally representative roadside surveys of U.S. drivers. Using phi coefficients, the study examined the association between self-reported, past-24-hour drug use and bioassays (based on oral fluid and/or blood) for cannabis, opioids, cocaine, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines. Logistic regression models examined the association of various factors with the odds of reporting specific drug types. RESULTS: Overall phi coefficients by drug type ranged from .17 to .34 in 2007 and .30 to .54 in 2013-2014. The odds of reporting cannabis, cocaine, and benzodiazepine use were significantly higher among drivers who used these substances in 2013-2014 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, 2.97, and 3.25, respectively), compared with 2007. Opioid and antidepressant reporting did not differ significantly among users of these substances across survey years (OR = 1.01 and OR = 1.44, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Roadside surveys of drivers are an important method for gathering the types of data needed to monitor trends in drug use. The findings reinforce the importance of gathering multiple types of data to understand drug use among drivers. The many factors that influence self-reporting, as well as the limitations of biological measures, both pose challenges to accurately measuring drug use. Future studies should investigate ways to improve measurement of drug use in this population.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Autorrelato/normas , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 99, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior (SED) is a potential risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes. We evaluated the validity of several common and one new method to assess SED across three trimesters of pregnancy. METHODS: This cohort study of pregnant women measured objective and self-reported SED each trimester via thigh-worn activPAL3 micro (criterion), waist-worn Actigraph GT3X, and self-report from the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and the de novo Sedentary Behavior Two Domain Questionnaire (SB2D). SED (hours per day) and percent time in SED (SED%) from activPAL were compared to GT3X, SB2D, and PPAQ using Pearson's r, ICC, Bland-Altman analysis, and comparison of criterion SED and SED% across tertiles of alternative methods. RESULTS: Fifty-eight women (mean age 31.5 ± 4.8 years; pre-pregnancy BMI 25.1 ± 5.6 kg/m2; 76% white) provided three trimesters of valid activPAL data. Compared to activPAL, GT3X had agreement ranging from r = 0.54-0.66 and ICC = 0.52-0.65. Bland-Altman plots revealed small mean differences and unpatterned errors, but wide limits of agreement (greater than ±2 h and ± 15%). The SB2D and PPAQ had r < 0.5 and ICC < 0.3 vs. activPAL SED, with lower agreement during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, and performed poorly in Bland-Altman analyses. SED% from the modified SB2D performed best of the self-reported instruments with modest mean differences, r ranging from 0.55 to 0.60, and ICCs from 0.31-0.33; though, limits of agreement were greater than ±35%. Significant trends in activPAL SED were observed across increasing tertiles of SB2D SED in the 1st and 3rd trimesters (both p ≤ 0.001), but not the 2nd trimester (p = 0.425); and for PPAQ SED in the 1st and 2nd trimesters (both p < 0.05), but not the 3rd trimester (p = 0.158). AcitvPAL SED and SED% increased significantly across tertiles of GT3X SED and SED% as well as SB2D SED% (all p-for-trend ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to activPAL, waist-worn GT3X produced moderate agreement, though similar mean estimates of SED across pregnancy. Self-report questionnaires had large absolute error and wide limits of agreement for SED hr./day; SB2D measurement of SED% was the best self-report method. These data suggest activPAL be used to measure SED when possible, followed by GT3X, and - when necessary - SB2D assessing SED% in pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT03084302 on 3/20/2017.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/normas , Gestantes/psicologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/normas , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato/normas , Actigrafia/métodos , Actigrafia/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 7, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two-hundred one college undergraduates completed four nonverbal interference tasks (Simon, spatial Stroop, vertical Stroop, and flanker) and trait scales of self-control and impulsivity. Regression analyses tested 11 predictors of the composite interference scores derived from three of the four tasks and each task separately. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between laboratory measures of self-control, self-report measures, and the degree to which control might be related to extensive experience in activities that logically require self-control. RESULTS: Fluid intelligence and sex were significant predictors of the composite measure, but bilingualism, music training, video gaming, mindfulness/meditation, self-control, impulsivity, SES, and physical exercise were not. CONCLUSIONS: Common laboratory measures of inhibitory control do not correlate with self-reported measures of self-control or impulsivity and consequently appear to be measuring different constructs. Bilingualism, mindfulness/meditation, playing action video games, and music training or performance provide weak and inconsistent improvements to laboratory measures of interference control. Flanker, Simon, and spatial Stroop effects should not be used or interpreted as measures of domain-general inhibitory control.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autocontrole , Fatores Sexuais , Teste de Stroop/normas , Adulto Jovem
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