Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.267
Filtrar
1.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 13, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella is a genus of Gram-negative facultative intracellular Alphaproteobacteria of public health importance. Although they are known to mainly infect mammalian hosts with some blood-feeding arthropods having been confirmed as vectors, there is some evidence of Bartonella association with non-mammalian hosts including birds. METHODS: Here we used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and Sanger sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) genes to test for the presence of Bartonellaceae in the blood of three migratory cavity nesting bird species, purple martins (Progne subis), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and their most prevalent and abundant nest ectoparasites, Dermanyssus prognephilus (mite), Ceratophyllus idius (flea) and Protocalliphora sialia (bird blow fly larva). We constructed maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees to verify the placement of the resulting sequences in the Bartonellaceae. RESULTS: We found evidence of Bartonella in all three bird species and all three arthropod species tested. We report multiple instances of identical Bartonella sequences in both birds and parasites, leading to the likely hypothesis that these ectoparasites are potential vectors of Bartonella. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that 'avian Bartonella' may form its own sub-clade within the genus Bartonella. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, we provide the first confirmation of overlapping Bartonella strains among bird hosts and various species of nest-associated ectoparasites from the same system, suggesting a possible Bartonella host-vector relationship between these arthropods and a non-mammalian host. Our study adds to the growing appreciation of the Bartonellaceae as a phylogenetically diverse group with a wide range of hosts.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Bartonella/genética , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/sangue , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Dípteros/microbiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Genes Bacterianos , Metagenômica/métodos , Ácaros/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
2.
ISME J ; 14(1): 318-321, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624349

RESUMO

Human modification of the environment, particularly through land-use change, often reduces animal species diversity. However, the effect of land-use change on the gut microbiome of wildlife in human-dominated landscapes is not well understood despite its potential consequences for host health. We sought to quantify the effect of land-use change on wild bird gut microbiomes in a countryside landscape in Costa Rica, comprising a range of habitat types, ranging from primary and secondary forests to diversified and monoculture farms. We collected 280 fresh fecal samples from individuals belonging to six common species of saltator, thrushes, and warblers at 24 sites across this land-use gradient. Through 16S rRNA community profiling, we found that bacterial species composition responded to host species identity more strongly than to habitat type. In addition, we found evidence that habitat type affected microbial composition only for two of the six bird species. Our findings indicate that some host species and their microbiota may be more vulnerable to human disturbances than others.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Costa Rica , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
3.
Int. microbiol ; 22(4): 491-500, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185067

RESUMO

Hitherto, virtually nothing is known about the microbial communities related to the bird species in the family Corvidae. To fill this gap, the present study was conducted to provide a baseline description of the gut microbiota of wild red-billed choughs (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax). In this study, microbiota from four gastrointestinal locations (oropharynx, gizzard, small intestine, and large intestine) of three wild red-billed choughs were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform by targeting the V4-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA genes. The gut microbiota of the red-billed choughs were dominated by the phylum Firmicutes (59.56%), followed by Proteobacteria (16.56%), Bacteroidetes (13.86%), and Actinobacteria (7.03%), which were commonly detected in avian gut ecosystems. Genus-level compositions were found to be largely dominated by Lactobacillus (18.21%), Weissella (12.37%), Erysipelatoclostridium (6.94%), Bacteroides (6.63%), Escherichia-Shigella (5.15%), Leuconostoc (4.60%), Proteus (3.33%), Carnobacterium (2.71%), Lactococcus (1.69%), and Enterococcus (1.63%). The overall intestinal microbiota was enriched with functions related to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, purine metabolism, ribosome, transcription factors, pyrimidine metabolism, peptidases, and two-component system. In terms of four different gastrointestinal locations, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal coordinate analysis showed that microbial communities of the oropharynx, gizzard, small intestine, and large intestine formed four separated clusters. A total of 825 OTUs and 382 genera were detected in all four gastrointestinal locations, which were considered as the major microbes in the intestines of red-billed choughs. Coexistence of lactic acid bacteria and potential pathogens in the gut environments of red-billed choughs required further investigations


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Weissella/isolamento & purificação
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683716

