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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 85-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016357

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) runoff from pastures can cause accelerated eutrophication of surface waters. However, few long-term studies have been conducted on the effects of best management practices, such as rotational grazing and/or buffer strips on P losses from pastures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on P runoff from pastures receiving annual (5.6 Mg ha-1 ) poultry litter applications. A 14-yr study was conducted on 15 small watersheds (0.14 ha) with five treatments: hayed (H), continuously grazed (CG), rotationally grazed (R), rotationally grazed with an unfertilized buffer strip (RB), and rotationally grazed with an unfertilized fenced riparian buffer (RBR). Runoff samples were collected using automatic samplers during runoff events. Average annual runoff volumes from H (40 mm yr-1 ) and RBR (48 mm yr-1 ) were lower than CG and RB, which were both 65 mm yr-1 , and from R (67 mm yr-1 ). Rotational grazing alone did not reduce P loads compared with continuous grazing (1.88 and 1.71 kg P ha-1 for R and CG, respectively). However, compared with CG, total P losses from RB pastures were reduced 36% with unfertilized buffer strips (1.21 kg P ha-1 ), 60% in RBR watersheds with unfertilized fenced riparian buffer strips (0.74 kg P ha-1 ), and 49% by converting pastures to hayfields (0.97 kg P ha-1 ). Hence, the use of unfertilized buffer strips, unfertilized fenced riparian buffer strips, or converting pastures to hayfields are effective best management practices for reducing P runoff in U.S. pasture systems.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Esterco , Movimentos da Água
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 869-881, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016484

RESUMO

The success of poultry litter reuse in U.S. poultry production can be attributed to the efficient treatment methods used by producers during downtimes (the time lapse between consecutive flocks, during which the broiler house is empty). During this period, reused litter may be decaked, tilled/windrowed, or treated with acid-based amendments to reduce ammonia and bacteria levels. Competitive exclusion, pH, and temperature are proposed factors that influence the level of pathogens and the overall litter microbiome during downtimes. We previously reported on the bacterial genetic factors associated with the fitness of two strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) incubated for 14 d in reused litter. Here, we investigated the physicochemical parameters and the microbiome of the litter correlating with SH abundance during this period. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to determine the litter microbiome and whole genome sequencing to characterize bacteria with competitive exclusion potential against SH. The ß diversity of the litter microbiome was significantly affected by the duration of incubation, microcosm, and microcosm plus Heidelberg strain combinations. In addition, ß diversity was significantly affected by litter parameters, including NH4 , pH, moisture, water activity, and aluminum. The major phyla observed in the reused litter throughout the 14-d incubation experiment were Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, although their abundance differed by microcosm and time. Amplicon-specific variants homologous to the members of the genera Nocardiopsis and Lentibacillus and the family Bacillaceae_2 were found to significantly correlate with the abundance of Salmonella. A consortium of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the litter microcosms reduced the growth of SH in vitro.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790805

RESUMO

Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), RNA or synthetic XNA molecules, which are used as a class of affinity binders recognizing target molecules with a very high affinity and specificity. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize ssDNA aptamers for the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These aptamers were selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) in combination with quantitative high-throughput DNA sequencing. After three rounds of selections, a highly enriched ssDNA pool was sequenced, and the results were analyzed using FASTAptamer Toolkit. Sequencing reads were sorted by copy numbers and clustered into groups, according to their sequence homology. Top aptameric sequences were used to develop a sandwich enzymatic linked aptamer assay (ELAA) for rapid and sensitive detection of NDV in farm samples. The selected aptamers have an affinity within the nanomolar range, and a high specificity with no cross-reactivity towards other avian viruses. Following optimization of the sandwich ELAA method, the results demonstrated that both selected aptamers Apt_NDV01 and Apt_NDV03 with dissociation constant values of 31 nM and 78.1 nM, respectively, showed the highest specificity and affinity for NDV detection. The ELAA results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR, demonstrating strong concordance, and showing outstanding accuracy for detection of NDV in field sample. In summary, combination of SELEX with high-throughput DNA sequencing allowed rapid screening and selection of aptamers. The selected aptamers allowed recognition of NDV with high affinities. This is the first report that uses a validated sandwich ELAA for rapid and specific detection of NDV in poultry samples.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123850, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738558

