Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 742
Filtrar
1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 948-957, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480575

RESUMO

The evaluation of laboratory blood analytes is an important tool for health assessment in avian medicine. Unfortunately, there is a lack of suitable reference values for many zoo bird species. The goal of the present study was to establish reference intervals for a wide range of blood analytes in healthy black-headed ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus) kept in a zoologic garden. Lithium heparinized blood samples from 15 individuals were collected, and 18 different clinical chemistry analytes were measured. New are especially the minimum and maximum values for bile acid (2.38-49.4 µmol/L), cholinesterase (439-1260 U/L), vitamin A (0.65-1.70 mg/L), vitamin E (26.3-52.5 mg/L), and capillary zone electrophoresis (prealbumin, 10.2-23.4%; albumin, 35.9-44.1%; A/G ratio, 1.07-1.69; α-, 15.7-20.0%; ß-, 13.5-19.1%; γ-globulin, 6.08-11.3%). The measured values for clinical chemistry, vitamin, electrophoresis, and hematologic analytes are a basis for further studies and for diagnostics and clinical treatment in this ibis species.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Glicemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese/veterinária , Vitaminas/sangue , Amilases/sangue , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Colinesterases/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Minerais/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517231

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals are still considered emerging pollutants affecting both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Scavenging bird species may be exposed to veterinary drugs when they feed on livestock carcasses provided at supplementary feeding stations, as these are often stocked with ailing and/or recently medicated animals. Because those animals may be a source of several different pharmaceutical compounds, analytical methods to evaluate residue levels and exposure potential should enable detection and quantification of as many different compounds as possible, preferably from small sample volumes. Four different extraction methods were tested to conduct HPLC-MS-TOF analysis of some of the most common veterinary drugs used in livestock in Spain. The method deemed most viable was a simple extraction, using methanol and 100 µL of plasma, that allowed quantification of seven antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, sulfadiazine) and five nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (meloxicam, flunixin, carprofen, tolfenamic acid, phenylbutazone). The method was then applied to analysis of 29 Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) nestling samples, wherein enrofloxacin and tolfenamic acid were most commonly detected (69% and 20%, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first study including NSAIDs in the exposure assessment of different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals in live avian scavengers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Aves/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525884

RESUMO

Hummingbirds are essential pollinators in many ecosystems, making their conservation critical. As is the case with many species, hummingbirds are now facing a variety of challenges resulting from anthropogenic changes. As populations shift and species interactions change, disease is likely to pose a significant threat. There is a basic understanding of which pathogens currently affect a variety of hummingbird species, however there is a paucity of information about their immune systems capacity to kill pathogens and what specific factors may affect immunity. The objective of this study was to gain a basic understanding of the effect of age, sex, and molt on the constitutive innate immunity of hummingbirds. An in vitro assay was used to assess the microbiocidal capacity of the whole blood of Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte anna) against three different microbes: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Candida albicans (C. albicans). The effect of age, sex and molt on anti-microbial capacity varied based on the microbe type. After-hatch-year birds tended to have better anti-microbial capacity compared to hatch-year birds. Male birds had higher anti-microbial activity than female birds, although this was not observed against C. albicans. Molting birds had a weaker antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus than birds that were not molting. These results represent an important first step towards defining the parameters of constitutive innate immunity of Anna's Hummingbirds as well as providing important knowledge about factors that should be considered when evaluating the health of wild populations.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Plasma/metabolismo , Animais , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana , Muda , Caracteres Sexuais , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 104, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood parasites belonging to the Apicomplexa, Trypanosomatidae and Filarioidea are widespread in birds and have been studied extensively. Microscopical examination (ME) of stained blood films remains the gold standard method for the detection of these infections in birds, particularly because co-infections predominate in wildlife. None of the available molecular tools can detect all co-infections at the same time, but ME provides opportunities for this to be achieved. However, fixation, drying and staining of blood films as well as their ME are relatively time-consuming. This limits the detection of infected hosts during fieldwork when captured animals should be released soon after sampling. It is an obstacle for quick selection of donor hosts for parasite experimental, histological and other investigations in the field. This study modified, tested and described the buffy coat method (BCM) for quick diagnostics (~ 20 min/sample) of avian blood parasites. METHODS: Blood of 345 birds belonging to 42 species was collected, and each sample was examined using ME of stained blood films and the buffy coat, which was examined after centrifugation in capillary tubes and after being transferred to objective glass slides. Parasite detection using these methods was compared using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and Cohen's kappa index. RESULTS: Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, microfilariae, Trypanosoma and Lankesterella parasites were detected. BCM had a high sensitivity (> 90%) and specificity (> 90%) for detection of Haemoproteus and microfilariae infections. It was of moderate sensitivity (57%) and high specificity (> 90%) for Lankesterella infections, but of low sensitivity (20%) and high specificity (> 90%) for Leucocytozoon infections. Trypanosoma and Plasmodium parasites were detected only by BCM and ME, respectively. According to Cohen's kappa index, the agreement between two diagnostic tools was substantial for Haemoproteus (0.80), moderate for Lankesterella (0.46) and fair for microfilariae and Leucocytozoon (0.28) infections. CONCLUSIONS: BCM is sensitive and recommended as a quick and reliable tool to detect Haemoproteus, Trypanosoma and microfilariae parasites during fieldwork. However, it is not suitable for detection of species of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium. BCM is a useful tool for diagnostics of blood parasite co-infections. Its application might be extended to studies of blood parasites in other vertebrates during field studies.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Buffy Coat/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitologia/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Aves/sangue , Aves/classificação , Aves/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1026-1030, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926542