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is a leading cause of foodborne zoonosis. To better understand the epidemiology of human salmonellosis, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and sequence types of Salmonella in retail food and wild birds (proximity to humans) in Singapore. We analyzed 21,428 cooked and ready-to-eat food and 1,510 residual faecal samples of wild birds collected during 2010-2015. Thirty-two Salmonella isolates from food and wild birds were subjected to disc diffusion and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Salmonella was isolated from 0.08% (17/21,428) of food and 0.99% (15/1510) of wild birds. None of the isolates from wild birds (n = 15) exhibited phenotypic resistance, while the isolates from food (47.1%, 8/17) showed a high prevalence of phenotypic resistance to, at least, one antimicrobial. These findings suggested that the avian Salmonella isolates had been subjected to less antimicrobial selection pressure than those from food samples. MLST revealed specific sequence types found in both food and wild birds. The study can guide future studies with whole-genome analysis on a larger number of isolates from various sectors for public health measures.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aves/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/genética , Singapura
5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101272, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481344

RESUMO

The continuous flow of billions of birds between Africa and Europe creates an "ecological bridge" between physically remote areas. Migratory birds fly south from their breeding grounds during late summer/fall and fly back in spring. These movements regulate the spread of internal and external parasites, as well as pathogens of potential public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible introduction of exotic tick species and tick-borne pathogens into Europe via migratory birds. At the bird observatory of Ventotene island (Italy), 443 feeding ticks were collected from 249 birds captured and ringed during their northbound migration in spring 2013. Each tick was identified by morphological and molecular methods and then tested for bacterial and viral pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Coxiella burnetii, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Flavivirus. Morphological and molecular identification confirmed Hyalomma rufipes as the most abundant species among the collected arthropods (366/443; 82.6%) followed by Hyalomma marginatum (10/433; 2.3%). Rickettsia aeschlimannii was identified in 158 ticks, while one engorged Amblyomma variegatum nymph was infected with Rickettsia africae. The other bacteria were not detected in any specimen. Among viruses, RNA belonging to West Nile virus and other Flavivirus were detected whereas all ticks were negative for CCHFV RNA. These results confirm how migratory birds play a role in carrying Rickettsia-infected ticks, as well as viruses of zoonotic importance, from Africa into Europe. To what extent tick species are capable of establishing a permanent population once introduced in naïve areas, is far from defined and deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Aves , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Aves/virologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Itália , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais
6.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 66: 101345, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476607

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of infectious diarrhea in humans. The bacterium can be transmitted through contaminated poultry meat and waste water. We report the presence of C. jejuni from potential transmission sources including egg shells, poultry waste, waste water and migratory bird droppings with a prevalence rate of 78%, 66%, 86% and 70% respectively. Antibiotic resistance profile showed high number of isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics including 4th generation cephalosporins. C. jejuni isolates were further screened for presence of T6SS, an important virulence factor. None of the C. jejuni isolates from migratory birds carried a T6SS, whereas highest prevalence of T6SS isolates was observed in waste water samples, followed by poultry waste and egg shells. To determine virulence potential of the isolates, hemolytic activity of isolates was compared. Although variation in hemolytic potential between isolates from different sources was noted, higher hemolytic activity was observed for isolates possessing hcp, a T6SS gene. Furthermore, presence of T6SS affords the bacterium some survival advantage when compared to T6SS competent Helicobacter pullorum which occupies the same niche. Taken together our findings indicate that C. jejuni with T6SS have a fitness advantage increasing their isolation frequency from waste water and poultry waste.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/patogenicidade , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Migração Animal , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/transmissão , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1219-1222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429665

RESUMO

Plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance has emerged as one of the principal global issues, posing significant threats to public health. Herein, we reported a mobile tigecycline resistance mechanism Tet(X4) on both plasmid and chromosome in Escherichia coli strains from migratory birds in China. Besides tigecycline, these tet(X4)-positive strains also exhibited elevated MICs to the FDA newly approved tetracycline antibiotics, eravacycline (4 µg/ml) and omadacycline (8 µg/ml). Worrisomely, the tet(X4)-carrying plasmids and chromosome also shared high homology with the plasmids from human. Taken together, Tet(X4) represents another emerging antimicrobial threat and collective efforts from different sectors are needed to control its further spread.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Animais , China , Cromossomos Bacterianos , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos , Homologia de Sequência , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007814, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437258