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa on poultry excreta leachate to enhance the biochemical composition of algal biomass. The growth of microalgae was analyzed with different concentrations of poultry excreta leachate in BG-11 and distilled water. The biomolecules observed have high value in the form of carbohydrates (0.64 gL-1), protein (1.02 gL-1), chlorophyll (20 µg mL-1) and lipid amount (0.49 gL-1) with PEL BG -25%. Biomass produced in PEL BG -25% was also found to be 60% (2.5 gL-1) higher than the BG-11 medium as a control (1.5gL-1). Recovery of nutrients was observed with leachate wastewater concentration in terms of nitrate (84.2%), ammonium nitrogen (53.1%), and inorganic phosphate (96.2%). Hence, sustainability of microalgae cultivation in wastewater provides a new insight for resource utilization.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Animais , Biomassa , Aves Domésticas , Águas Residuárias
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008533, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776937

RESUMO

Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and its incidence is especially high in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Disease epidemiology in LMICs is different compared to high income countries like the USA or in Europe. Children in LMICs commonly have repeated and chronic infections even in the absence of symptoms, which can lead to deficits in early childhood development. In this study, we sequenced and characterized C. jejuni (n = 62) from a longitudinal cohort study of children under the age of 5 with and without diarrheal symptoms, and contextualized them within a global C. jejuni genome collection. Epidemiological differences in disease presentation were reflected in the genomes, specifically by the absence of some of the most common global disease-causing lineages. As in many other countries, poultry-associated strains were likely a major source of human infection but almost half of local disease cases (15 of 31) were attributable to genotypes that are rare outside of Peru. Asymptomatic infection was not limited to a single (or few) human adapted lineages but resulted from phylogenetically divergent strains suggesting an important role for host factors in the cryptic epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in LMICs.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/fisiopatologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Genômica , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Tipagem Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236581, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790744

RESUMO

Emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5Nx virus clade 2.3.4.4 has resulted in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry in Asia, Europe, and North America. The long-distance migratory birds have been suggested to play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses during this wave of panzootic outbreaks since 2013. Poultry farm epidemics caused by multiple introduction of different HPAI novel subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 viruses also occurred in Taiwan between 2015 and 2017. The mandatory and active surveillance detected H5N3 and H5N6 circulation in 2015 and 2017, respectively, while H5N2 and H5N8 were persistently identified in poultry farms since their first arrival in 2015. This study intended to assess the importance of various ecological factors contributed to the persistence of HPAI during three consecutive years. We used satellite technology to identify the location of waterfowl flocks. Four risk factors consistently showed strong association with the spatial clustering of H5N2 and H5N8 circulations during 2015 and 2017, including high poultry farm density (aOR:17.46, 95%CI: 5.91-74.86 and 8.23, 95% CI: 2.12-54.86 in 2015 and 2017, respectively), poultry heterogeneity index (aOR of 12.28, 95%CI: 5.02-31.14 and 2.79, 95%CI: 1.00-7.69, in 2015 and 2017, respectively), non-registered waterfowl flock density (aOR: 6.8, 95%CI: 3.41-14.46 and 9.17, 95%CI: 3.73-26.20, in 2015 and 2017, respectively) and higher percentage of cropping land coverage (aOR of 1.36, 95%CI: 1.10-1.69 and 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02-1.07, in 2015 and 2017, respectively). Our study highlights the application of remote sensing and clustering analysis for the identification and characterization of environmental factors in facilitating and contributing to the persistent circulation of certain subtypes of H5Nx in poultry farms in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
7.
Waste Manag ; 117: 42-47, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805600

