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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17316, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574861

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative positions in single-level (L4-5) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) on segmental and overall lumbar lordosis (LL) in patients with lumbar degenerative disease. Thirty-eight consecutive patients who had undergone single-segment (L4-5) TLIF with 0° polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and pedicle screw fixation were evaluated. Twenty patients underwent surgery on the four-poster type frame with hip flexion at 30° (Group I) and 18 patients were operated on a Jackson spinal table to adjust their hip flexion to 0° (Group II). Preoperative standing, intraoperative prone, and postoperative standing lateral radiographs were obtained in each patient. The overall and segmental LL were analyzed according to the position in which the patients were placed for their operation and results compared between Groups I and II. Intraoperative intervertebral segmental LL at L4-5 and L5-S1 was increased in Group II than in Group I, whereas postoperative intervertebral segmental LL at L4-5 (fused level) was increased LL. In Group I intraoperative intervertebral segmental LL at L4-5 did not achieve sufficient lordosis, whereas postoperative intervertebral segmental LL at L3-4 was increased. The overall spinal alignment was unaffected by the decreased segmental LL in the fused level owing to the compensation of the upper adjacent segments. The more the hip was extended intraoperatively, the more the segmental lordosis increased in the lower lumbar spine. Thus, selecting the appropriate surgical table and hip position are very important. Underachievement of segmental lordosis leads to the acceleration of upper adjacent segment load.


Assuntos
Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Lordose , Vértebras Lombares , Mesas Cirúrgicas , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Fusão Vertebral , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lordose/diagnóstico , Lordose/fisiopatologia , Lordose/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Radiografia/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Espondilolistese/cirurgia
2.
BMJ ; 366: l5125, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment reduce persistent cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome in a real world setting. DESIGN: Propensity matched cohort study. SETTING: Population based cohort in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: 29 771 adults with metabolic syndrome (≥40 years) receiving statin treatment. 2156 participants receiving combined treatment (statin plus fenofibrate) were weighted based on propensity score in a 1:5 ratio with 8549 participants using statin only treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcome was composite cardiovascular events including incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: The incidence rate per 1000 person years of composite cardiovascular events was 17.7 (95% confidence interval 14.4 to 21.8) in the combined treatment group and 22.0 (20.1 to 24.1) in the statin group. The risk of composite cardiovascular events was significantly reduced in the combined treatment group compared with statin group (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.93; P=0.01). The significance was maintained in the on-treatment analysis (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.92; P=0.02). The risk of incident coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and cardiovascular death was lower in the combined treatment group than statin group but was not significant. Participant characteristics did not appear to be associated with the low risk of composite cardiovascular events with combined treatment. CONCLUSION: In this propensity weighted cohort study of adults with metabolic syndrome, the risk of major cardiovascular events was significantly lower with fenofibrate as add-on to statin treatment than with statin treatment alone.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Pontuação de Propensão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17045, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of significant pain and swelling during the acute stage following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may limit the patients' ability to cooperate in intensive physiotherapy interventions. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is one of the modalities that can be used for acute pain and swelling management. However, only one study investigated the effect of this modality in patients with TKA. There is limited documentation of the effects of combining low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in TKA rehabilitation in the recovery of physical impairments and how these influence the recovery of function after TKA. Therefore, this study is proposed with the aim to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy on the recovery of physical impairments, functional performance and quality of life after TKA surgery. METHODS: This is an assessor-blinded quasi-experimental study comparing two approaches of physiotherapy, namely pulsed ultrasound-added physiotherapy and conventional physiotherapy. Total number of participants with TKA required for this study will be calculated based on the result of a pilot study. Participants will be alternately allocated into either pulsed ultrasound-added physiotherapy group (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and conventional physiotherapy) or control group (conventional physiotherapy). Pulsed ultrasound-added physiotherapy group will receive low-intensity pulsed ultrasound starting at post-operative day 2 (4-5 times for the first-week after surgery and 2-3 times a week for a further 2 weeks). Both groups will receive conventional physiotherapy 4 to 5 times for the first-week after surgery and 2 to 3 times a week for a further 11 weeks. This procedure and process will be tested and established in a pilot study. Primary outcomes of interest are pain level, swelling, active range of knee motion, and quadriceps strength. The secondary outcomes are functional performance and quality of life. DISCUSSION: This study will fill the gaps in knowledge relating the benefits of including low-intensity pulsed ultrasound into conventional physiotherapy for patients with TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12618001226291.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
4.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305205050p1-7305205050p9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484029