RESUMO

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a life-threatening diarrheal disease. Cholera causes epidemics and pandemics, but the ways this disease spreads worldwide is still unclear. This review highlights a relatively new hypothesis regarding the way V. cholerae can be globally dispersed. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of V. cholerae and are part of different fish species' diet. Furthermore, V. cholerae inhabits marine and freshwater fish species. Waterbird species feed on fish or on small invertebrates such as copepods and chironomids. Waterbirds have also been found to carry living copepods and/or chironomids internally or externally from one waterbody to another. All of the above points to the fact that some waterbird species might be vectors of V. cholerae. Indeed, we and others have found evidence for the presence of V. cholerae non-O1 as well as O1 in waterbird cloacal swabs, feces, and intestine samples. Moreover, hand-reared cormorants that were fed on tilapia, a fish that naturally carries V. cholerae, became infected with this bacterial species, demonstrating that V. cholerae can be transferred to cormorants from their fish prey. Great cormorants as well as other waterbird species can cover distances of up to 1,000 km/day and thus may potentially transfer V. cholerae in a short time across and between continents. We hope this review will inspire further studies regarding the understanding of the waterbirds' role in the global dissemination of V. cholerae.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Cólera/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Água Doce , Humanos , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação
9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101261, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337544

RESUMO

Rickettsia parkeri sensu stricto (s.s.) is an emerging human pathogen in the Americas. Comprehension of the etiology of R. parkeri infections in South America is complicated by the existence of genetic variants (Atlantic rainforest, NOD and Parvitarsum) of this species that are associated with specific groups of Amblyomma ticks. The rickettsial bacterium strain ApPR was first reported in Amblyomma parkeri ticks in Southern Brazil in 2012 and was considered, based on sequencing of fragments of the gltA, htrA, ompA and ompB genes, to represent yet another genetic variant of R. parkeri. In the current work, a multi-locus phylogenetic analysis employing additional genes and intragenic regions was performed using DNA extracted from (a) larvae of A. parkeri and Amblyomma species haplotype Nazaré ticks collected from wild birds, (b) a nymph of Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré recovered from a monkey (Callicebus nigrifons), representing the first report of that tick parasitizing a non-human primate and (c) from a cultured isolate of ApPR, isolated from colony-reared adults of Amblyomma geayi. Phylogenetic inference performed using Maximum-likelihood (ML), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) methods, consistently placed strain ApPR outside the New World R. parkeri complex and instead grouped it in proximity to the Old World species Rickettsia africae and Rickettsia sibirica. Estimates of evolutionary divergence provided additional support for the inferred phylogenetic relationship. Given the clear evolutionary distance between strain ApPR and R. parkeri we propose the recognition of "Candidatus Rickettsia paranaensis".


Assuntos
Ixodidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Intergênico/análise , Feminino , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Filogenia , Pitheciidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1291-1293, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292336

RESUMO

The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in 376 Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from fecal samples of Hooded and White-naped cranes was investigated on the Izumi plain in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan, during winter 2016 and 2017. Resistance to oxytetracycline, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid were observed in 10.9%, 3.1-4.4%, and 2.1-7.7% of isolates, respectively. Since the previous surveillance in 2007, isolation rates of antibiotic-resistant E. coli recovered from wild cranes have remained at significantly low levels compared with those in Japanese livestock. Our results indicate that surveillance of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from wild cranes wintering in the Izumi plain could be a useful strategy to indicate natural environmental pollution by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Migração Animal , Animais , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Japão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estações do Ano
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2948-2953, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282852

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-violet-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain H11R3T, was isolated from the feces of Oriental stork, Ciconia boyciana, collected from Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that H11R3T formed a monophyletic clade with Iodobacter fluviatilisDSM 3764T, Iodobacter arcticusDSM 100243T, and Iodobacter limnosediminisDSM 103822T, with sequence similarities of 98.8, 98.6 and 98.4 %, respectively. H11R3T grew optimally at 15 °C, pH 8, with 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8), and polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, four unidentified phospholipids, and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 and C16 : 0, and the DNA G+C content of the genome is 48.0 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strains H11R3T and I. fluviatilis NCTC 11159T (=DSM 3764T) is 83.7 %. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain H11R3T represents a novel species of the genus Iodobacter for which the name Iodobacterciconiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H11R3T (=KCTC 62666T=JCM 33283T).