RESUMO

Poultry litter is used as soil amendment or organic fertilizer. While poultry litter is enriched with organic matter suitable for land, the presence of pathogens such as Salmonella in poultry litter is a concern. To investigate the effect of gaseous ozone on pathogen reductions in poultry litter, this study conducted a series of experiments that involved understanding of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation at various doses of Ozone (O3) in wet and dry poultry litter conditions. Previously, ozone treatment has been shown to disinfect the surface of foods and plant materials including fruits, juices, and wastewater, however, additional research are needed to better understand the impacts of ozone on treatment of soil amendments. Sanitizing methods capable of eliminating pathogens of soil amendments are crucial to mitigate disease outbreaks related with litter/manure-based fertilizers. In this study, a bench scale continuous ozone treatment system was designed to produce O3 gas, with a range O3 concentrations (7.15-132.46 mg·L-1), monitor ozone concentrations continuously, and control the ozone exposure time (15 to 90 mins) to understand the effectiveness of O3 in eliminating S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in poultry litter. Results showed that 7.15 mg·L-1 did not reduce the counts of S. Typhimurium until exposure to O3 for 90 min. The O3 concentrations of 43.26 ~ 132.46 mg·L-1 exposure reduced the bacterial counts. Furthermore, the moisture content of poultry litter was found to be an influencing factor for pathogen reduction. The pathogen reduction rates were reduced when the moisture content was increased. At higher moisture content, high concentrations of O3 (132.46 mg·L-1) were needed for pathogen reductions. The moisture content of 30% or lower was found to be more effective for controlling pathogen levels in poultry litter. Our study demonstrates that gaseous O3 treatment could be used as an additional decontamination technique to ensure the certain degree of microbiological safety of poultry litter based soil amendment.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Ozônio , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Esterco , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella typhimurium
8.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111072, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854882

RESUMO

Animal manure is an important source of nutrients for crop production, but environmental issues can restrict its direct use. Thermochemical processing these manures may be an alternative to concentrate nutrients and reduce the final volume for agriculture application. We aimed here to evaluate the viability of extracting nutrients from chicken manure using a thermochemical process which reduces the volume of transported nutrients, targeting phosphorus (P) recovery as precipitated struvite, without add external source of P. The extraction of nutrients from poultry manure was performed in water, followed by a thermochemical treatment of the solid phase by incineration and acidulation of the resulting ash. Struvite was produced from the acidified ash extract after supplementation with Mg and regulating the pH (~8.5) by KOH addition. The recovery efficiency of P from the poultry manure and incorporation into struvite was 90%. The final product was a multi-nutrient fertilizer with high macronutrient levels (P, K, Mg and S) and low micronutrient content when compared to fresh manure, as well as lower levels of heavy metals, potentially harmful for the environment. The precipitated product obtained here is composed of struvite-NH4 and struvite-K, alongside appreciable quantities of potassium sulphate and hydroxyapatite carbonate. Overall, we conclude that poultry manure represents a viable source of P and N for struvite production resulting in a nutrient-rich, pathogen-free inorganic fertiliser suitable for widespread use in agriculture.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Esterco , Animais , Minerais , Nitrogênio/análise , Fosfatos , Fósforo , Aves Domésticas , Estruvita
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1115-1120, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741181

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of spread and genetic evolution of H5 subtype avian influenza virus in Guangzhou from 2014 to 2019. Methods: H5 subtype virus was detected by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR from the environmental samples in Guangzhou poultry markets. The genes of HA and NA of 48 isolates randomly selected were sequenced, including 46 isolates from environmental samples and 2 isolates from cases. The characteristics of molecular variation and genetic evolution were analyzed by using bioinformatics software. Results: A total of 1 094 strains of H5 subtype avian influenza virus were isolated from 52 284 samples (2.09%). All the strains belonged to Clade 2.3.4.4.C. NA gene belonged to H6N6 of Eurasian lineage. The cleavage sites of all the strains showed the characteristics of highly pathogenicity. Receptor binding sites were avian-derived receptors. However, mutations of S123P, S133A and T156A occurred, which implied that these strains could tend to bind to human receptors. There was an additional glycosylation site at 140 in strains isolated after 2017. The variation of antigen loci mainly occurred in B and E regions. Conclusions: H5 subtype avian influenza virus spread in Guangzhou from 2014 to 2019 with annual increased proportion of positive rate, and the sequencing results indicated that it belonged to Clade 2.3.4.4.C of H5N6 highly pathogenic virus, and genetic evolution and mutation continued, especially the common mutations which could enhance the binding capacity to human receptors. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Aves Domésticas
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123812, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682263

