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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 473, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553272

RESUMO

In the Mediterranean area, the by-products of medicinal and aromatic plant distillation became very attractive as additive and/or alternative feedstuff. Subsequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of distilled rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves (RDL) on digestion and ruminal aspects, metabolic statutes, and milk yield of the Tunisian native goat breed. Thirty-six adult goats were divided into three homogeneous groups (C, RDL20, and RDL40) receiving daily (per head) 0.5 kg of concentrate and 1 kg of roughage composed of 100% of oat hay for C group, 20% of RDL and 80% of oat hay for RDL20 group, and 40% of RDL and 60% of oat hay for RDL40 group. Milk yield and composition, and goats' and kids' BW were measured weekly; also measurement of the diet digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites was carried out. Dry matter intake was significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the RDL40 group while the dry matter and crude protein digestibility was similar among groups. The goats' milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites were not affected by the dietary treatments. The results of this study indicate that RDL can partially substitute oat hay without negative effects on animal productivity.


Assuntos
Cabras , Rosmarinus , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Avena , Dieta , Digestão , Destilação , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rúmen/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443340

RESUMO

The oat ß-glucan (OG) was added into set-type yogurt as a functional ingredient, in order to evaluate effects on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of set-type yogurt. When the OG concentration increased from 0 to 0.3%, the WHC gradually increased. At 0.3% OG, the set-type yogurt had the highest WHC of 94.67%. Additionally, the WHC continuously decreased, reaching the lowest WHC (about 80%) at 0.5% OG. When 0.3% OG was added, the highest score of sensory evaluation was about 85. The rheological result showed that the fermentation process went through the changes as follows: solid → liquid → solid → liquid. The addition of 0.3% OG decreased the fermentation time of set-type yogurt by about 16 min, making yogurt more inclined to be liquid. The acidity of set-type yogurt with OG was slightly higher. The result of microstructure showed that the addition of OG destroyed the three-dimensional network structure of yogurt, and some spherical aggregate particles could be clearly observed at 0.3% OG. Overall, this study provided a theoretical basis for the application of OG in set-type yogurt.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Reologia , Iogurte/análise , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361073

RESUMO

This study evaluated the immunonutritional effects caused by protease inhibitors from Avena sativa and Triticum durum to human macrophage-like cells. Macrophages were exposed (3 h) to extracts obtained from flours, and mitochondrial-associated oxygen consumption rates and inflammatory, metabolic, and proteome adaptations were quantified. Mass spectrometry 'm/z' signals of the extracts obtained from T. durum and A. sativa revealed molecular weights of 18-35 kDa and 16-22 kDa, respectively, for the compounds present at highest concentrations. Extracts from T. durum exhibited lower susceptibility to degradation by gastrointestinal enzymes than those from A. sativa: 9.5% vs 20.2%. Despite their different botanical origin, both extracts increased TLR4 expression. Metabolic protein levels were indicative of a decreased glycolytic to lactate flux in cell cultures upon stimulation with A. sativa extracts, which improved mitochondrial respiration in relation to those from T. durum. Principal components analysis confirmed relative similarities between immune-metabolic events triggered by immunonutritional ingredients in T. durum and A. sativa. Collectively, immunonutritional effects help to interpret the differences between both crops, worsening or improving, macrophage immune reactivity (tolerogenicity), and better control of inflammatory processes.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/química , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444949

RESUMO

The prevalence of gastritis in humans is constantly growing and a prediction of an increase in this health problem is observed in many countries. For this reason, effective dietary therapies are sought that can alleviate the course of this disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemically pure oat beta-glucan preparations with different molar masses, low or high, used for 30 days in patients with histologically diagnosed chronic gastritis. The study enrolled 48 people of both genders of different ages recruited from 129 patients with a gastritis diagnosis. Before and after the therapy, hematological, biochemical, immunological and redox balance parameters were determined in the blood and the number of lactic acid bacteria and SCFA concentrations in the feces. Our results demonstrated a beneficial effect of oat beta-glucans with high molar mass in chronic gastritis in humans, resulting in reduced mucosal damage and healthy changes in SCFA fecal concentration and peripheral blood serum glutathione metabolism and antioxidant defense parameters. This fraction of a highly purified oat beta-glucan is safe for humans. Its action is effective after 30 days of use, which sheds new light on the nutritional treatment of chronic gastritis.