Assuntos
Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Aves/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Betaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2928-2935, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310200

RESUMO

Three Gram-stain-positive, rod-to-coccoid-shaped, catalase-positive and non-motile bacterial strains isolated from the choanae of a Northern bald ibis, designated strains 200CHT, W8T and 812CHT, respectively, were subjected to comprehensive taxonomic characterization. The three strains were oxidase-negative. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of 200CHT showed highest similarities to Corynebacterium epidermidicanis 410T (96.7 %) followed by Corynebacterium argentoratense DSM 44202T, Corynebacterium ulcerans NCTC 7910T and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis CIP 102968T (each 96.3 %). Strains W8T and 812CHT both showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Corynebacterium pelargi 136/3T (98.0 and 99.9 %, respectively). Comparison of the partial housekeeping gene sequence of fusA showed higher sequence similarities of 812CHT to C. pelargi (95.8 %) than W8T (90.9 %) which was also confirmed by corresponding amino acid sequences. In both, fusA gene and corresponding protein sequence strain 200CHT showed low sequence similarities to C. epidermidicanis 410T(81.6 and 87.4 %, respectively). Strains 812CHT and W8T had 76.7 % ANI similarity to each other and 88.2 and 76.4 % to C. pelargi 136/3T, respectively. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization values for 812CHT and W8T were 22.1 % among the two strains and 35.3 and 21.7 % to C. pelargi 136/3T, respectively. These data not only demonstrate that strain W8T is a representative of a novel species, but despite the high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to C. pelargi, strain 812CHT is also a representative of another novel species. All three strains possessed corynemycolic acids and contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan. The two strains, 200CHT and W8T, are distinguished from each other and established Corynebacterium species phylogenetically and phenotypically. In conclusion, three novel species of the genus Corynebacterium are proposed, namely Corynebacteriumpseudopelargi 812CHT (=LMG 30627T=CCM 8832T), Corynebacterium choanae 200CHT (=LMG 30628T=CCM 8831T) and Corynebacteriumgerontici W8T (=LMG 30629T=CCM 8833T), respectively.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Corynebacterium/classificação , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(4): 620-624, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184287

RESUMO

The identification of avian Mycoplasma spp. by conventional immunologic, phenotypic, and molecular methods can be demanding and time-consuming. We evaluated MALDI-TOF MS for its suitability to identify avian mycoplasmas at the species level. We generated a mycoplasma spectral database of 36 main spectrum profiles (MSPs) representing 23 avian Mycoplasma spp. using 23 type and reference strains, 1 live vaccine strain, and 8 clinical isolates. We then used 112 avian Mycoplasma clinical isolates of different avian mycoplasmas, 4 Mycoplasma live vaccine strains, and 1 Mycoplasma type strain, previously cultured and identified to the species level by molecular methods, to evaluate the MSP database. Protein extraction and MALDI-TOF MS analysis were performed with a maximum of 3 repetitions per isolate. MALDI-TOF MS resulted in accurate species-level identification with a score of ≥2.0 for 112 of 117 (96%) isolates. The MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 4 of 5 isolates that did not yield a score of ≥2.0 resulted in best-match identifications that were still concordant at species level with the molecular method used for previous identification. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS is a promising tool for reliable identification of avian Mycoplasma spp.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2643, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201324