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of lactic acid addition during poultry litter and slaughter sludge composting for controlling NH3 emissions. The results indicated that lactic acid addition reduced NH3 emissions and promoted the maturity of the composting product. Compared to the blank, nitrogen loss in the form of NH3 emissions in the 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1.0% lactic acid treatments decreased by 3.36%, 8.29%, and 14.65%, respectively. Moreover, lactic acid addition promoted the relative abundance of Lactobacillales, while the microbial community of the blank was dominated by Bacillales. The mechanism behind the control of NH3 emissions via the addition of lactic acid involved the secretion of large amounts of lactic acid by Lactobacillales, which lowers the pH of the initial compost pile. This study suggests that lactic acid is a suitable additive for composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Amônia/análise , Animais , Ácido Láctico , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Aves Domésticas , Esgotos , Solo
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123841, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688250

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manure are a great threat to human health. This study investigated the effects of lignite addition at three levels (5%, 10%, 15% w/w) on the profiles of ARGs and the bacterial communities during poultry litter composting. Lignite addition effectively promoted the removal of manure-borne ARGs. After 65 days of composting, the relative abundances of ARGs decreased by 8.9% in control (no lignite), and by 15.8%, 27.7% and 41.5% in 5%, 10% and 15% lignite treatments, respectively. Although the total mobile genetic elements were enriched after composting, the enrichment of the intI-1 gene was significantly lower in the 10% and 15% lignite treatments compared with control. Network analysis indicated that Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were potential bacterial hosts for ARGs. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial community succession played a key role in the shifts of ARGs. Taken together, this study provides evidence that lignite as additives promoted the removal efficacy of ARGs during composting of poultry litter.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carvão Mineral , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , Aves Domésticas
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645064

RESUMO

The reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis is primarily considered to be poultry, but also other such as ruminants, pets and environmental sources are related with infection burden. Multilocus sequence typing is often used for Campylobacter epidemiological studies to determine potential sources of human infections. The collection of 420 Campylobacter jejuni isolates with assigned MLST genotype from poultry (n = 139), cattle (n = 48) and wild birds (n = 101) were used in source attribution analysis. Asymmetric island model with accurate and congruent self-attribution results, was used to determine potential sources of human C. jejuni infections (n = 132) in Baltic States. Source attribution analysis revealed that poultry (88.3%) is the main source of C. jejuni human infections followed by cattle and wild bird with 9.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that clinical cases of C. jejuni infections in Baltic countries are mainly linked to poultry, but also to cattle and wild bird sources.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Países Bálticos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
13.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674326

RESUMO

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious economically important respiratory pathogen of domestic fowl. Reverse genetics allows for the molecular study of pathogenic determinants to enable rational vaccine design. The recombinant IBV (rIBV) Beau-R, a molecular clone of the apathogenic Beaudette strain, has previously been investigated as a vaccine platform. To determine tissues in which Beau-R could effectively deliver antigenic genes, an in vivo study in chickens, the natural host, was used to compare the pattern of viral dissemination of Beau-R to the pathogenic strain M41-CK. Replication of Beau-R was found to be restricted to soft tissue within the beak, whereas M41-CK was detected in beak tissue, trachea and eyelid up to seven days post infection. In vitro assays further identified that, unlike M41-CK, Beau-R could not replicate at 41 °C, the core body temperature of a chicken, but is able to replicate a 37 °C, a temperature relatable to the very upper respiratory tract. Using a panel of rIBVs with defined mutations in the structural and accessory genes, viral replication at permissive and non-permissive temperatures was investigated, identifying that the Beau-R replicase gene was a determinant of temperature sensitivity and that sub-genomic mRNA synthesis had been affected. The identification of temperature sensitive allelic lesions within the Beau-R replicase gene opens up the possibility of using this method of attenuation in other IBV strains for future vaccine development as well as a method to investigate the functions of the IBV replicase proteins.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Temperatura , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1008009, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628659

RESUMO

Transmission of infectious diseases between immobile hosts (e.g., plants, farms) is strongly dependent on the spatial distribution of hosts and the distance-dependent probability of transmission. As the interplay between these factors is poorly understood, we use spatial process and transmission modelling to investigate how epidemic size is shaped by host clustering and spatial range of transmission. We find that for a given degree of clustering and individual-level infectivity, the probability that an epidemic occurs after an introduction is generally higher if transmission is predominantly local. However, local transmission also impedes transfer of the infection to new clusters. A consequence is that the total number of infections is maximal if the range of transmission is intermediate. In highly clustered populations, the infection dynamics is strongly determined by the probability of transmission between clusters of hosts, whereby local clusters act as multiplier of infection. We show that in such populations, a metapopulation model sometimes provides a good approximation of the total epidemic size, using probabilities of local extinction, the final size of infections in local clusters, and probabilities of cluster-to-cluster transmission. As a real-world example we analyse the case of avian influenza transmission between poultry farms in the Netherlands.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infectologia/tendências , Algoritmos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Fazendas , Infectologia/métodos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Países Baixos , Distribuição Normal , Dinâmica Populacional , Aves Domésticas , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
15.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111052, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669254

RESUMO

Intensive farming is widespread throughout the UK and yet the health effects of bioaerosols which may be generated by these sites are currently not well researched. A scoping study was established to measure bioaerosols emitted from intensive pig (n = 3) and poultry farms (n = 3) during the period 2014-2015. The concentration of culturable mesophilic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., and fungi selecting for presumptive Aspergillus fumigatus were measured using single-stage impaction Andersen samplers, whilst endotoxin and (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-glucan was undertaken using inhalable personal samplers. Particulate matter concentration was determined using an optical particulate monitor. Results showed that culturable bacteria, fungi, presumptive Staphylococcus aureus (confirmed only as Staphylococcus spp.) and endotoxin concentrations were elevated above background concentrations for distances of up to 250 m downwind of the source. Of all the culturable bioaerosols measured, bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the most significant, exceeding published or proposed bioaerosol guidelines in the UK. In particular, culturable Staphylococcus spp. downwind was at least 61 times higher than background at the boundary and at least 8 times higher 70m downwind on the four farms tested. This research represents a novel dataset of intensive farm emissions within the UK. Future research should exploit the use of innovative culture-independent methods such as next generation sequencing to develop deeper insights into the make-up of microbial communities emitted from intensive farming facilities and which would better inform species of interest from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Gado , Aerossóis/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Fungos , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 213-221, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729566

RESUMO

In South Africa's experience, compartmentalisation has been extremely effective in maintaining an animal subpopulation of a specific health status, based on segregation and biosecurity management. Compartmentalisation promotes animal disease control and underwrites a national official assurance system that provides zoosanitary trade guarantees for animals and animal products. South Africa started to develop the concept of compartmentalisation during the 1950s for the pig sector, due to African swine fever being endemic in wildlife in the north of the country, where certain biosecurity measures were used to protect domestic pigs. Compartmentalisation protocols were formalised and officially published from 2001 as voluntary systems, first for the pig industry and later for the poultry (chicken and ostrich) industry. South Africa uses five basic principles for animal health compartmentalisation, namely, segregation, biosecurity, record-keeping, surveillance and official inspection. These are applied in line with the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code guidelines. Industry and the farmer bear the costs of compartmentalisation and, in turn, obtain not only animal disease protection but also trade advantages due to health assurances. Compartmentalisation ensures optimal use of government resources as the expenses for animal disease control are shared with private industries. International acceptance and standardisation of compartments is advocated as a measure to provide assurances for disease freedom, based on risk-specific mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Animais , Doenças dos Suínos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Saúde Global , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609724

RESUMO

Data on the transfer of artificial radionuclides from the environment to the food supply is necessary for internal dose assessment. There is a necessity for expanding and improving the available information on these factors in order to make better dose models for specific scenarios. This paper describes the results of a field experiment with broiler chickens on the transfer factor (Ff) and concentration ratio (CR) for the long-term intake of 241Am and 137Cs with grass meal and soil. The broilers were divided into two groups, each group had nine subgroups and each subgroup had three broilers. The radionuclide concentrations in the feed and the thigh muscle, thigh bone, and liver of 54 broilers divided between the grass meal and soil groups were evaluated by gamma spectrometry for 241Am and 137Cs. The duration of feeding with "contaminated" sources ranged between 1-70 days. The equilibrium stage of 241Am in muscle and bone occurs on the 1st and 40th day, respectively; for 137Cs in muscle- 30th days of intake and for liver and bone- 7th days. For 241Am, the liver did not reach equilibrium stage during the 70 days of intake. Ff of 137Cs in the "forage-muscle" and "soil-muscle" systems were determined as 1.9±0.3 and 0.18±0.05; Ff of 241Am in the "soil-muscle" system was-7.5×10-5.


Assuntos
Amerício/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Galinhas , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Aves Domésticas , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Amerício/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Radioisótopos de Césio/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(27): 887-892, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644986

RESUMO

Meat and poultry processing facilities face distinctive challenges in the control of infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). COVID-19 outbreaks among meat and poultry processing facility workers can rapidly affect large numbers of persons. Assessment of COVID-19 cases among workers in 115 meat and poultry processing facilities through April 27, 2020, documented 4,913 cases and 20 deaths reported by 19 states (1). This report provides updated aggregate data from states regarding the number of meat and poultry processing facilities affected by COVID-19, the number and demographic characteristics of affected workers, and the number of COVID-19-associated deaths among workers, as well as descriptions of interventions and prevention efforts at these facilities. Aggregate data on confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths among workers identified and reported through May 31, 2020, were obtained from 239 affected facilities (those with a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case in one or more workers) in 23 states.* COVID-19 was confirmed in 16,233 workers, including 86 COVID-19-related deaths. Among 14 states reporting the total number of workers in affected meat and poultry processing facilities (112,616), COVID-19 was diagnosed in 9.1% of workers. Among 9,919 (61%) cases in 21 states with reported race/ethnicity, 87% occurred among racial and ethnic minority workers. Commonly reported interventions and prevention efforts at facilities included implementing worker temperature or symptom screening and COVID-19 education, mandating face coverings, adding hand hygiene stations, and adding physical barriers between workers. Targeted workplace interventions and prevention efforts that are appropriately tailored to the groups most affected by COVID-19 are critical to reducing both COVID-19-associated occupational risk and health disparities among vulnerable populations. Implementation of these interventions and prevention efforts† across meat and poultry processing facilities nationally could help protect workers in this critical infrastructure industry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Aves Domésticas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Waste Manag ; 115: 65-73, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731135

RESUMO

Technology for the transformation of waste feathers to quality regenerated filaments has been developed. Regardless of superior properties of natural keratin materials, previously developed regenerated materials from keratin had tensile properties much lower than their natural counterparts due to backbone hydrolysis and inefficient reconstruction of disulfide crosslinkages. In this work, tough keratin filaments have been regenerated from white duck feathers via efficient restoration of disulfide crosslinkages using a dithiol reducing agent. Dithiol substantially reserves free thiol groups in the extraction and formed lengthy intermolecular crosslinkages in regenerated keratin filaments. Due to the high degree of intermolecular reconstruction of disulfide bonds and formation of lengthy crosslinkages via dithiol chain-extension, the keratin filaments exhibited considerable improvements in mechanical properties, especially for ductility and water stability. The tenacity and elongation at break were 160.7 MPa and 14%, respectively. The filaments retained about 80% of the tenacity of natural feathers at either dry or wet conditions and demonstrated stretchability 150% higher than natural feathers. The fiber regeneration technology makes it possible to substitute primary fiber sources by renewable poultry feathers. Successful filament substitution or addition can bring more than 88-billion-dollar revenue. The technology not only contributes to a sustainable fiber and poultry industry but adds substantial values to poultry feathers.


Assuntos
Plumas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Queratinas , Resistência à Tração
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139494, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480151

RESUMO

Concentrated land spreading of poultry litter has the potential to cause nutrient build-up in soils, eutrophication of water bodies, air pollution and the spread of pathogens. As a result, alternative routes for the disposal of poultry litter are being sought. A consequential life cycle assessment was conducted to examine several scenarios where biogas produced from poultry litter is used to generate heat and electricity or is upgraded to biomethane which can substitute natural gas. For all of the scenarios considered in this study, diverting poultry litter to anaerobic digestion leads to reduced environmental impacts for global warming, fine particulate matter formation and terrestrial acidification. However, the extent to which environmental impacts are reduced varies significantly across the scenarios. Displaced processes including electricity or natural gas, peat moss production and avoided land spreading of litter contribute the most to reducing environmental impacts. Consequential life cycle assessment is a suitable tool to inform decision-makers about the impact of introducing a new multifunctional technology like anaerobic digestion when considering the systems which are displaced. The results show the range of potential environmental outcomes, rather than predicting a single most-likely outcome. The results of this study indicate that anaerobic digestion is a suitable disposal route for poultry litter which may lead to reduced environmental impacts. This type of analysis is recommended when considering alternative feedstocks and valorisation pathways in the circular economy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Aves Domésticas , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Meio Ambiente
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