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2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(2): 72-77, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406046

RESUMO

In drug disposition, the liver and small intestine are very important as tissues involving in drug metabolism, absorption, and excretion. Thus, in drug development studies, it is necessary to evaluate the pharmacokinetics in these tissues accurately including the contributions of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Currently, all kinds of evaluation systems have been used for the pharmacokinetic prediction; however, there are some issues in these systems. Therefore, the researches for the development of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocytes and enterocytes, as novel systems besides existing ones, are being advanced. Because human iPS cells have abilities of pluripotency and almost infinite proliferation, it is thought to be possible to stably provide the high-quality cells that have similar characteristics to human normal tissue cells by using human iPS cells. In this review, we describe current status of differentiation studies of human iPS cell-derived hepatocytes and enterocytes and the functional characteristics of these cells centered on pharmacokinetic functions.


Assuntos
Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Enterócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Intestino Delgado , Fígado , Farmacocinética
3.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1439-1450, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409157

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease found in more than 90 countries. The drugs available to treat this disease have nonspecific action and high toxicity. In order to develop novel therapeutic alternatives to fight this ailment, pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) and dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHF-TS) have been targeted, once Leishmania is auxotrophic for folates. Although PTR1 and DHFR-TS from other protozoan parasites have been studied, their homologs in Leishmania chagasi have been poorly characterized. Hence, this work describes the optimal conditions to express the recombinant LcPTR1 and LcDHFR-TS enzymes, as well as balanced assay conditions for screening. Last but not the least, we show that 2,4 diaminopyrimidine derivatives are low-micromolar competitive inhibitors of both enzymes (LcPTR1 Ki = 1.50-2.30 µM and LcDHFR Ki = 0.28-3.00 µM) with poor selectivity index. On the other hand, compound 5 (2,4-diaminoquinazoline derivative) is a selective LcPTR1 inhibitor (Ki = 0.47 µM, selectivity index = 20).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Leishmania infantum/enzimologia , Complexos Multienzimáticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Timidilato Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Catálise , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Clonagem Molecular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Escherichia coli/genética , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/isolamento & purificação , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Timidilato Sintase/isolamento & purificação , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288489

RESUMO

Black mulberry is a widely acknowledged ancient traditional medicine. Its extract and constituents have been reported to exert various bioactivities including antimicrobial, hypotensive, analgesic etc. effects. While black mulberry preparations are also used as antispasmodic agents in folk medicine, no related studies are available on its isolated constituents. Through an extensive chromatographic purification, seven phenolic compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of Morus nigra root bark, including morusin (1), kuwanon U (2), kuwanon E (3), moracin P (4), moracin O (5), albanol A (6), and albanol B (7). A complete NMR signal assignment of moracin P and O was achieved, and related literature errors confusing the identity of moracin derivatives are hereby clarified. Compounds 2, 5 and 7 were identified as strong antispasmodic agents on isolated rat ileum and tracheal smooth muscles, while compound 3, a methoxy derivative of 2, was inactive. Moracin O (5) inhibited the ileal and tracheal smooth muscle contractions with Emax values of 85% and 302 mg, respectively. Those actions were superior as compared with papaverine. Our findings demonstrate that prenylated arylbenzofurans, geranylated flavonoids and Diels-Alder adducts from Morus nigra are valuable antispasmodic agents. Compounds 2, 5 and 7 are suggested as marker compounds for quality control of antispasmodic mulberry preparations. Moracin O (5) is a new lead compound for related drug development initiatives.


Assuntos
Morus/química , Parassimpatolíticos/química , Fenóis/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Metanol/química , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Prenilação , Resorcinóis/metabolismo , Solventes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 164-171, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330168

RESUMO

In routine regulatory toxicology studies, the anatomic pathology endpoints are frequently the most significant element of the study data. They may profoundly influence subsequent clinical development and use of a test article, with implications for both human safety and for the fate of key commercial assets. Unfortunately (in common with other perceptual medical specialties), anatomic pathology data are also among the most subjective endpoints in regulatory toxicology studies - a challenge magnified by the fact that not only the diagnostic data but the anatomic pathologist's interpretation of it in their narrative report represent raw data within a regulated study (United States Federal Register, 1987). A strategy for minimizing and managing the risk of misdiagnosis/misinterpretation of pathology data is critical for any preclinical toxicology development program and is a collaborative approach between study directors, study monitors and toxicologists and toxicologic pathologists. The article provides a basic understanding of the sources of error and limitations of anatomic pathology evaluation, a starting point for troubleshooting and a basis for a sound management strategy. It describes common reasons for unexpected or inconsistent pathology findings and sets out to provide a framework for toxicologists to approach commissioning and critically evaluating their pathology data, and for identifying situations where additional third-party advice and review may be justified.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Microscopia , Patologia/métodos , Toxicologia/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fluxo de Trabalho
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255699

RESUMO

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane proteins within the Solute carrier family 22 (SLC22). They play important roles in cellular uptake of various organic compounds, and due to their expression in barrier tissues of major excretory and non-excretory organs are considered as crucial elements in absorption and distribution of a wide range of endobiotic and xenobiotic compounds. Based on our previous work and initial insights on SLC22 members in zebrafish (Danio rerio), in this study we aimed at in vitro characterization of Oat1 and Oat3 transporters and understanding of their interaction with potential physiological substrates. We first performed synteny analysis to describe in more detail orthological relationship of zebrafish oat1 and oat3 genes. We then developed stable cell lines overexpressing Oat1 and Oat3, and identified Lucifer yellow as Oat1 model fluorescent substrate (Km = 11.4 µM) and 6-carboxyfluorescein as Oat3 model substrate (Km = 5.8 µM). Initial identification performed using the developed assays revealed Kreb's cycle intermediates, bilirubin, bile salts and steroid hormones as the most potent of Oat1 and Oat3 interactors, with IC50 values in micromolar range. Finally, we showed that bilirubin, deoxycholic acid, α-ketoglutarate, pregnenolone, estrone-3-sulfate and corticosterone are in vitro substrates of zebrafish Oat1, and bilirubin and deoxycholic acid are Oat3 substrates. In conclusion, using the approach described, structural and functional similarities of both transporters to human and mammalian orthologs are revealed, their broad ligand selectivity confirmed, potent interactors among endobiotic compounds identified, and first indications of their potential physiological role(s) in zebrafish obtained.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(1): 17-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261155

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive articular cartilage destruction and joint marginal osteophyte formation with different degrees of synovitis. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an unsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic functions. In this study, the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 was cultured in vitro, and an OA cell model was constructed with inflammatory factor IL-1ß stimulation. After cells were treated with DHA, cell apoptosis was measured. Western blot assay was used to detect protein expression of apoptosis-related factors (Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway family members, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. Our results show that IL-1ß promotes the apoptosis of SW1353 cells, increases the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and activates the MAPK signaling pathway. In contrast, DHA inhibits the expression of IL-1ß, inhibits IL-1ß-induced cell apoptosis, and has a certain inhibitory effect on the activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. When the MAPK signaling pathway is inhibited by its inhibitors, the effects of DHA on SW1353 cells are weakened. Thus, DHA enhances the apoptosis of SW1353 cells through the MAPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Condrossarcoma/patologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/biossíntese , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Butadienos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/biossíntese , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3413-3418, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262863

RESUMO

One aim of cell-based in vitro assays is to identify the best drug candidate to develop using the best tumor cell model. This is challenging in every anticancer drug discovery process. Briefly, we summarize the parameters to be taken into account when performing in vitro cell assays, in order to obtain reliable and reproducible results, which was fundamentally discussed by lecturers at the educational course on preclinical and early-phase clinical pharmacology studies, at the 40th Winter Meeting of the Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Moreover, specific cellular sensitivity tests are described. In addition to monolayer in vitro cell models for the screening of new potential candidate drugs, three-dimensional tumor/cell tissue models are emerging as new pre-clinical tools that more closely reflect the in vivo microenvironment. Therefore, the use of different in vitro models for drug screening can enhance the predictability and reliability of pre-clinical drug-discovery phases and target validation.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Farmacologia Clínica/métodos , Bioensaio , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos
9.
Analyst ; 144(17): 5232-5244, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360935

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis comprises a group of infectious diseases with worldwide distribution, of which both the visceral and cutaneous forms are caused by Leishmania parasites. In the absence of vaccines, efficacious chemotherapy remains the basis for leishmaniasis control. The available drugs are expensive and associated with several secondary adverse effects. Due to these limitations, the development of new antileishmanial compounds is imperative, and plants offer various perspectives in this regard. The present study evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of flavonoids isolated from Solanum paludosum Moric. and investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by them. These compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and they showed prominent leishmanicidal activity. The EtOAc fraction, gossypetin 3,7,8,4'-tetra-O-methyl ether (1), and kaempferol 3,7-di-O-methyl ether (3) were selected to be used in an in vitro assay against L. amazonensis amastigotes and cell death assays. The flavonoids (1) and (3) presented significant activity against L. amazonensis amastigotes, exhibiting the IC50 values of 23.3 ± 4.5 µM, 34.0 ± 9.6 µM, and 10.5 ± 2.5 µM for the EtOAc fraction, (1), and (3), respectively, without toxic effects to the host cells. Moreover, (1) and (3) induced blocked cell cycle progression at the G1/S transition, ultimately leading to G1/G0 arrest. Flavonoid (3) also induced autophagy. Using Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with principal component analysis, the biochemical changes in the cellular components induced by flavonoids (1) and (3) were presented. The obtained results indicated that the mechanisms of action of (1) and (3) occurred through different routes. The results support that the flavonoids derived from S. paludosum can become lead molecules for the design of antileishmanial prototypes.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/química , Quempferóis/química , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Leishmania/citologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Análise Espectral Raman , Estreptófitas/química
10.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2933-2940, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278877

RESUMO

Chemotherapy has been the treatment of choice for unresectable peritoneal dissemination; however, it is difficult to eradicate such tumors because of poor drug delivery. To solve this issue, we developed FF-10832 as liposome-encapsulated gemcitabine to maintain a high concentration of gemcitabine in peritoneal tumors from the circulation and ascites. A syngeneic mouse model of peritoneal dissemination using murine Colon26 cell line was selected to compare the drug efficacy and pharmacokinetics of FF-10832 with those of gemcitabine. Despite the single intravenous administration, FF-10832 treatment enabled long-term survival of the lethal model mice as compared with those treated with gemcitabine. Pharmacokinetic analysis clarified that FF-10832 could achieve a more effective gemcitabine delivery to peritoneal tumors owing to better stability in the circulation and ascites. The novel liposome-encapsulated gemcitabine FF-10832 may be a curative therapeutic tool for cancer patients with unresectable peritoneal dissemination via the effective delivery of gemcitabine to target tumors.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ascite/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Peritônio/patologia , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Ascite/etiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Peritoneais/complicações , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130 Suppl 1: 110619, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233879

RESUMO

Butyl 10-undecenoate was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog methyl undec-10-enoate (CAS # 111-81-9) show that butyl 10-undecenoate is not expected to be genotoxic. Data on butyl 10-undecenoate and read-across analog methyl undec-10-enoate (CAS # 111-81-9) show that butyl 10-undecenoate is not a safety concern under the current, declared levels of use for the skin sensitization endpoint. The repeated dose, reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were evaluated using the TTC for a Cramer Class I material, and the exposure to butyl 10-undecenoate is below the TTC (0.03 mg/kg/day, 0.03 mg/kg/day, and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoints were evaluated based on UV spectra; butyl 10-undecenoate is not expected to be phototoxic/photoallergenic. The environmental endpoints were evaluated; butyl 10-undecenoate was found not to be PBT as per the IFRA Environmental Standards, and its risk quotients, based on its current volume of use in Europe and North America (i.e., PEC/PNEC), are <1.


Assuntos
Perfumes/química , Perfumes/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 130 Suppl 1: 110622, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238136

RESUMO

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. Methyl 2-nonenoate was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog ethyl trans-2,cis-4-decadienoate (CAS # 3025-30-7) show that methyl 2-nonenoate is not expected to be genotoxic. The repeated dose, reproductive, and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were evaluated using the TTC for a Cramer Class I material, and the exposure to methyl 2-nonenoate is below the TTC (0.03 mg/kg/day, 0.03 mg/kg/day, and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). Data from the target and read-across analog isobutyl-2-butenoate (CAS # 589-66-2) do not indicate the material is a sensitizer. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoints were evaluated based on data and UV spectra; methyl 2-nonenoate is not expected to be phototoxic/photoallergenic. The environmental endpoints were evaluated; methyl 2-nonenoate was found not to be PBT as per the IFRA Environmental Standards, and its risk quotients, based on its current volume of use in Europe and North America (i.e., PEC/PNEC), are <1.


Assuntos
Perfumes/química , Perfumes/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Medição de Risco
13.
Planta Med ; 85(9-10): 766-773, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167297

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a clinical condition characterized by low bone strength that leads to an increased risk of fracture. Strategies for the treatment of osteoporosis involve inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts and an increase of bone formation by osteoblasts. Here, we identified the extract derived from the stem part of Edgeworthia papyrifera that enhanced differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells to osteoblast-like cells and inhibited osteoclast differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. In support of our observation, rutin and daphnoretin, which were previously reported to inhibit osteoclast differentiation, were identified in E. papyrifera extract. In an animal model of osteoporosis, the ovariectomy-induced increases in bone resorption biomarkers such as pyridinoline and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were significantly reduced by E. papyrifera extract administration at 25.6 and 48.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the ovariectomy-induced bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis was significantly prevented by the administration of E. papyrifera in our study. Taking these observations into account, we suggest that E. papyrifera is an interesting candidate for further exploration as an anti-osteoporotic agent.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/urina , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Modelos Animais , Osteoporose/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(4): 235-241, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the activities of biapenem against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODS: Biapenem/clavulanate (BP/CL) was evaluated for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates, and the H37RV strain. BP/CL activity against the H37Rv strain was assessed in liquid cultures, in macrophages, and in mice.. RESULTS: BP/CL exhibited activity against MDR and XDR Mtb isolates in liquid cultures. BP/CL treatment significantly reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Mtb within macrophages compared with control untreated infected macrophages. Notably, BP/CL synergized in pairwise combinations with protionamide, aminosalicylate, and capreomycin to achieve a fractional inhibitory concentration for each pairing of 0.375 in vitro. In a mouse tuberculosis infection model, the efficacy of a cocktail of levofloxacin + pyrazinamide + protionamide + aminosalicylate against Mtb increased when the cocktail was combined with BP/CL, achieving efficacy similar to that of the positive control treatment (isoniazid + rifampin + pyrazinamide) after 2 months of treatment. CONCLUSION: BP/CL may provide a new option to clinically treat MDR tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tienamicinas/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Tienamicinas/farmacologia
15.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(4): 272-280, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect of NANOG against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -induced cell damage in the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs). METHODS: NANOG was expressed from a lentiviral vector, pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen. NANOG hHF-MSCs and vector hHF-MSCs were treated with 400 µmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 2 h, the cell survival rate, cell morphology, ROS production, apoptosis and expression of AKT, ERK, and p21 were determined and compared. RESULTS: Our results showed that NANOG could activate AKT and upregulate the expression of p-AKT, but not p-ERK. When treated with 400 µmol/L H2O2, NANOG hHF-MSCs showed higher cell survival rate, lower ROS production and apoptosis, higher expression of p-AKT, higher ratio of p-AKT/AKT. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NANOG could protect hHF-MSCs against cell damage caused by H2O2 through activating AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lentivirus , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(4): 291-299, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and increase the levels of cholesterol auto-oxidation products such as 7ß-hydroxycholesterol (7ß-OHC). Thus, it is imperative to identify agents that can prevent 7ß-OHC-induced side-effects. METHODS: We evaluated the potential protective effects of Carpobrotus edulis ethanol-water extract (EWe) on murine oligodendrocytes (158N) cultured in the absence or presence of 7ß-OHC (20 µg/mL, 24 h). The cells were incubated with EWe (20-200 µg/mL) 2 h before 7ß-OHC treatment. Mitochondrial activity and cell growth were evaluated with the MTT assay. Photometric methods were used to analyze antioxidant enzyme [catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] activities and the generation of lipid and protein oxidation products [malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated diene (CD), and carbonylated proteins (CPs)]. RESULTS: Treatment with 7ß-OHC induced cell death and oxidative stress (reflected by alteration in CAT and SOD activities). Overproduction of lipid peroxidation products (MDA and CDs) and CPs was also reported. The cytotoxic effects associated with 7ß-OHC were attenuated by 160 µg/mL of EWe of C. edulis. Cell death induced by 7ß-OHC treatment was ameliorated, GPx and CAT activities were restored to normal, and MDA, CD, and CP levels were reduced following C. edulis extract treatment. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the protective activities of C. edulis EWe against 7ß-OHC-induced disequilibrium in the redox status of 158N cells, indicative of the potential role of this plant extract in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Hidroxicolesteróis , Camundongos , Neuroproteção , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2620, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197165

RESUMO

Conventional drug screens and treatments often ignore the underlying complexity of brain network dysfunctions, resulting in suboptimal outcomes. Here we ask whether we can correct abnormal functional connectivity of the entire brain by identifying and combining multiple neuromodulators that perturb connectivity in complementary ways. Our approach avoids the combinatorial complexity of screening all drug combinations. We develop a high-speed platform capable of imaging more than 15000 neurons in 50ms to map the entire brain functional connectivity in large numbers of vertebrates under many conditions. Screening a panel of drugs in a zebrafish model of human Dravet syndrome, we show that even drugs with related mechanisms of action can modulate functional connectivity in significantly different ways. By clustering connectivity fingerprints, we algorithmically select small subsets of complementary drugs and rapidly identify combinations that are significantly more effective at correcting abnormal networks and reducing spontaneous seizures than monotherapies, while minimizing behavioral side effects. Even at low concentrations, our polytherapy performs superior to individual drugs even at highest tolerated concentrations.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Biológicos , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/patologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/uso terapêutico , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2621, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197168

RESUMO

The high selectivity of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts delivery of many pharmaceuticals and therapeutic antibodies to the central nervous system. Here, we describe an in vitro microfluidic organ-on-a-chip BBB model lined by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelium interfaced with primary human brain astrocytes and pericytes that recapitulates the high level of barrier function of the in vivo human BBB for at least one week in culture. The endothelium expresses high levels of tight junction proteins and functional efflux pumps, and it displays selective transcytosis of peptides and antibodies previously observed in vivo. Increased barrier functionality was accomplished using a developmentally-inspired induction protocol that includes a period of differentiation under hypoxic conditions. This enhanced BBB Chip may therefore represent a new in vitro tool for development and validation of delivery systems that transport drugs and therapeutic antibodies across the human BBB.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Astrócitos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/citologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/métodos , Microvasos/citologia , Pericitos , Permeabilidade , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Cultura Primária de Células/instrumentação , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2566, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189915

RESUMO

There is clinical and scientific interest in developing local anesthetics with prolonged durations of effect from single injections. The need for such is highlighted by the current opioid epidemic. Site 1 sodium channel blockers such as tetrodotoxin (TTX) are extremely potent, and can provide very long nerve blocks but the duration is limited by the associated systemic toxicity. Here we report a system where slow release of TTX conjugated to a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, poly(triol dicarboxylic acid)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) (TDP), is achieved by hydrolysis of ester linkages. Nerve block by the released TTX is enhanced by administration in a carrier with chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) properties. TTX release can be adjusted by tuning the hydrophilicity of the TDP polymer backbone. In vivo, 1.0-80.0 µg of TTX released from these polymers produced a range of durations of nerve block, from several hours to 3 days, with minimal systemic or local toxicity.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Tetrodotoxina/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/farmacocinética , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/toxicidade , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacocinética , Tetrodotoxina/farmacocinética , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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