RESUMO

Land-use change is predicted to act as a driver of zoonotic disease emergence through human exposure to novel microbial diversity, but evidence for the effects of environmental change on microbial communities in vertebrates is lacking. We sample wild birds at 99 wildlife-livestock-human interfaces across Nairobi, Kenya, and use whole genome sequencing to characterise bacterial genes known to be carried on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) within avian-borne Escherichia coli (n = 241). By modelling the diversity of bacterial genes encoding virulence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) against ecological and anthropogenic forms of urban environmental change, we demonstrate that communities of avian-borne bacterial genes are shaped by the assemblage of co-existing avian, livestock and human communities, and the habitat within which they exist. In showing that non-random processes structure bacterial genetic communities in urban wildlife, these findings suggest that it should be possible to forecast the effects of urban land-use change on microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Microbiota/genética , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Aves/microbiologia , Humanos , Quênia , Gado/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Saúde da População Urbana , Urbanização , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 874-878, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166852

RESUMO

Two adult Great Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major) from separate sites in Great Britain were examined postmortem in 2013 and 2016. A Salmonella sp. was isolated from multiple tissues in both birds. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed disseminated salmonellosis. Whole-genome sequencing and biochemical analyses putatively identified both isolates as a novel variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Hessarek (S. Hessarek). Salmonellosis has seldom been reported in Piciformes, and never before in association with S. Hessarek infection. These findings, therefore, add to current knowledge regarding the range of wild bird species susceptible to this Salmonella serovar, and our understanding of the pathogens affecting Great Spotted Woodpeckers, in particular.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Masculino
16.
ISME J ; 13(9): 2363-2376, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127178

RESUMO

The functional relevance of microbiota is a key aspect for understanding host-microbiota interactions. Mammalian skin harbours a complex consortium of beneficial microorganisms known to provide health and immune-boosting advantages. As yet, however, little is known about functional microbial communities on avian feathers, including their co-evolution with the host and factors determining feather microbiota (FM) diversity. Using 16S rRNA profiling, we investigated how host species identity, phylogeny and geographic origin determine FM in free-living passerine birds. Moreover, we estimated the relative abundance of bacteriocin-producing bacteria (BPB) and keratinolytic feather damaging bacteria (FDB) and evaluated the ability of BPB to affect FM diversity and relative abundance of FDB. Host species identity was associated with feather bacterial communities more strongly than host geographic origin. FM functional properties differed in terms of estimated BPB and FDB relative abundance, with both showing interspecific variation. FM diversity was negatively associated with BPB relative abundance across species, whereas BPB and FDB relative abundance was positively correlated. This study provides the first thorough evaluation of antimicrobial peptides-producing bacterial communities inhabiting the feather integument, including their likely potential to mediate niche-competition and to be associated with functional species-specific feather microbiota in avian hosts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriocinas/biossíntese , Aves/microbiologia , Plumas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(8): 1227-1237, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107150

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of 27 enterococci (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus casseliflavus) isolated from wild bird species. Resistance to lincomycin was most common, followed by erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines, high level of aminoglycoside, and ß-lactam antibiotics. No vancomycin- and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates were identified. The antibiotic resistance was linked to the tet(M), tet(L), erm(A), erm(B), msr(A/B), pbp5, ant(6)-Ia, and aph(3')-IIIa genes. Tn916/Tn1545-like transposons were detected. The high-level resistance to gentamicin was associated with the presence of gene aph(2″)-Id. All 18 E. faecium isolates were divided into 16 pulsotypes and 17 sequence types (STs), among which 7 STs were newly assigned (ST1266-ST1272). A majority of E. faecium isolates possess multilocus sequence typing profiles belonging to clonal complex 17 (CC17), the major epidemic lineage responsible for nosocomial infections. Two ST17 and newly described ST1267 and ST1271 (an SLV and DLV of ST17, respectively) of E. faecium isolates carried the type 1 allele of the housekeeping gene purK detected in hospital-related strains. Our results indicated that wild birds could be a source of resistant E. faecium isolates, belonging to CC17 and may represent a hazard to human health by transmission of these isolates.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Polônia
18.
mSphere ; 4(3)2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118300