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Adults receiving occupational therapy in inpatient rehabilitation are a heterogeneous population with differing needs, outcomes, and rehabilitation processes. Outcome studies based on what works for all clients may obscure the needs of population subgroups who benefit unequally from rehabilitation services. OBJECTIVE: To identify subgroups on the basis of client satisfaction and progress in functional self-care among a diverse rehabilitation population and to understand subgroup differences in occupational therapy and rehabilitation processes and client discharge status. DESIGN: Using an existing dataset, we used K-means cluster analysis of demographics, status at admission, and the outcomes of satisfaction and change in self-care to identify five homogeneous outcome groups. Occupational therapy and rehabilitation processes and discharge status were compared across subgroups. SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The dataset included 1,099 inpatients age 18 yr and older who received occupational therapy over a 27-mo period. MEASURES: Admission measures included the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility-Patient Assessment Instrument and self-care items of the FIM™. The Satisfaction with Continuum of Care-Revised was administered after discharge. RESULTS: Five subgroups showed statistically different patterns of medical complications, functional self-care, rates of progress, satisfaction with intervention, and course of treatment. The profile of each group suggests differing therapeutic needs. Although all groups made significant gains in functional self-care, two groups continued to need physical assistance at discharge. CONCLUSION: and Relevance: Cluster analysis proved useful in segmenting a typical heterogeneous rehabilitation population into more homogeneous subgroups to enhance understanding of clinical needs and to potentially increase the potency of outcomes research. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This research identified subgroups within a typical population of rehabilitation clients receiving occupational therapy and identified their unique needs and outcomes using cluster analysis techniques.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Centros de Reabilitação , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305205070p1-7305205070p11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting a future full-scale trial to test the efficacy of an in-home occupational therapy intervention designed to reduce disability in older adult cancer survivors. METHOD: Participants reporting activity limitations during or after cancer treatment were enrolled in a Phase 1 pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the 6-wk intervention (n = 30) to usual care (n = 29). Descriptive data on retention rates were collected to assess feasibility of intervention and study procedures. Potential efficacy was explored through participants' self-reported disability, quality of life, activity level, and behavioral activation at 0, 8, and 16 wk after enrollment. RESULTS: Retention rates were high regarding completion of the intervention (90%) and outcome assessments (90% of usual-care participants and 80% of intervention participants). Outcomes consistently favored the intervention group, although group differences were small. CONCLUSION: The procedures were feasible to implement and acceptable to participants.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
6.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 54(9): 582-587, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550773