RESUMO

The Galápagos shearwater, Puffinus subalaris, is a seabird endemic to the Galápagos archipelago. Hematology, blood chemistry, and general health parameters have not been published for this species. Analyses were run on blood samples drawn from 20 clinically healthy Galápagos shearwaters captured by hand at their nests at Islote Pitt on San Cristóbal Island in July 2016. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT) was used to obtain near immediate field results for pH, pO2, pCO2, TCO2, HCO3 -, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, creatinine, urea nitrogen, anion gap, and glucose. Blood lactate was measured using a portable Lactate Plus analyzer. The reported results provide baseline data that can be used for comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galápagos shearwaters.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/sangue , Aves/sangue , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Hematócrito/veterinária , Oxigênio/sangue , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Animais , Glicemia , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Hemoglobinas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactatos/sangue , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue
6.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 843-853, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429437

RESUMO

Leech-derived invertebrate DNA (iDNA) has been successfully leveraged to conduct surveys of vertebrate host biodiversity across the Indo Pacific. However, this technique has been limited methodologically, typically only targeting mammalian 16S rDNA, or both 16S and vertebrate 12S rDNA for leech host determination. To improve the taxonomic richness of vertebrate host species in iDNA surveys, we re-analyze datasets from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, and Madagascar through metabarcoding via next generation sequencing (NGS) of 12S, 16S (2 types, one designed to target mammals and the other, residual eDNA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride dehydrogenase 2 (ND2), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI). With our 5 primer sets, we identify 41 unique vertebrate hosts to the species level, among 1,200 leeches analyzed, along with an additional 13 taxa to the family rank. Within our 41 taxa, we note that adding ND2 and COI loci increased species richness detection by 25%. NGS has emerged as more efficient than Sanger sequencing for large scale metabarcoding applications and, with the decline in cost of NGS, our pooled sample multilocus protocol is an attractive option for iDNA biodiversity surveys.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Sanguessugas/classificação , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Vertebrados/classificação , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Anfíbios/sangue , Anfíbios/classificação , Anfíbios/genética , Anfíbios/parasitologia , Animais , Bangladesh , Biodiversidade , Aves/sangue , Aves/classificação , Aves/genética , Aves/parasitologia , Camboja , China , DNA/sangue , Sanguessugas/genética , Madagáscar , Mamíferos/sangue , Mamíferos/classificação , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Vertebrados/sangue , Vertebrados/genética
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(3): 561-570, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480531

RESUMO

There are no published plasma biochemistry reference intervals for any species within the order Gaviiformes, which includes the common loon (Gavia immer). Because of their unique classification and lack of close taxonomic relatives, species-specific values for clinical data in loons are needed. This study determined reference intervals for plasma biochemical values in adult common loons, and reference intervals for protein electrophoresis values in both adult and juvenile common loons. Healthy, wild adult (n = 148, age >3 yr) and juvenile (n = 31, age 4-12 wk) common loons were sampled on freshwater summer breeding territories at study sites across North America. Plasma biochemical analytes included glucose (Glu), total calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine kinase, γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, amylase, and bile acids. Protein electrophoresis data included albumin to globulin ratio (A: G), prealbumin, albumin, α1-globulin, α2-globulin, ß-globulin, and γ-globulin. Adult females had significantly higher Glu, ALP, and BUN than adult males. Juvenile loons had higher ß-globulins than adults, whereas adults had higher α1-globulins. Establishment of complete reference intervals will improve clinical assessment of captive loons, and allow researchers to better understand the health of wild loons in response to the multiple environmental stressors faced by these species.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Plasma/química , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Valores de Referência
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19699, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873143

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of kidney diseases in avian species is limited. Endogenous markers currently used in avian practice are not sensitive enough to identify early kidney failure. Consequently, alternative markers should be evaluated. To be able to evaluate these alternative markers, an accurate marker to estimate the GFR should be validated. This study determined the GFR, measured as clearance of exogenous creatinine and exo-iohexol, in six different bird species, i.e. broiler chickens, laying chickens, turkeys, Muscovy ducks, pigeons and African grey parrots (4♀/4♂). To be able to compare the six bird species, normalization to bodyweight (BW) of the GFR was performed, after a good correlation between BW and kidney weight was demonstrated (R² = 0.9836). Clearance of exo-iohexol normalized to BW (mL/min/kg) was determined in all bird species, i.e. 3.09 in broiler chickens; 2.57 in laying chickens; 1.94 in turkeys; 1.29 in pigeons; 2.60 in ducks and 1.11 in parrots. However, these results differed significantly with the clearance of exogenous creatinine: 8.41 in broiler chickens; 9.33 in laying chickens; 5.62 in turkeys; 14.97 in pigeons; 17.59 in ducks and 25.56 in parrots 25.56. Iohexol is preferred to measure the GFR, since it is not prone to tubular reabsorption nor secretion.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Testes de Função Renal/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/fisiopatologia , Aves/sangue , Galinhas , Columbidae , Creatinina/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/farmacocinética , Patos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Iohexol/administração & dosagem , Iohexol/farmacocinética , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Masculino , Papagaios , Especificidade da Espécie , Perus
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 374, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total immunolobulin G concentration is a useful, albeit underutilized, diagnostic parameter for health assessments of non-domestic animal species, due to a lack of functional diagnostic tools. Traditional assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or radial immunodiffusion, require development of specific reagents (e.g., polyclonal antisera and appropriate protocols) for each animal species, precluding wide and easy adoption in wildlife welfare. As an alternative, bacterial virulence factors able to bind IgGs in antigen-independent manner can be used. To further simplify the diagnostic procedure and increase the number of species recognized by an assay, in this study a recently developed Split Trehalase immunoglobulin assay (STIGA) with bIBPs as a sensing elements was used to detect antibodies in 29 species from 9 orders. Three bacterial immunoglobulin binding proteins (protein G, protein A and protein L) were incorporated into STIGA reagents to increase the number of species recognized. RESULTS: IgG concentrations were detected through glucose production and produced signals were categorized in 4 categories, from not active to strong signal. Activation was detected in almost all tested animal species, apart from birds. Incorporation of Protein G, Protein A and Protein L allowed detection of IgGs in 62, 15.5 and 6.9% of species with a strong signal, respectively. Assays combining 2 bacterial immunoglobulin binding proteins as sensing element generally gave poorer performance than assays with the same bacterial immunoglobulin binding proteins fused to both trehalase fragments. CONCLUSIONS: STIGA assays have potential to be further developed into an easily adoptable diagnostic test for total amount of IgGs in almost any serum sample, independent of species.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Ensaios Enzimáticos/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Mamíferos/sangue , Animais , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Biomedica ; 39(2): 265-277, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529814

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From 2011 to 2016, 24 cases of Chagas disease were reported in Córdoba according to the national public health surveillance system (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública, Sivigila), but the information regarding Trypanosoma cruzi circulating strains and infection rates are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To establish the triatomine species with which people come in contact and recognize as Chagas disease vectors, as well as to assess the infection with trypanosomes and make an exploratory approach to host feeding preferences with the participation of the local community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Triatomines sampling was conducted in 12 municipalities between 2011 and 2016; T. cruzi infection was established by k-PCR, SAT-PCR, while strain genotyping was done by mini-exon and SL-IR (spliced-leader intergenic region) sequence characterization. We also screened for blood sources. RESULTS: Local community members collected the majority of triatomines and we identified three species: Rhodnius pallescens, Panstrongylus geniculatus, and Eratyrus cuspidatus. The overall T. cruzi infection rate in collected triatomines was 66.6% and we detected the TcIDOM and TcI sylvatic strains. Community-based insect collection allowed reporting the presence of P. geniculatus in two new disperse rural settlements, T. cruzi infection of P. geniculatus in Córdoba, and the first report of triatomines infected with T. cruzi in Montería municipality. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed the presence of triatomines infected with T. cruzi inside dwellings in five municipalities of Córdoba. The dominant circulating T. cruzi strain was TcIDOM, a genotype associated with human Chagas disease and cardiomyopathies in Colombia. Our results highlight the importance of local community participation in entomological surveillance tasks.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatominae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aves/sangue , Sangue/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Cidades , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Genótipo , Habitação , Humanos , Mamíferos/sangue , Panstrongylus/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 187-194, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319255

RESUMO

In this study, the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) were investigated in the blood of Scopoli's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea). Blood samples (N=238) were collected from both juvenile and adult individuals during seven breeding seasons between 2007 and 2014, excluding 2013. Sampling was performed in the pristine environment of the Strofades island complex, Greece, where the largest colony of Scopoli's shearwaters is located in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. The median concentrations of the toxic metals, Cd and Pb, were 0.010 and 0.24µg/g (dry weight; dw), respectively, which were in good agreement with previous studies. The median concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn were 0.18, 1.11, 3.41, 0.29, 0.61, and 22.9µg/g dw, respectively. Inter-annual differences were observed among the concentrations of all assessed metals, except for Ni and Cd, which demonstrated similarities among female individuals. Age-group related differences were observed in both genders for Cd, Cu and Cr, but only among males for Zn. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest multi-year biomonitoring study of select trace metals that has been conducted thus far on blood samples from Scopoli's shearwater species.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Grécia , Masculino
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 503-507, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260224

RESUMO

The clapper rail (Rallus crepitans) is native to salt marshes along the eastern United States. Populations are likely stable, but may be at risk due to the degradation of wetland habitat by contaminants. Contaminants can cause adverse effects in birds such as alteration of immune and reproductive function, and previous studies have used this species as a sentinel for estuarine health. Blood samples were collected from clapper rails in Florida and hematology counts, plasma biochemistry panels, and metal assessments using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were performed. Biochemical and hematology data were too limited to determine if contaminants were adversely affecting clapper rails in this study, but cadmium, lead, and zinc were increased for several birds. Although contaminant levels were not consistently elevated for all birds, additional research is needed to assess if clapper rails in this region are at risk of contaminant exposure due to increasing urbanization and development pressures.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Metais/sangue , Áreas Alagadas , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Florida , Metais/química
13.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(5): 1157-1161, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239207

RESUMO

Borrelia turcica is a reptile-associated Borrelia species that is vectored by the hard tick Hyalomma aegyptium. Tortoises of the genus Testudo represent the principal host of adult H. aegyptium, while immature stages are less host-specific and can be found on various vertebrates and even on humans. Borrelia turcica isolates were already successfully obtained from exotic tortoises suggesting that they are putative hosts. To the best of our knowledge, no further investigations on additional host association of B. turcica were conducted. Since many but not all adult Hyalomma ticks collected from tortoises are infected, questions arise about the direction of transmission between tick and tortoises for this Borrelia species. In addition, there is no information on the potential pathogenicity of B. turcica for humans. For other Borrelia species it has been shown that resistance or sensitivity to complement-active serum can be indicative of host species association(s). In this study, we explored for the first time the in vitro survival of B. turcica isolates from Turkey (IST7) and Greece (171601G) in the presence of 50% complement-active serum of different species (tortoise, turtle, human and bird). Both isolates showed resistance to tortoise serum, partial resistance to turtle serum but did not survive human and bird serum. These data suggest that indeed tortoises are reservoir host species for B. turcica while birds or humans are not. By implication these data suggest that B. turcica is not human pathogenic. Whether or not other reptile species, such as lizards, are also potential hosts, requires further investigation. However, as the life cycle of Borrelia is closely linked to that of their hosts and vectors, in vitro studies can only give clues about the actual in vivo behavior.