RESUMO

Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative genetic island first described in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium DT104 and Agona in 2000. Variants of it have since been described in multiple serovars of S. enterica, as well as in Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii, and several other genera. The island typically confers resistance to older, first-generation antimicrobials; however, some variants carry bla NDM-1, bla VEB-6, and bla CTX-M15 genes that encode resistance to frontline, clinically important antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins. Genome sequencing studies of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) identified a sequence type 117 (ST117) isolate (AVC96) with genetic features found in SGI1. The complete genome sequence of AVC96 was assembled from a combination of Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequence data. Analysis of the AVC96 chromosome identified a variant of SGI1-B located 18 bp from the 3' end of trmE, also known as the attB site, a known hot spot for the integration of genomic islands. This is the first report of SGI1 in wild-type E. coli The variant, here named SGI1-B-Ec1, was otherwise unremarkable, apart from the identification of ISEc43 in open reading frame (ORF) S023.IMPORTANCE SGI1 and variants of it carry a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including those conferring resistance to extended-spectrum ß-lactams and carbapenems, and have been found in diverse S. enterica serovars, Acinetobacter baumannii, and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae SGI1 integrates into Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria by targeting a conserved site 18 bp from the 3' end of trmE For the first time, we describe a novel variant of SGI1 in an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate. The presence of SGI1 in E. coli is significant because it represents yet another lateral gene transfer mechanism to enhancing the capacity of E. coli to acquire and propagate antimicrobial resistance and putative virulence genes. This finding underscores the importance of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to microbial genomic epidemiology, particularly within a One Health context. Further studies are needed to determine how widespread SGI1 and variants of it may be in Australia.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Ilhas Genômicas , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália , Aves/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 31, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is rendering common bacterial infections untreatable. Wildlife can incorporate and disperse antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment, such as water systems, which in turn serve as reservoirs of resistance genes for human pathogens. Anthropogenic activity may contribute to the spread of bacterial resistance cycling through natural environments, including through the release of human waste, as sewage treatment only partially removes antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, empirical data supporting these effects are currently limited. Here we used bulk RNA-sequencing (meta-transcriptomics) to assess the diversity and expression levels of functionally viable resistance genes in the gut microbiome of birds with aquatic habits in diverse locations. RESULTS: We found antibiotic resistance genes in birds from all localities, from penguins in Antarctica to ducks in a wastewater treatment plant in Australia. Comparative analysis revealed that birds feeding at the wastewater treatment plant carried the greatest resistance gene burden, including genes typically associated with multidrug resistance plasmids as the aac(6)-Ib-cr gene. Differences in resistance gene burden also reflected aspects of bird ecology, taxonomy, and microbial function. Notably, ducks, which feed by dabbling, carried a higher abundance and diversity of resistance genes than turnstones, avocets, and penguins, which usually prey on more pristine waters. CONCLUSIONS: These transcriptome data suggest that human waste, even if it undergoes treatment, might contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes to the wild. Differences in microbiome functioning across different bird lineages may also play a role in the antibiotic resistance burden carried by wild birds. In summary, we reveal the complex factors explaining the distribution of resistance genes and their exchange routes between humans and wildlife, and show that meta-transcriptomics is a valuable tool to access functional resistance genes in whole microbial communities.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 232-237, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955815

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida is a heterogeneous bacterium, which has the capacity to cause disease in a wide range of host species and is also recognized as an important zoonotic pathogen. Two sequential deaths in captive fur seals occurred at Sea World, Australia during December 2017. A fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia in a Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) resulted in death within 24 h of nonspecific signs of illness, whereas a septic peritonitis in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) resulted in death within 12 h of clinical presentation. The cases happened within three days in two different pool locations, although both had previously been housed in the same area. A total of six Pasteurella multocida isolates were obtained from several internal organs at necropsy in both cases and were subjected to whole genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis. In-silico typing of the isolates revealed that all belonged to Multi-Locus Sequence Type 7 and carried lipopolysaccharide outer core biosynthesis loci Type 3. Phylogenomic analysis of the isolates confirmed that the isolates were near identical at the core genome level, suggesting acquisition from a common source. The results also revealed the presence of within host and across animal diversity of P. multocida isolates for the first time even in a clearly connected outbreak.


Assuntos
Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Otárias/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Peritonite/veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Aves/microbiologia , Broncopneumonia/microbiologia , Broncopneumonia/mortalidade , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Nova Zelândia , Infecções por Pasteurella/transmissão , Pasteurella multocida/classificação , Peritonite/microbiologia , Peritonite/mortalidade , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA