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1.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5439-5444, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886601

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccobacillus-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain H23T48T, was isolated from the faecal sample of an oriental stork collected from the Seoul Grand Park Zoo in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Optimal growth of strain H23T48T was observed at 30-37 °C, pH 8 and with 3 % (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain H23T48T was closely related to the genus Flaviflexus, with 97.0 and 96.7 % sequence similarities to Flaviflexus salsibiostraticola EBR4-1-2T and Flaviflexus huanghaiensis H5T, respectively. Strain H23T48T possessed MK-9(H4) as the major menaquinone and C16 : 0 (42.4 %), C18 : 1 ω9c (31.3 %) and C14 : 0 (17.7 %) as the major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids, six unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified glycophospholipids. The amino acid composition of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was l-alanine, l-lysine, d-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid and glycine. The genomic G+C content of strain H23T48T is 59.5 mol% and the average nucleotide identity value between H23T48T and F. salsibiostraticola KCT C33148T (=EBR4-1-2T) is 75.5 %. Based on the obtained data, strain H23T48T represents a novel species of the genus Flaviflexus, for which the name Flaviflexus ciconiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H23T48T (=KCTC 49253T=JCM 33282T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetaceae/classificação , Aves/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinomycetaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756497

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) poses a public health concern worldwide. Wild birds and rodents, due to their mobility, are potential vehicles for transmission of AMR bacteria to humans. Ninety-six wild birds' faecal samples and 135 rodents' droppings samples were collected and analysed in 2017. Forty-six E. coli isolates from wild birds and rodents were subjected to AMR phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. The proportion of E. coli isolates resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested from wild birds (80.8%) was significantly higher than that of isolates from rodents (40.0%). The proportion of E. coli isolates resistant to each antimicrobial class for wild birds was 3.8% to 73.1% and that for rodents was 5.0% to 35.0%. Six out of 26 E. coli isolates from wild birds (23.1%) and two out of 20 (10.0%) isolates from rodents were multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. These MDR E. coli isolates were detected with various antimicrobial resistance genes such as blaTEM-1B and qnrS1 and could be considered as part of the environmental resistome. Findings in this study suggested that wild birds and rodents could play a role in disseminating antimicrobial resistant E. coli, and this underscores the necessity of environment management and close monitoring on AMR bacteria in wild birds and rodents to prevent spreading of resistant organisms to other wildlife animals and humans.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Humanos , Roedores/microbiologia , Singapura
3.
Nature ; 584(7821): 398-402, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759999

RESUMO

Land use change-for example, the conversion of natural habitats to agricultural or urban ecosystems-is widely recognized to influence the risk and emergence of zoonotic disease in humans1,2. However, whether such changes in risk are underpinned by predictable ecological changes remains unclear. It has been suggested that habitat disturbance might cause predictable changes in the local diversity and taxonomic composition of potential reservoir hosts, owing to systematic, trait-mediated differences in species resilience to human pressures3,4. Here we analyse 6,801 ecological assemblages and 376 host species worldwide, controlling for research effort, and show that land use has global and systematic effects on local zoonotic host communities. Known wildlife hosts of human-shared pathogens and parasites overall comprise a greater proportion of local species richness (18-72% higher) and total abundance (21-144% higher) in sites under substantial human use (secondary, agricultural and urban ecosystems) compared with nearby undisturbed habitats. The magnitude of this effect varies taxonomically and is strongest for rodent, bat and passerine bird zoonotic host species, which may be one factor that underpins the global importance of these taxa as zoonotic reservoirs. We further show that mammal species that harbour more pathogens overall (either human-shared or non-human-shared) are more likely to occur in human-managed ecosystems, suggesting that these trends may be mediated by ecological or life-history traits that influence both host status and tolerance to human disturbance5,6. Our results suggest that global changes in the mode and the intensity of land use are creating expanding hazardous interfaces between people, livestock and wildlife reservoirs of zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Aves/virologia , Humanos , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Mamíferos/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760155

RESUMO

Disease transmission can be identified in a social network from the structural patterns of contact. However, it is difficult to separate contagious processes from those driven by homophily, and multiple pathways of transmission or inexact information on the timing of infection can obscure the detection of true transmission events. Here, we analyze the dynamic social network of a large, and near-complete population of 16,430 zoo birds tracked daily over 22 years to test a novel "friends-of-friends" strategy for detecting contagion in a social network. The results show that cases of avian mycobacteriosis were significantly clustered among pairs of birds that had been in direct contact. However, since these clusters might result due to correlated traits or a shared environment, we also analyzed pairs of birds that had never been in direct contact but were indirectly connected in the network via other birds. The disease was also significantly clustered among these friends of friends and a reverse-time placebo test shows that homophily could not be causing the clustering. These results provide empirical evidence that at least some avian mycobacteriosis infections are transmitted between birds, and provide new methods for detecting contagious processes in large-scale global network structures with indirect contacts, even when transmission pathways, timing of cases, or etiologic agents are unknown.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Infecções por Mycobacterium/transmissão , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645064

RESUMO

The reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis is primarily considered to be poultry, but also other such as ruminants, pets and environmental sources are related with infection burden. Multilocus sequence typing is often used for Campylobacter epidemiological studies to determine potential sources of human infections. The collection of 420 Campylobacter jejuni isolates with assigned MLST genotype from poultry (n = 139), cattle (n = 48) and wild birds (n = 101) were used in source attribution analysis. Asymmetric island model with accurate and congruent self-attribution results, was used to determine potential sources of human C. jejuni infections (n = 132) in Baltic States. Source attribution analysis revealed that poultry (88.3%) is the main source of C. jejuni human infections followed by cattle and wild bird with 9.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that clinical cases of C. jejuni infections in Baltic countries are mainly linked to poultry, but also to cattle and wild bird sources.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Países Bálticos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008850, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511244

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and bacteraemia worldwide, and a model organism for the study of host-pathogen interactions. Two S. Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and ATCC14028) are widely used to study host-pathogen interactions, yet genotypic variation results in strains with diverse host range, pathogenicity and risk to food safety. The population structure of diverse strains of S. Typhimurium revealed a major phylogroup of predominantly sequence type 19 (ST19) and a minor phylogroup of ST36. The major phylogroup had a population structure with two high order clades (α and ß) and multiple subclades on extended internal branches, that exhibited distinct signatures of host adaptation and anthropogenic selection. Clade α contained a number of subclades composed of strains from well characterized epidemics in domesticated animals, while clade ß contained multiple subclades associated with wild avian species. The contrasting epidemiology of strains in clade α and ß was reflected by the distinct distribution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, accumulation of hypothetically disrupted coding sequences (HDCS), and signatures of functional diversification. These observations were consistent with elevated anthropogenic selection of clade α lineages from adaptation to circulation in populations of domesticated livestock, and the predisposition of clade ß lineages to undergo adaptation to an invasive lifestyle by a process of convergent evolution with of host adapted Salmonella serotypes. Gene flux was predominantly driven by acquisition and recombination of prophage and associated cargo genes, with only occasional loss of these elements. The acquisition of large chromosomally-encoded genetic islands was limited, but notably, a feature of two recent pandemic clones (DT104 and monophasic S. Typhimurium ST34) of clade α (SGI-1 and SGI-4).


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Filogenia , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Seleção Genética , Sorogrupo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10174, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576851

RESUMO

This research study was conducted to determine if bird depredation in feedlots is associated with the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in cattle and to determine if removal of invasive bird species could be an effective management strategy to help reduce ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in cattle within the United States. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were collected from feedlots within multiple geographic regions within the United States and European starlings within all regions tested positive for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, but prevalence differed by region. Total number of birds on feedlots were positively associated with increased cattle fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. Targeted control of invasive European starlings reduced bird numbers on feedlots by 70.4%, but decreasing populations of European starlings was not associated with corresponding reductions in bovine fecal prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli. These data provide evidence for the role of wild bird depredation in feedlots contributing to fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, but a single month of European starling control in feedlots was not sufficient to impact the fecal carriage of this organism in cattle.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Gado/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Estorninhos/microbiologia , Estados Unidos
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3775-3784, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501787

RESUMO

Six isolates of Campylobacter with similar non-standard colonial morphologies were identified during studies isolating Campylobacter from bird faeces and rivers in New Zealand. Genomic (16S rRNA gene sequencing and whole genome analysis) and phenotypic (MALDI-TOF analysis and conventional biochemical tests) showed that the isolates form a monophyletic clade with genetic relationships to Campylobacter coli/Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter peloridis/Campylobacter amoricus. They may be distinguished from other Campylobacter by their MALDI-TOF spectral pattern, their florid α-haemolysis, their ability to grow anaerobically at 37 °C, and on 2 % NaCl nutrient agar, and their lack of hippuricase. This study shows that these isolates represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter for which the name Campylobacter novaezeelandiae sp. nov. is proposed. The presence of C. novaezeelandiae in water may be a confounder for freshwater microbial risk assessment as they may not be pathogenic for humans. The type strain is B423bT (=NZRM 4741T=ATCC TSD-167T).


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Campylobacter/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rios/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Nova Zelândia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3247-3254, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375988

RESUMO

A novel, Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain H21T32T, was isolated from the faeces of an Oriental stork, Ciconia boyciana. Cells formed cocci grouped in pairs, tetrads or conglomerates, and colonies on solid medium were pale yellow. Strain H21T32T belonged to the genus Jeotgalibaca, family Carnobacteriaceae, order Lactobacillales and class Bacilli. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the strain showed 97.06-97.34, 96.17-96.31 and 95.93-96.07 % similarity to the type strains of Jeotgalibaca arthritidis, J. porci and J. dankookensis, respectively. The strain grew at 10-37 °C (optimum temperature: 30 °C), with 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum salinity: 0.5 %) and at pH 7-9 (optimum pH: 8). The main cellular fatty acids were C16 : 1 ω9c, C18 : 1 ω9c and C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. Respiratory quinones were not detected. Sugar components of the peptidoglycan were rhamnose, ribose and glucose. Amino acid components of the cell wall were l-alanine, d-glucose, l-lysine, glycine and aspartic acid. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 37.1 mol%. Average nucleotide identity between strain H21T32T and J. arthritidis CECT 9157T was 77.02 %, confirming that strain H21T32T represents a novel species of the genus Jeotgalibaca, for which the name Jeotgalibaca ciconiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H21T32T (=KCTC 33991T=JCM 33222T).


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Carnobacteriaceae/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Carnobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298318

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the most important poultry pathogens that can also infect wild birds, but knowledge of potential non-poultry hosts that could be reservoirs of M. gallisepticum is limited. For the paper presented here, we screened three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and the Web of Knowledge) to find articles on the occurrence of M. gallisepticum in different wild bird species that were published between 1951 and 2018. Among 314 studies found, we selected and included 50 original articles that met the pre-established criteria. From those publications we extracted the following information: name of the first author, year of publication, year of sample isolation, country, region, number of birds sampled, number of birds tested by each method, number of positive samples, diagnostic criteria, and if birds were wild or captive. Because different detection techniques were used to confirm the presence of M. gallisepticum in one animal, we decided to perform the meta analyses separately for each method. The estimated prevalence of M. gallisepticum in wild birds was different by each method of detection. Our summary revealed that M. gallisepticum was present in 56 species of bird belonging to 11 different orders, of which 21 species were reported suffering both past and current infection. Our work provides information on wild bird species that could be considered potential reservoirs or carriers of M. gallisepticum and could be helpful to set the direction for future research on the spread and phylogeny of M. gallisepticum in different hosts.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Ann Epidemiol ; 44: 60-63, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Psittacosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) psittaci that infects birds. Although potentially fatal, infections can be reduced by controlling the source of infection. We therefore described the epidemiology of psittacosis, focusing on the infection source. METHODS: We descriptively analyzed psittacosis cases reported through national surveillance in Japan from 2007 to 2016. We also analyzed Chlamydia psittaci prevalence among captive psittaciformes during the same period. RESULTS: One hundred eleven cases were reported, and the annual number and notification rate of psittacosis declined. While 58% were male and the median age was 61 years, the median age differed by gender (males: 63 years, females: 53 years), with more female cases in those aged <50 years. In addition, the most common infection source differed by gender (men: columbiformes; women: psittaciformes). The decline in notifications was associated with a decline in psittaciformes-associated cases, with a concomitant decline in female cases. The prevalence of C. psittaci among captive psittaciformes also decreased over the period. CONCLUSIONS: We found important differences in the epidemiology of psittacosis by gender, and the recent decrease in notifications correlated with decreasing C. psittaci prevalence in birds. Risk communications for psittacosis should consider the current epidemiology regarding gender, age, and infection source.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Distribuição por Sexo , Zoonoses
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 220-225, Mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135611

RESUMO

Brazil is one of the countries with the most abundant avifauna in the world. The confinement of birds associated with close contact with other animals and humans favor the spread of agents of respiratory diseases. Among them, mycoplasmas can cause asymptomatic or apparent disease that manifests in birds by coughing, sneezing, rales, conjunctivitis, ocular and nasal discharge. Several described mycoplasmas cause disease in birds, especially Mycoplasma gallisepticum(MG) andMycoplasma synoviae(MS). The diagnosis ofMycoplasmaspp. can be done by clinical observation and laboratory analysis. Molecular diagnosis by PCR was boosted by its speed, sensitivity, and low cost of agent isolation techniques that take up to 21 days to complete. This study aimed to verify the occurrence ofMycoplasmaspp. in birds of the Rio de Janeiro Zoo (Rio Zoo), by isolation and PCR. Of the total 635 birds from the Rio Zoo, 81 were studied for detection ofMycoplasmaspp., when taken for routine health assessment exams. These birds belonged to the following orders: Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) and Cariamiformes (1), all individuals already identified by microchip or leg-ring. There was no isolation of mycoplasmas in any of the samples tested, whereas, in the PCR, 62.96% (51/81) were positive, with 1.96% (1/51) identified as MG and 19.61% (10/51) as MS, representing 1.23% (1/81) and 12.34% (10/81) of the total population studied. PCR was shown to be a more effective technique than isolation in the detection ofMycoplasmaspp. in birds. It was possible to detect mycoplasmas in birds from Riozoo with no clinical respiratory signs, with higher MS prevalence than MG. The positivities forMycoplasmaspp., MS, and MG were different among the orders studied, being the highest occurrence in birds of prey, followed by Galliformes and Piciformes. The presence of MG and MS in birds of Rio de Janeiro Zoo confirms the circulation of these agents and the need for further studies on the dissemination of mycoplasmas in zoos for the epidemiological analysis of these bacteria in these places.(AU)


O Brasil é um dos países com maior avifauna do mundo. O confinamento de aves associado ao contato próximo a outros animais e seres humanos favorece a disseminação de agentes etiológicos causadores de doenças respiratórias. Dentre eles, os micoplasmas podem causar doença assintomática ou aparente que se manifesta em aves por espirros, estertores, conjuntivite, corrimentos oculares e nasais. São diversos os micoplasmas descritos causadores de doença em aves, com destaque para Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) e Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). O diagnóstico de Mycoplasma spp. pode ser feito pela observação clínica e análises laboratoriais. O diagnóstico molecular pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) ganhou impulso por sua rapidez, sensibilidade e baixo custo em relação às técnicas de isolamento do agente que levam até 21 dias para conclusão do gênero Mycoplasma. Objetivou-se verificar a ocorrência da infecção por Mycoplasma spp. em aves no Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio Zoo), por isolamento e PCR. Do plantel de 635 aves do Rio Zoo, foram estudadas 81 para detecção de Mycoplasma spp., quando contidas para exames rotineiros de avaliação da condição de saúde. Essas aves eram pertencentes às ordens Psittaciformes (45), Accipitriformes (18), Galliformes (7), Piciformes (5), Strigiformes (4), Falconiformes (1) e Cariamiformes (1), todas já identificadas por microchip ou por anilha. Não houve isolamento de micoplasmas em nenhuma das amostras testadas, enquanto na PCR, 62,96% (51/81) foram positivas, sendo 1,96% (1/51) identificadas como MG e 19,61% (10/51) como MS, representando 1,23% (1/81) e 12,34% (10/81) da população total estudada. A PCR demonstrou ser uma técnica mais efetiva que o isolamento na detecção de Mycoplasma spp. em aves. Foi possível detectar micoplasmas nas aves do Riozoo sem sinal clínico respiratório, tendo MS maior prevalência do que MG. As positividades para Mycoplasma spp., MG e MS foram diferentes entre as ordens de aves estudadas, sendo a maior ocorrência nas aves de rapina, seguida dos Galliformes e dos Piciformes. A presença de MG e MS nas aves do Rio de Janeiro Zoo confirma a circulação destes agentes e a necessidade de mais estudos sobre a disseminação de micoplasmas em zoológicos para análise epidemiológica dessas bactérias nesse local.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Aves Predatórias/microbiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Galliformes/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 51, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), are responsible for host diseases such as Neonatal Meningitis Escherichia coli (NMEC), the second-leading cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis, Avian Pathogenic E. coli (APEC), a cause of extraintestinal disease in poultry, and Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), the most common cause of urinary tract infections. Virulence factors associated with NMEC include outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and type I fimbriae (FimH), which also occur in APEC and UPEC. OmpA contributes to NMEC's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, persist in the bloodstream and has been identified as a potential vaccine target for ExPEC, however the protein has amino acid variants, which may influence virulence of strains or alter vaccine efficacy. Although OmpA is present in virtually all E. coli, differences in its amino acid residues have yet to be surveyed in ExPEC. RESULTS: Here the ompA gene (n = 399) from ExPEC collections were sequenced and translated in silico. Twenty-five different OmpA polymorphism patterns were identified. Seven polymorphism patterns were significantly associated with an ExPEC subpathotype, but chromosomal history most likely accounts for most differences found. The differences in OmpA protein sequences suggest that OmpA may influence variation in virulence and host specificity within ExPEC subpathotypes.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Aves/microbiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Filogenia , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 121-128, Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098444

RESUMO

Necropsy protocols of the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" were reviewed, ranging the period from 2000 to 2018. Three hundred eighty one necropsies, 25 refrigerated and/or formaline fixed organs, and seven biopsies were received, representing 413 samples. Most of these materials were sent by the "Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre" of "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) and were from municipalities within the range area of LRD-UFPel influence. Of the 413 cases 55 (13.31%) corresponded to metabolic/nutritional diseases; 50 (12.10%) to trauma; 35 (8.47%) to bacterial diseases/toxi-infections; 30 (7.26%) to parasitic diseases; 28 (6.77%) to fungal diseases; four (0.97%) to viral diseases and 17 (4.11%) to other diseases. Cases where it was not possible to determine the etiology, were in severe autolysis or were inconclusive totaled 194 (46.97%). Metabolic/nutritional diseases and traumatic injuries were the main cause of death in wild birds', being Passeriformes the most affected order.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos diagnósticos de causas de morte e de lesões em aves silvestres na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul de 2000 a 2018. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais de aves silvestres encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas no período. Foram recebidos 381 cadáveres para necropsia, 25 órgãos refrigerados e/ou em formol e 7 biopsias, totalizando 413 materiais. A maioria desses materiais foi remetida pelo Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) e provenientes de municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. Dos 413 casos 55 (13,31%) corresponderam a doenças metabólicas/nutricionais; 50 (12,10%) a traumas; 35 (8,47%) a doenças bacterianas/toxi-infecções; 30 (7,26%) a doenças parasitárias; 28 (6,77%) doenças fúngicas; 4 (0,97%) doenças virais e 17(4,12%) outras doenças que não se encaixavam nas categorias. Ainda em nos casos em que não foi possível determinar a etiologia, apresentaram autólise acentuada ou foram inconclusivos somaram 194 (46,97%). As doenças metabólicas/nutricionais e lesões traumáticas foram as principais causas de morte de aves silvestres, sendo a ordem mais afetada a Passeriformes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/lesões , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Biópsia/veterinária , Zoonoses
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(5): 983-993, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901964

RESUMO

The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable species, breeding exclusively on the high-altitude wetlands of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Bird species harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their gastrointestinal tracts, which have important roles in the health, nutrition, and physiology of birds. Hitherto, virtually nothing was known about the gut microbial communities associated with wild black-necked cranes. For the first time, this study characterized the gut microbial community compositions, diversity, and functions of black-necked cranes from six wintering areas in China using the Illumina Miseq platform. The taxonomic results revealed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the four most abundant phyla in the gut of black-necked cranes. At the genus level, 11 genera including Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Carnobacterium, Pantoea, Enterococcus, Erwinia, Turicibacter, Bacillus, Phenylobacterium, Sanguibacter, and Psychrobacter were dominant. The differences in the gut microbial community alpha and the beta diversities of black-necked cranes among the six wintering areas were investigated. Furthermore, the representative microbial taxa and their predicted functions in each wintering location were also determined. These data represent the first analysis of the gut microbiome of black-necked cranes, providing a baseline for further microbiological studies and a foundation for the conservation of this bird.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Aves/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Aves/fisiologia , China , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbiota , Proteobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estações do Ano , Tibet , Áreas Alagadas
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e1, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910921

RESUMO

Chlamydia spp. are a group of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a number of diseases in animals and humans. Avian chlamydiosis (AC), caused by Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) as well as new emerging C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. ibidis, have been described in nearly 500 avian species worldwidely. The Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) is a world endangered avian species with limited population and vulnerable for various infections. To get a better understanding of the prevalence of Chlamydia spp. in the endangered Crested Ibis, faecal samples were collected and analysed. The results confirmed that 20.20% (20/99) of the faecal samples were positive for Chlamydiaceae and were identified as C. ibidis with co-existence of C. psittaci in one of the 20 positive samples. In addition, ompA sequence of C. psittaci obtained in this study was classified into the provisional genotype Matt116, while that of C. ibidis showed high genetic diversity, sharing only 77% identity with C. ibidis reference strain 10-1398/6. We report for the first time the presence of C. ibidis and C. psittaci in the Crested Ibis, which may indicate a potential threat to the endangered birds and should be aware of the future protection practice.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Chlamydia/classificação , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 13, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella is a genus of Gram-negative facultative intracellular Alphaproteobacteria of public health importance. Although they are known to mainly infect mammalian hosts with some blood-feeding arthropods having been confirmed as vectors, there is some evidence of Bartonella association with non-mammalian hosts including birds. METHODS: Here we used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and Sanger sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) genes to test for the presence of Bartonellaceae in the blood of three migratory cavity nesting bird species, purple martins (Progne subis), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and their most prevalent and abundant nest ectoparasites, Dermanyssus prognephilus (mite), Ceratophyllus idius (flea) and Protocalliphora sialia (bird blow fly larva). We constructed maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees to verify the placement of the resulting sequences in the Bartonellaceae. RESULTS: We found evidence of Bartonella in all three bird species and all three arthropod species tested. We report multiple instances of identical Bartonella sequences in both birds and parasites, leading to the likely hypothesis that these ectoparasites are potential vectors of Bartonella. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that 'avian Bartonella' may form its own sub-clade within the genus Bartonella. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first confirmation of overlapping Bartonella strains among bird hosts and various species of nest-associated ectoparasites from the same system, suggesting a possible Bartonella host-vector relationship between these arthropods and a non-mammalian host. Our study adds to the growing appreciation of the Bartonellaceae as a phylogenetically diverse group with a wide range of hosts.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Bartonella/genética , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/sangue , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Dípteros/microbiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Genes Bacterianos , Metagenômica/métodos , Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(5)2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862724

RESUMO

In 2006, New Zealand had the highest notification rate of campylobacteriosis in the world, and poultry was considered the leading source of campylobacteriosis. Implementation of food safety interventions by the poultry industry led to a decrease in the campylobacteriosis notification rate. The aim is to examine the impact of targeted food safety interventions implemented by the New Zealand poultry industry on the source attribution of Campylobacter jejuni infections in a sentinel region. Campylobacter jejuni isolates collected from the Manawatu region of New Zealand between 2005 and 2007 ("before intervention") and 2008 and 2015 ("after intervention") from human clinical cases, chicken meat, ruminant feces, environmental water, and wild bird sources were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing. Viable counts of Campylobacter spp. from carcasses were analyzed using a zero-inflated Poisson regression model. In the period before intervention, sequence type 474 (ST-474) was the most common sequence type (ST) recovered from human cases, accounting for 28.2% of the isolates. After intervention, the proportion of human cases positive for ST-474 reduced to 9.3%. Modeling indicated that chicken meat, primarily from one supplier, was the main source of C. jejuni infection in the Manawatu region before intervention. However, after intervention poultry collectively had a similar attribution to ruminants, but more human cases were attributed to ruminants than any single chicken supplier. Viable counts on carcasses were lower in all poultry suppliers after intervention. This study provides evidence of changes in the source attribution of campylobacteriosis following targeted food safety interventions in one sector of the food supply chain.IMPORTANCE This study provides a unique insight into the effects of food safety interventions implemented in one sector of the food industry on the transmission routes of a major foodborne agent. Following the implementation of food safety interventions by the poultry industry, shifts in the molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in a sentinel region of New Zealand were observed. Targeted interventions to reduce disease incidence are effective but require continued surveillance and analysis to indicate where further interventions may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Água Doce/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Galinhas , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Nova Zelândia , Ruminantes
19.
ISME J ; 14(1): 318-321, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624349

RESUMO

Human modification of the environment, particularly through land-use change, often reduces animal species diversity. However, the effect of land-use change on the gut microbiome of wildlife in human-dominated landscapes is not well understood despite its potential consequences for host health. We sought to quantify the effect of land-use change on wild bird gut microbiomes in a countryside landscape in Costa Rica, comprising a range of habitat types, ranging from primary and secondary forests to diversified and monoculture farms. We collected 280 fresh fecal samples from individuals belonging to six common species of saltator, thrushes, and warblers at 24 sites across this land-use gradient. Through 16S rRNA community profiling, we found that bacterial species composition responded to host species identity more strongly than to habitat type. In addition, we found evidence that habitat type affected microbial composition only for two of the six bird species. Our findings indicate that some host species and their microbiota may be more vulnerable to human disturbances than others.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Costa Rica , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
20.
Microb Ecol ; 79(1): 30-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055618

RESUMO

The increased incidence of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of wild birds, given their capacity of migrating over long distances, in the spreading of carbapenemase, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL), and acquired-AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the environment. Fecal and pellet samples were recovered from 150 wild birds in seven Tunisian regions and were inoculated in MacConkey-agar plates for Enterobacteriaceae recovery (one isolate/animal). Ninety-nine isolates were obtained and acquired resistance mechanisms were characterized in the five detected imipenem-resistant and/or cefotaxime-resistant isolates, by PCR and sequencing. The following ESBL, carbapenemase, and acquired-AmpC beta-lactamase genes were detected: blaCTX-M-15 (two Escherichia fergusonii and one Klebsiella oxytoca isolates), blaKPC-2 (one K. oxytoca), blaKPC-3 (one E. fergusonii), blaACT-36, and blaACC-2 (two K. oxytoca, four E. fergusonii, and two E. coli). The IncFIIs, IncF, IncFIB, IncK, IncP, and IncX replicons were detected among these beta-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae producers. The blaKPC-2, tetA, sul3, qnrB, and cmlA determinants were co-transferred by conjugation from K. oxytoca strain to E. coli J153, in association with IncK and IncF replicons. Our results support the implication of wild birds as a biological vector for carbapenemase, ESBL, and acquired-AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , África , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Aves/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , beta-Lactamases/genética
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