Assuntos
Avena , Gastrite/dietoterapia , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastrite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9419-9433, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374283

RESUMO

Usage of sprouted grains is an increasing trend in thermally processed foods. Sprouting alters the composition of sugars and amino acids, which are Maillard reaction precursors. Free asparagine, total free amino acids, and sugars were monitored during sprouting and yeast and sourdough fermentations. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were analyzed in heated samples. The asparagine concentration decreased up to 40% after 24-36 h of sprouting, except for buckwheat, and then increased to the initial concentration after 48 h and several folds after 72 h. The increased amount of reducing sugars after sprouting caused higher acrylamide and HMF formation even if the asparagine concentration was lower. Acrylamide and HMF formation decreased after fermentation of sprouted wholemeal because sugars and asparagine were consumed by yeast. A pH drop of 3 units by sourdough fermentation decreased acrylamide formation but increased HMF formation. Results indicated that sprouted cereal products should be produced under controlled conditions to be used in heated foods.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Hordeum , Acrilamida , Asparagina , Avena , Fermentação , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Secale , Açúcares , Triticum
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371804

RESUMO

Functional clinical nutrition is an integrative science; it uses dietary strategies, functional foods and medicinal plants, as well as combinations thereof. Both functional foods and medicinal plants, whether associated or not, form nutraceuticals, which can bring benefits to health, in addition to being included in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Some functional food effects from Avena sativa L. (oats), Linum usitatissimum L. (brown flaxseed), Glycine max L. (soya) and Moringa oleifera have been proposed for nutritional disorders through in vitro and in vivo tests. A formulation called a bioactive food compound (BFC) showed efficiency in the association of oats, flaxseed and soy for dyslipidemia and obesity. In this review, we discuss the effects of BFC in other nutritional disorders, as well as the beneficial effects of M. oleifera in obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, intestinal inflammatory diseases/colorectal carcinogenesis and malnutrition. In addition, we hypothesized that a BFC enriched with M. oleifera could present a synergistic effect and play a potential benefit in nutritional disorders. The traditional consumption of M. oleifera preparations can allow associations with other formulations, such as BFC. These nutraceutical formulations can be easily accepted and can be used in sweet preparations (fruit and/or vegetable juices, fruit and/or vegetable vitamins, porridges, yogurt, cream, mousses or fruit salads, cakes and cookies) or savory (vegetable purees, soups, broths and various sauces), cooked or not. These formulations can be low-cost and easy-to-use. The association of bioactive food substances in dietary formulations can facilitate adherence to consumption and, thus, contribute to the planning of future nutritional interventions for the prevention and adjuvant treatment of the clinical conditions presented in this study. This can be extended to the general population. However, an investigation through clinical studies is needed to prove applicability in humans.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Avena , Linho , Humanos , Moringa oleifera , Soja
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444682

RESUMO

The safety and health effects for celiac people of a novel beverage (SOFB) developed from sprouted oat flour by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum was explored. In vitro reactivity against anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory potential of SOFB in RAW 264.7 macrophages and Caco-2 cells were evaluated. Immunoreactivity against AGA and antioxidant activity were not detected in SOFB, but it exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. The tolerability and impact of SOFB consumption for 6 months on nutritional status and intestinal microbiota composition were investigated in 10 celiac adults (five treated and five control). SOFB consumption did not adversely affect duodenal mucosa nor the total IgA or anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA-tTG) levels in celiac participants, but it significantly decreased total cholesterol levels at all sampling times and folic acid levels at the end of the study compared to the placebo beverage. SOFB administration also shifted gut microbiota, leading to a higher relative abundance of some beneficial bacteria including the genera Subdoligranulum, Ruminococcus and Lactobacillus in the SOFB group. This study provides supporting evidence of the safety of health benefits of a novel functional beverage produced from sprouted oat.


Assuntos
Avena , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Plântula , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antioxidantes , Avena/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Alimento Funcional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gliadina/imunologia , Glutens/análise , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estado Nutricional , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5577498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337029

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women express great failure in their ovarian hormone production, especially estrogen. This deficiency may promote hypercholesterolemia and accelerate the redox imbalance. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Avena sativa against estrogen deficiency-induced liver and uterus oxidative injury in experimental ovariectomized mice. Female mice were randomly divided into five groups: group one (negative control) received normal diet and distilled water (C), group two (positive control) received daily enriched diet with oat grains and was kept on tap distilled water at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 d-1 (A), group three (ovariectomized mice) was nontreated fed with normal diet (O), group four includes ovariectomized mice treated daily with estradiol given by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 100 µg kg-1 d-1 (OE), and the fifth group also includes ovariectomized mice which received enriched diet with oat grain parts with the same dose given to group two. The treatment period lasted two consecutive months. Both oat and hormonal treatments of ovariectomized groups resulted in a significant reduction in triglycerides and total cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in the plasma after 21 and 60 days of treatment. Besides, the coadministration of A. sativa has decreased the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased transaminase activities after 21 and 60 days of treatment. On the other hand, this cereal has restored the enzymatic (SOD, CAT, and GPx) and nonenzymatic antioxidant activities (GSH) as well as the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (AOPP and PCO) to near-normal values. The beneficial effects of this cereal were confirmed by a histological study of the liver and uterus of all previous cited groups. Our finding emphasized the antioxidant and antilipidemic effect of oat grain part, suggesting the use of this cereal in the prevention of liver and uterus diseases that occurred in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Fígado/patologia , Ovariectomia , Estresse Oxidativo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Feminino , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carbonilação Proteica , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/patologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444718

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain the top disease and mortality burdens worldwide. Oats have been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and improve insulin resistance. However, the evidence linking oat consumption with CVD, T2D and all-cause mortality remains inconclusive. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the associations between oat consumption and risks of T2D, CVD and all-cause mortality in the general population. Five electronic databases were searched until September, 2020. Study specific relative risks (RR) were meta-analyzed using random effect models. Of 4686 relevant references, we included 9 articles, based on 8 unique studies and 471,157 participants. Comparing oat consumers versus non-consumers, RRs were 0.86 (95% CI 0.72-1.03) for T2D incidence and 0.73 (95% CI 0.5-1.07) for combined CVD incidence. Comparing participants with highest versus lowest oat intake, RRs were 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.82) for T2D incidence, 0.81 (95% CI 0.61-1.08) for CHD incidence and 0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.07) for stroke. For all-cause mortality one study based on three cohorts found RR for men and women were 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.85) and 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.87), respectively. Most studies (n = 6) were of fair to good quality. This meta-analysis suggests that consumption of oat could reduce the risk for T2D and all-cause mortality, while no significant association was found for CVD. Future studies should address a lack of standardized methods in assessing overall oat intake and type of oat products, and investigate a dose-dependent response of oat products on cardiometabolic outcomes in order to introduce oat as preventive and treatment options for the public.


Assuntos
Avena , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Grãos Integrais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 399, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254207

RESUMO

Diets have an important effect on the fatty acid (FA) content in milk from dairy cows so that feeding strategies may modify the FA profile. There is little information on the fatty acid contents of whole-crop barley (BLY) and black oat (BKO) silages and on milk from cows fed these silages that are an alternative forage for small-scale dairy systems (SSDS). Given the growing interest in foods with favourable health attributes, the objective was to identify the FA content of milk from dairy cows fed whole-crop BLY and BKO silages in small-scale systems. Three inclusion levels of BLY and BKO silage were assessed in nine lactating cows at pasture for 8 h/day and supplemented with 4.6 kg/DM/cow/day commercial concentrate. Treatments were BLY: 10 kg DM/cow/day BLY silage; BKO: 10 kg DM/cow/d BKO silage; and BLY/BKO: 5 kg BLY and 5 kg DM/cow/d BKO silages (50:50). A 3 × 3 Latin square design repeated three times with nine cows and 14-day periods was utilised. Variables evaluated were the content of fatty acids present in feeds and milk. Contents of linoleic (C18:2n-6) and linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids, as precursors of polyunsaturated fatty acids, were 46 in BLY and 50 BKO g/100 g, lower than for multispecies pasture (61 g/100 g). There were statistical differences in the content of short-chain fatty acids in milk (P < 0.05), being lower for BLY (18.9 g/100 g) compared with BKO (20.4 g/100 g) and BLY/BKO (20.6 g/100 g), the saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid (C18:2n-6c) were higher in BLY/BKO in relation to BLY and BKO. Content of health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk was higher in BLY/BKO (P < 0.05). There were no differences (P < 0.05) in the atherogenic index, with values within reports. Small-grain cereal forages may produce milk with a favourable fatty acid content for human health.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Silagem , Animais , Avena , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Lactação , México , Leite , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 876-889, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237364

RESUMO

The integrity of the epidermal barrier and the maintenance of barrier homeostasis depend on the dynamic balance between the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays a crucial role in maintaining a balance of these two processes as well as in the formation of an epidermal permeability barrier. In this study, we showed that topical application of oat ß-glucan (OG) could ameliorate epidermal hyperplasia and accelerate the recovery of the epidermal barrier by promoting epidermal differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed a positive interaction between OG and the dectin-1 receptor, and this interaction could lead to an upregulated expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) via activation of the downstream ERK and p38 pathways. This consequently increased the sensitivity of keratinocytes to extracellular Ca2+ under the condition of calcium loss following the disruption of the epidermal barrier, resulting in the maintenance of normal keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis, and ultimately promoting the recovery of the epidermal barrier. These findings clearly demonstrated the healing effect of OG on a physically damaged epidermal barrier. Thus, OG could be considered a valuable component in the development of skin repair agents.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Queratinócitos/citologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Regulação para Cima , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7680-7686, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196548

RESUMO

With the basic understanding and broad application prospects of luminescent materials, the emission mechanism of unconventional luminescent agents has been revealed gradually. Here, we report a non-conjugated biomass material, oat ß-glucan (oat-ß-Glu), which actually does not emit light in a dilute solution but emits significantly when forming aggregates. Inherently visible emission of oat-ß-Glu from the concentrated solutions and solid state could be observed. In addition, we have observed room temperature phosphorescence in oat-ß-Glu powders, which is also unusual in pure organic materials. It can be proposed that the luminescence property of oat-ß-Glu originates from the spatial conjugation of the oxygen atoms of oat-ß-Glu. This clustering-triggered emission mechanism may well be expanded to other unconventional biomacromolecules, inspiring the rational design of luminescent agents. Due to its good biocompatibility and intrinsic emission characteristics, oat-ß-Glu has shown great potential application prospects in bioimaging and biosensors.


Assuntos
beta-Glucanas , Avena , Alimentos , Luminescência
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7629-7640, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213907

RESUMO

A high-fat diet (HFD) causes hyperlipidemia, which worsens disturbances in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of flavonoids from whole-grain oat (FO) on BA metabolism and gut microbiota in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The experiment results showed that FO improved serum lipid profiles and decreased body weight and lipid deposition in HFD-fed mice. Through real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot assays, by up-regulating the expression of PPARα, CPT-1, CYP7A1, FXR, TGR5, NTCP, and BSTP, and down-regulating those of SREBP-1c, FAS, and ASBT, FO suppressed lipogenesis, promoted lipolysis and BA synthesis, and efflux to faeces via the FXR pathway. 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that FO significantly increased Akkermansia and significantly decreased Lachnoclostridium, Blautia, Colidextribacter, and Desulfovibrio. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that these bacteria were strongly correlated with hyperlipidemia-related parameters. Therefore, our results indicated that FO possessed an antihyperlipidemic effect via regulating the gut-liver axis, i.e., BA metabolism and gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperlipidemias , Animais , Avena , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
J Cell Sci ; 134(13)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313312

RESUMO

The shuttling of transcription factors and transcriptional regulators into and out of the nucleus is central to the regulation of many biological processes. Here we describe a new method for studying the rates of nuclear entry and exit of transcriptional regulators. A photo-responsive LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) domain from Avena sativa is used to sequester fluorescently labelled transcriptional regulators YAP1 and TAZ (also known as WWTR1) on the surface of mitochondria and to reversibly release them upon blue light illumination. After dissociation, fluorescent signals from the mitochondria, cytoplasm and nucleus are extracted by a bespoke app and used to generate rates of nuclear entry and exit. Using this method, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of YAP1 on canonical sites enhances its rate of nuclear export. Moreover, we provide evidence that, despite high intercellular variability, YAP1 import and export rates correlate within the same cell. By simultaneously releasing YAP1 and TAZ from sequestration, we show that their rates of entry and exit are correlated. Furthermore, combining the optogenetic release of YAP1 with lattice light-sheet microscopy reveals high heterogeneity of YAP1 dynamics within different cytoplasmic regions, demonstrating the utility and versatility of our tool to study protein dynamics. This article has an associated First Person interview with Anna M. Dowbaj, joint first author of the paper.


Assuntos
Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Optogenética , Proteínas de Plantas , Avena , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207051

RESUMO

An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method is proposed for the determination of the major ergot alkaloids (ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergokryptine, ergocristine) and their epimers (ergometrinine, ergosinine, ergotaminine, ergocorninine, ergokryptinine, and ergocristinine) in oat-based foods and food supplements. A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure was applied as sample treatment, reducing the consumption of organic solvent and increasing sensitivity. This method involved an extraction with acetonitrile and ammonium carbonate (85:15, v/v) and a clean-up step based on dispersive solid-phase extraction, employing a mixture of C18/Z-Sep+ as sorbents. Procedural calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below 3.2 µg/kg for the studied compounds. Repeatability and intermediate precision (expressed as RSD%) were lower than 6.3% and 15%, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 89.7% and 109%. The method was applied to oat-based products (bran, flakes, flour, grass, hydroalcoholic extracts, juices, and tablets), finding a positive sample of oat bran contaminated with ergometrine, ergosine, ergometrinine, and ergosinine (total content of 10.7 µg/kg).


Assuntos
Avena/química , Alcaloides de Claviceps/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Carbonatos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ergolinas/química , Ergonovina/química , Ergotaminas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2477-2484, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313066

RESUMO

The C, N and P stoichiometry are helpful to understand the capacity of carbon assimilation and nutrient utilization efficiency during plant growth, as well as to diagnose nutrient limitation status. There is still a knowledge gap about the effects of disease on plant stoichiometry. In this study, forage oats (Avena sativa) suffering from anthracnose were the object of research conducted in north Shanxi Province. The C, N and P stoichiometry in the shoot of oat were examined at different degrees of disease occurrence. We analyzed the relationship of plant stoichiometry with disease duration, cultivar, and cultivation methods. The results showed that C, N and P contents decreased with the increasing degree of disease occurrence. The C, N and P contents in the plants with serious disease were significantly lower than that of healthy plants with a decreasing rate of 5.4%, 20.0% and 24.2%, respectively. C:N and C:P showed an increasing trend with the increases of the degree of disease occurrence. C:N and C:P of the plants with serious disease were significantly increased by 18.5% and 22.2%, respectively, than that of healthy plants. There was no significant difference for C content among different sampling sites, which indicated that the three varieties of forage oats might have disease tolerance capacity to ensure crop production. However, the stoichiometric values of N and P varied from place to place. The longer the disease duration was, the more reduction of N and P contents. Compared with monoculture oats, the P utilization efficiency of mixture oats was decreased by anthracnose. In summary, anthracnose had negative impacts on carbon assimilation capacity of forage oats in northern Shanxi. Anthracnose increased the restriction of N and P nutrition on the aboveground parts. However, anthracnose significantly improved N and P utilization efficiency. For the production practice, it was recommended to take necessary control measures to reduce the adverse effects of diseases on the economic benefits and ecological functions of forage oats.


Assuntos
Avena , Grão Comestível , Carbono/análise , China , Produção Agrícola , Grão Comestível/química
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 313-322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270039

RESUMO

Production of doubled haploids (DHs) by androgenesis is a promising and convenient alternative to traditionally used breeding techniques. Low response of anther culture and strong genotype dependency in the development of embryo-like structures (ELS) was reported for oat (Avena sativa L.). Total homozygosity has been reached in one generation. This chapter describes a step-by-step protocol that can be useful for androgenesis studies and oat DH line production through anther culture.


Assuntos
Apomixia/genética , Avena/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Apomixia/fisiologia , Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Haploidia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Reprodução Assexuada/genética
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 323-332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270040

RESUMO

Wide hybridization is one of the haploid-inducing techniques that can accelerate the breeding process. Obtaining new cultivars is crucial to solve the problem of the constantly growing world population and global increase in demand for food, feed and renewable energy under changing environmental conditions. Here, we present a detailed protocol for obtaining oat (Avena sativa L.) doubled haploids (DHs) by pollination with maize (Zea mays L.). After fertilization, not only oat homozygotes, but also oat × maize hybrid zygotes can be formed, and during early embryo development, maize chromosomes are preferentially eliminated, which ultimately results in haploid plant formation. This chapter describes a method to produce oat DHs by crossing oat with maize, covering all steps from crossings to haploid plant regeneration and chromosome doubling.


Assuntos
Avena/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Zea mays/genética , Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Haploidia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Polinização , Sementes/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 9842-9852, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099291

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of partially replacing corn silage (CS) with whole-plant soybean silage (SS) or black oat silage (OS) on nutrient intake and digestibility, in vitro neutral detergent fiber degradability of silages, feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, and performance of dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (6 of which were rumen-cannulated) with 32.5 ± 4.92 kg/d milk yield, 150 ± 84.8 days in milk, and 644 ± 79.0 kg of body weight were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design to evaluate the following treatments: (1) corn silage diet (CSD): using corn silage as the only forage source in the diet [48% dietary dry matter (DM)]; (2) whole-plant soybean silage diet (SSD): SS replacing 16% of corn silage from CSD; and (3) black oat silage diet (OSD): OS replacing 16% of corn silage from CSD. The inclusion of OS and SS decreased intakes of DM, organic matter, and crude protein. Corn silage had the greatest in vivo effective degradability of DM, and SS had the least effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber. The OSD treatment decreased milk and protein yields, whereas SSD increased rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration compared with the other diets. Cows fed OSD exhibited a greater preference for feed with small particles (<4 mm) compared with those fed SSD. Cows fed treatments containing either SS or OS at the expense of CS had increased rumination and chewing activities. Although replacing CS with OS and SS reduced feed intake, SS had no effect on productive performance of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Avena , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen , Silagem/análise , Soja
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