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of induced labor on delivery outcome of pregnant women undergoing vaginal trial of labor after cesarean section. Methods: Totally, 173 pregnant women undergoing vaginal trial of labor after cesarean from April 1st, 2016 to October 31st, 2017 were involved. According to whether or not induced labor, pregnant women were divided into induced labor group (n=47) and natural labor group (n=126). The two groups of the general situation, the situation of delivery and delivery outcome were compared. Further more, the induced labor group were divided into cesarean section patients (n=20) and vaginal delivery patients (n=27) based on pregnancy outcomes, induction situation and delivery situation were analyzed. Results: (1) The gestational weeks was 39.2±1.1 in induced labor group, 38.7±1.0 in natural labor group. The 1-minute Apgar score was 9.98±0.15 in induced labor group, and 9.87±0.60 in natural labor group. The neonatal weight was (3 497±426) g in induced labor group, and (3 288±350) g in natural labor group. The thickness of lower uterine segment at 36-39 weeks of pregnancy was (2.4±0.6) mm in induced labor group, (2.1±0.6) mm in natural labor group. There were obviously differences in the gestational week, the 1-minute Apgar score, the neonatal weight and the thickness of lower uterine segment at 36-39 weeks of pregnancy between the two groups (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in 5-minute Apgar score, the interval between previous cesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, fetal distress, and intrauterine infection, secondary uterine inertia, placental abruption and uterine ruption between the two groups (all P>0.05). (2) In induced labor group, the cervical score of cesarean section patients was 3.8±1.7, while the cervical score of vaginal delivery patients was 5.2±1.7. The induced labor days of cesarean section patients was (1.6±0.9) days, while the induced labor days of vaginal delivery patients was (1.2±0.4) days. There were obviously differences in the cervical score and the induced labor days among the two subgroup patients (all P<0.05). There were no significiant differences in Apgar score, neonatal weight, the thickness of lower uterine segment at 36-39 gestational weeks and the interval times of previous cesarean delivery between the two subgroup patients (P>0.05). Conclusion: Induction of labor does not reduce neonatal Apgar score, and does not increase the incidence of postpartum complications, and eliminats the increase of cesarean section rate caused by increased gestational weeks and fetal enlargement, and increases the vaginal delivery rate of pregnant women undergoing vaginal trail of labor after cesarean section.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prova de Trabalho de Parto , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez
7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5203-5207, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the survival outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) based on time period. We hypothesized that improvement has been obtained with the time-dependent therapeutic era and rise in the gross domestic product (GDP) and Human Development Index (HDI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 710 children who were treated for ALL between 1958 and 2018 at a single pediatric center were analyzed for probability of 5-year overall survival (pOS), event-free survival (pEFS) and relapse risk (pRR). Time periods were defined by the treatment protocols used in seven consecutive therapeutic eras. RESULTS: Over the 60-year period analyzed, pOS increased from 1.2% to 90.7%, pEFS from 1.2% to 86.6%, and pRR decreased from 98.8% to 9.9% for patients treated in the past decade. Risk of mortality for patients who received chemotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplant was reduced to 9.9% in the recent era, however, no statistically significant survival difference was found between patients treated with stem cell transplant and those not. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic era, related to improved GDP and HDI, was a statistically significant predictor of increased OS from ALL.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(9): 1081-1086, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474135

RESUMO

AIMS: The practice of alternating operating theatres has long been used to reduce surgeon idle time between cases. However, concerns have been raised as to the safety of this practice. We assessed the payments and outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed during overlapping and nonoverlapping days, also comparing the total number of the surgeon's cases and the total time spent in the operating theatre per day. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Limited Data Set (LDS) on all primary elective TKAs performed at the New England Baptist Hospital between January 2013 and June 2016. Using theatre records, episodes were categorized into days where a surgeon performed overlapping and nonoverlapping lists. Clinical outcomes, economic outcomes, and demographic factors were calculated. A regression model controlling for the patient-specific factors was used to compare groups. Total orthopaedic cases and aggregate time spent operating (time between skin incision and closure) were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 3633 TKAs were performed (1782 on nonoverlapping days; 1851 on overlapping days). There were no differences between the two groups for length of inpatient stay, payments, mortality, emergency room visits, or readmission during the 90-day postoperative period. The overlapping group had 0.74 fewer skilled nursing days (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.26 to -1.22; p < 0.01), and 0.66 more home health visits (95% CI 0.14 to 1.18; p = 0.01) than the nonoverlapping group. On overlapping days, surgeons performed more cases per day (5.01 vs 3.76; p < 0.001) and spent more time operating (484.55 minutes vs 357.17 minutes; p < 0.001) than on nonoverlapping days. CONCLUSION: The study shows that the practice of alternating operating theatres for TKA has no adverse effect on the clinical outcome or economic utilization variables measured. Furthermore, there is opportunity to increase productivity with alternating theatres as surgeons with overlapping cases perform more cases and spend more time operating per day. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1081-1086.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Salas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Duração da Cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Boston/epidemiologia , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.)/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência Organizacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 257-263, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517458

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a heterogeneous, severe neurological disorder of different etiologies. In this study, the outcomes of NCSE episodes was assessed in a large series of adult patients. Our objective was to evaluate relationship between Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS) and etiology and the role of etiological factors on predicting the outcomes. Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of 95 patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with NCSE between June 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed. Their treatment and follow-up for NCSE was performed at the Epilepsy Unit in Department of Neurology, Antalya Research and Training Hospital. Etiological factors thought to be responsible for NCSE episodes as well as the prognostic data were retrieved. The etiological factors were classified into three groups as those with a known history of epilepsy (Group 1), primary neurological disorder (Group 2), or systemic/unknown etiology (Group 3). STESS was retrospectively applied to patients. Results: There were 95 participants, 59 of whom were female. Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 consisted of 11 (7 female), 54 (33 female), and 30 (19 female) patients, respectively. Of the 18 total deaths, 12 occurred in Group 2, and 6 in Group 3. The negative predictive value for a STESS score of ≤ 2 was 93.88% (+LR 2.05 95% CI: 1.44-2.9 and -LR 0.3 95% CI 0.10-0.84 ) in the overall study group. While the corresponding values for Group 1 (patients with epilepsy), Group 2 (patients with primary neurological disorder), and group 3 (patients with systemic or unknown etiology) were 100%, 92.59% (+LR 2.06 95%CI: 1.32-3.21 and -LR 0.28 95% CI 0.08-1.02 ) 83.33% (+LR 1.14 95%CI: 0.59-2.9 and -LR 0.80 95% CI 0.23-2.73). Conclusion: This study included the one of the largest patients series ever reported in whom STESS, a clinical scoring system proposed for use in patients with status epilepticus, has been implemented. Although STESS appeared to be quite useful for predicting a favorable outcome in NCSE patients with epilepsy and primary neurological disorders, its predictive value in patients with systemic or unknown etiology was lower. Further prospective studies including larger NCSE samples are warranted.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estado Epiléptico/epidemiologia
10.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 721-724, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405415

RESUMO

Despite the incorporation of anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) drugs in our trauma triage criteria, it is unclear whether trauma team activation (TTA) impacts outcomes in geriatric patients on ACAP drugs sustaining falls. We hypothesized that TTA in this cohort was associated with improved outcomes. The hospital electronic database was queried to identify normotensive, awake patients aged ≥65 years on ACAP agent from 2014 to 2018 presenting to the emergency department after falls. The outcome was in-hospital mortality. The association between TTA and mortality was examined using logistic regression analysis and 1:1 propensity score matching analysis. In this study, 4540 patients on ACAP drugs were analyzed, with TTA occurring in 500 (11%). TTA occurred in younger but more severely injured patients with lower Glasgow Coma Score. Logistic regression revealed that TTA was not associated with mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals], 2.04 [0.89-4.25]). The 1:1 propensity score analysis revealed similar mortality for the matched groups (non-TTA, 1.6% vs TTA, 2.2%, P = 0.64). In the elderly patients on ACAP agents, the current triage criteria resulted in the appropriate use of TTA for more severely injured patients. The lack of outcome benefit suggests that ACAP drug use as a criterion for TTA should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem/métodos
11.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 764-767, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405425

RESUMO

Patient physiology and crash characteristics are essential components of field triage for motor vehicle crashes. We aimed to identify prehospital information that predicted high injury severity or critical patient condition on hospital arrival. The association of demographics, shock index (SI), Glasgow Coma Scale, and 10 crash characteristics of trauma activations for motor vehicle crashes with injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 16 and a composite of hypotension, need for blood transfusions, or immediate operation was determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 133 of 498 patients (27%) had ISS ≥ 16; SI ≥ 0.9, Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8, speed ≥ 55 mph, seatbelt use, airbag deployment, ambulatory patient, severe vehicle damage, ejection, and extrication were associated with ISS ≥ 16. Only abnormal SI and high speed remained independent predictors for ISS ≥ 16 with Odds Ratio (OR) = 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-101, P = 0.04) and OR = 10.37 (95% CI, 1.48-72.93, P = 0.02), respectively. SI ≥ 0.9 predicted the composite outcome with OR = 5.92 (95% CI, 2.32-15.08, P < 0.01). Many commonly reported crash characteristics did not predict clinically important outcomes. Improvements in road and vehicle safety may be resulting in lower injury severity despite major crash mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Cintos de Segurança , Choque/diagnóstico , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Appl Meas ; 20(3): 326-342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390606

RESUMO

The evaluation of outcomes in mental health care embraces evaluation, quality assurance, and progress measurement of treatments. The Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is an outcome focused self-assessment instrument, comprising 34 items covering four scales well-being, problems, functioning, and risk. The questionnaire has been translated into 52 languages, including Russian. Despite its broad application, the dimensionality of the CORE-OM deserves some further research. Thus, the present study examines the dimensionality of the Russian CORE-OM using the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model (MRCMLM) based on data of N = 240 patients. The results indicate the need for further research on factorial structure and response formats of the CORE-OM. In addition, differential item functioning was found for gender and diagnostic groups, suggesting separate test norms. Again, the MRCMLM and the Test Analysis Modules (TAM) package have proven valuable tools for investigating a questionnaire's psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Linguagem , Transtornos Mentais , Psicometria , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Federação Russa , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16872, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415426

RESUMO

Patients undergoing surgery and taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are susceptible to complications related to intraoperative hypotension. Perioperative continuation of such medications in patients undergoing colorectal surgery may be associated with more harm than benefit, as these patients are often exposed to other risk factors which may contribute to intraoperative hypotension. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and severity of postinduction hypotension as well as the rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), 30-day all-cause mortality, 30-day readmission, and hospital length of stay in adult patients undergoing colorectal surgery who take ACEi/ARB.We performed a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing colorectal surgery of ≥4 hour duration at a tertiary care academic medical center between January 2011 and November 2016. The preoperative and intraoperative characteristics as well as postoperative outcomes were compared between patients taking ACEi/ARB and patients not taking these medications.Of the 1020 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 174 (17%) were taking either ACEi or ARB before surgery. Patients taking these medications were more likely to receive both postinduction and intraoperative phenylephrine and ephedrine. The incidences of postoperative AKI (P = .35), 30-day all-cause mortality (P = .36), 30-day hospital readmission (P = .45), and hospital length of stay (P = .25), were not significantly different between the 2 groups.Our results support the current recommendation that ACEi/ARB use is probably safe within the colorectal surgery population during the perioperative period. Intraoperative hypotension should be expected and treated with vasopressors.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cirurgia Colorretal/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
14.
Community Dent Health ; 36(3): 181-186, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436926

RESUMO

Initial impetus for action: Oral cancer is still an underestimated disease in terms of incidence as well as mortality rates; it requires urgent prevention and early detection. At present, there is no best-practice systematic approach to raising awareness and informing the public about about this type of cancer in Germany. This article describes a framework that covers the significant stages of conceptual development and campaign design to promote oral cancer awareness in Germany. Solution: The challenges of the development, as well as evaluation of an oral cancer awareness campaign are shared in this article. Four key stages of the campaign are defined: (1) mass media, (2) target groups, (3) health care professionals, and (4) epidemiology. For each section, the following levels of assessment are proposed: (a) campaign development (formative assessment), (b) controlling and optimising campaign implementation (process assessment) and (c) measuring outcomes (summative assessment). Outcome: A process-oriented assessment concept for each of the four campaign sections was developed and merged to form a matrix, which includes each of the above sections regarding the prevention and early detection of oral cancer, as well as the three stages of campaign assessment. Future implications and learning points: The conceptual framework demonstrated that systematic planning and evaluation of different components helped to describe and evaluate an oral cancer campaign: For future campaigns, the use of a matrix covering different campaign targets as well as the entire campaign process, is recommended as a basis for campaign design and evaluation.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Neoplasias Bucais , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
15.
Crit Care Resusc ; 21(3): 180-187, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australian in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) literature is limited, and mostly published before rapid response teams (RRTs). Contemporary data may inform strategies to improve IHCA outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of ward adult IHCAs in seven Australian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOMES: IHCA was defined as unresponsiveness, no respiratory effort, and commencement of external cardiac compressions. Data included IHCA frequency, patient demographics, resuscitation management, intensive care unit (ICU) management, and hospital discharge status. RESULTS: There were 15 953 RRT calls, 185 896 multiday admissions and 159 IHCAs in 152 patients (median age, 71.5 years; interquartile range [IQR], 61.6-81.3 years). The median IHCA frequency was 0.62 IHCAs per 1000 multiday admissions (IQR, 0.50-1.19). Most patients (93.4%) were admitted from home, and 68.4% (104/152) were medical admissions. Eighty-two IHCAs (51.6%) occurred within 4 days of admission, and 66.0% (105/159) of initial rhythms were non-shockable. The median resuscitation duration was 6.5 minutes (IQR, 2.0-18.0 minutes) and adrenaline was the most common intervention (95/159; 59.8%). Death on the ward occurred in 30.2% of IHCAs (48/159), and 49.7% (79/159) were admitted to the ICU, where vasoactive medications (75.9%), ventilation (82.3%), and renal replacement therapy (29.1%) use was extensive. Overall, 92 patients (60.5%) died and 40 (26.3%) were discharged home. CONCLUSION: Among seven Australian hospitals, IHCAs were infrequent, mostly occurred in older medical patients early in the hospital admission. Most were non-shockable, ICU therapy was extensive and nearly two-thirds of patients died in hospital. Further strategies are needed to prevent and improve ICHA outcomes.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(9): 903-911, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT-2) are a class of oral antidiabetic drugs with a novel specific mode of action in the kidneys. OBJECTIVE: The effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on cardiovascular (CV) and renal endpoints in outcome trials with type 2 diabetes patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Differential analysis and interpretation of the results of outcome trials with the SGLT-2 inhibitors empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction in major cardiac adverse events (MACE), hospitalization for heart failure (HHI), renal endpoints, CV and total mortality vs. placebo in >7000 patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease over 3.1 years. In the CANVAS program, canagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction of MACE, HHI and renal endpoints vs. placebo in >10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk over 2.4 years. In the CREDENCE trial, canagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction of a combined renal endpoint and CV endpoints vs. placebo in >4000 patients with type 2 diabetes and established kidney disease with albuminuria over 2.6 years. In the DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial, dapagliflozin demonstrated a significant reduction in a combined endpoint of CV death and HHI vs. placebo in >17,000 patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease or with multiple CV risk factors over 3.1 years. CONCLUSION: Outcome trials with SGLT-2 inhibitors have collectively demonstrated cardioprotective and nephroprotective effects in patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk. The use of SGLT-2 inhibitors is recommended in current guidelines and consensus statements as primary combination partners for metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CV disease, high CV risk, heart failure or kidney disease.


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Canagliflozina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16723, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374068

RESUMO

Fasting hyperglycemia is associated with poor neurologic outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), but its relationship with in-hospital outcome in elderly patients remains largely unknown. To assess the association of in-hospital outcome with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels at admission in individuals with AIS.This retrospective propensity score-matched case-control study included patients aged over 60 years suffering from AIS and who were admitted to the emergency department from November 2013 to October 2016. Subjects were grouped into the poor-outcome and good-outcome groups based on mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission.The poor- and good-outcome groups comprised 74 and 1927 cases, respectively, before propensity score matching (PSM), and 74 and 296 cases, respectively, after PSM. Univariable logistic regression analysis showed that initial FPG after admission was associated with poor in-hospital outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that initial FPG after admission was an independent predictor of poor in-hospital outcome (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.037-1.188, P = .003).This study used PSM and strongly suggests that FPG is an independent predictive factor of poor in-hospital outcome in elderly patients with AIS. High initial FPG levels after admission may predict poor in-hospital outcome. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16951, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441892

RESUMO

Teaching status/academic ranking may play a role in the variations in trauma center (TC) outcomes. Our study aimed to determine the relationship between TC teaching status and injury-adjusted, all-cause mortality in a national sampling.Retrospective review of the National Sample Program (NSP) from the National Trauma Data bank (NTDB). TCs were categorized based on teaching status. Adjusted mortality was determined by observed/expected (O/E) mortality ratios, derived using TRauma Injury Severity Score methodology from the Injury Severity Score and Revised Trauma Score. Chi-square and t test analyses were utilized with a statistical significance defined as P <.05.Of the 94 TCs in the NSP, 46 were university, 38 were community teaching, and 10 were community nonteaching. For the University TCs, 62.8% were American College of Surgeons (ACS) level 1 and 81.2% state level 1. Of the community teaching TCs, 39.0% was ACS level 1 and 35.1% was state level 1. Of the community nonteaching TCs, 0% was ACS level 1 and 11.1% was state level 1. University TCs had a significantly higher O/E mortality rate than community teaching (0.75 vs 0.71; P = .04). There were no differences in O/E between community teaching and nonteaching TCs (0.71 vs 0.70; P = .70).Community teaching and nonteaching TCs have lower injury-adjusted, all-cause mortality rates than University Centers. Future studies should further investigate key differences between University TCs and community teaching TC to evaluate possible quality and performance improvement measures.


Assuntos
Hospitais Comunitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/classificação , Estados Unidos
19.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(7_Supple_C): 70-76, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256649

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the influence of discharge timing on 30-day complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified patients aged 18 years or older who underwent TKA between 2005 and 2016 from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. We propensity score-matched length-of-stay (LOS) groups using all relevant covariables. We used multivariable regression to determine if the rate of complications and re-admissions differed depending on LOS. RESULTS: Our matched cohort consisted of 76 246 TKA patients (mean age 67 years (sd 9)). Patients whose LOS was zero and four days had an increased risk of major complications by an odds ratio (OR) of 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 3.2) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7), respectively, compared with patients whose LOS was two days. Patients whose LOS was zero, three, and four days had an increased risk of minor complications (OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.7), 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4), and 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9), respectively), compared with patients whose LOS was two days. In addition, a LOS of three days increased the risk of re-admission by an OR of 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.3), and a LOS of four days increased the risk of re-admission by an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.6), compared with a LOS of two days. CONCLUSION: Patients discharged on days one to two postoperatively following TKA appear to have reduced major and minor complications compared with discharge on the day of surgery, or on days three to four. Prospective clinical data are required to confirm these findings. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B(7 Supple C):70-76.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Vigilância da População , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(7): 880-888, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256665

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the use of 3D-printed sacral endoprostheses to reconstruct the pelvic ring and re-establish spinopelvic stability after total en bloc sacrectomy (TES) and to review its outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients who underwent TES in our hospital between January 2015 and December 2017. We divided the patients into three groups on the basis of the method of reconstruction: an endoprosthesis group (n = 10); a combined reconstruction group (n = 14), who underwent non-endoprosthetic combined reconstruction, including anterior spinal column fixation; and a spinopelvic fixation (SPF) group (n = 8), who underwent only SPF. Spinopelvic stability, implant survival (IS), intraoperative haemorrhage rate, and perioperative complication rate in the endoprosthesis group were documented and compared with those of other two groups. RESULTS: The mean overall follow-up was 22.1 months (9 to 44). In the endoprosthesis group, the mean intraoperative hemorrhage was 3530 ml (1600 to 8100). Perioperative complications occurred in two patients; both had problems with wound healing. After a mean follow-up of 17.7 months (12 to 38), 9/10 patients could walk without aids and 8/10 patients were not using analgesics. Imaging evidence of implant failure was found in three patients, all of whom had breakage of screws and/or rods. Only one of these, who had a local recurrence, underwent re-operation, at which solid bone-endoprosthetic osseointegration was found. The mean IS using re-operation as the endpoint was 32.5 months (95% confidence interval 23.2 to 41.8). Compared with the other two groups, the endoprosthesis group had significantly better spinopelvic stability and IS with no greater intraoperative haemorrhage or perioperative complications. CONCLUSION: The use of 3D-printed endoprostheses for reconstruction after TES provides reliable spinopelvic stability and IS by facilitating osseointegration at the bone-implant interfaces, with acceptable levels of haemorrhage and complications. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:880-888.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Ossos Pélvicos/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Próteses e Implantes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Sacro/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osseointegração , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Operatório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/instrumentação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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