Assuntos
Aves , Borrelia/fisiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Tartarugas , Animais , Aves/sangue , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Grécia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia , Tartarugas/sangue
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108727, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251899

RESUMO

O-Hexyl O-2,5-dichlorophenyl phosphoramidate (HDCP) induces delayed neuropathy in hens. It has been used as a tool to identify new A-esterase activities in animal tissues. This study shows the EDTA-resistant, Cu2+- and Zn2+-dependent hydrolysis of racemic HDCP in domestic and sea bird serum using UV/Vis spectrophotometry and chiral chromatography. The results clearly show a significant (p ˂ 0.05) Cu2+- and Zn2+-dependent HDCP hydrolysis in the serum of all bird species versus EDTA, except for the Zn2+-dependent HDCPase activity from Yucatecan quail serum. The ratio of Cu2+/Zn2+ hydrolysis varied between 1 and 7 (intraspecies) and 15.6 (interspecies). EDTA affected the Cu2+- and Zn2+-dependent HDCPase activity in the range of 37-95% and 40-50%, respectively. HDCP hydrolysis activated by Cu2+ was significantly (p ˂ 0.05) stereoselective (R-(+)-HDCP ˃ S-(-)-HDCP) in chicken and sea bird serum. Its R-(+)-HDCP/S-(-)-HDCP ratios were 6.8 and 1.6-2.8, respectively. EDTA-resistant and zinc-dependent HDCP hydrolysis were not stereospecific in all bird sera tested. The present ex vivo study reinforces the idea that bird sera have HDCPase activity that is sensitive to divalent metals, resistant to EDTA and possibly associated with the protein albumin.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Cobre/farmacologia , Esterases/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Arildialquilfosfatase , Galinhas/sangue , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Esterases/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Estereoisomerismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6351, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011157

RESUMO

Aerobic capacity is assumed to be a main predictor of workload ability and haematocrit (Hct) and haemoglobin (Hb) have been suggested as key determinants of aerobic performance. Intraspecific studies have reported increases in Hct and Hb in response to increased workload. Furthermore, Hct and Hb vary markedly among individuals and throughout the annual cycle in free-living birds and it has been suggested that this variation reflects adaptive modulation of these traits to meet seasonal changes in energy demands. We used a comparative dataset of haematological traits, measures of metabolic rate (57 species), and life-history traits (160 species) to test several hypotheses for adaptive variation in haematology in relation to migration and altitude. We then extended these general ideas to test relationships between Hct and basal metabolic rate, daily energy expenditure and activity energy expenditure, using the 57 species that we have metabolic rate information for. We found that at the interspecific level, full migrants have higher Hct and Hb than partial migrants and non-migrants, and that altitude is positively correlated with Hb but not Hct. Hct is positively associated with activity energy expenditure (energy spent specifically on costly activities), suggesting that haematological traits could be adaptively modulated based on life-history traits and that Hct is a potential physiological mediator of energetic constraint.


Assuntos
Altitude , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aves/sangue , Aves/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 857-861, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896363

RESUMO

Biochemical and trace element analyses of blood from wild Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were performed to assess the health of the only self-sustaining, migratory population in North America. Juvenile cranes (n=31) approximately 49-70 d-old were sampled at Wood Buffalo National Park, Northwest Territories, Canada, in midsummer from 2010 to 2012. Archived serum (n=24) and whole blood (n=31) samples from captive juvenile cranes were selected as age-matched controls. Reference values were calculated for serum biochemical analytes and trace elements in whole blood from the captive juvenile Whooping Cranes reared under controlled conditions and with known health histories. Several statistical differences among blood biochemical and trace element values of the wild and captive juveniles were identified and were likely attributable to dietary differences between the populations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Aves/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Glicemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Cálcio/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue
17.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 862-867, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896365

RESUMO

Limited information exists about exposure to influenza A viruses (IAVs) in many wild waterbird species, including loons. We analyzed serum samples from breeding adult Pacific (Gavia pacifica), Red-throated (Gavia stellata), and Yellow-billed (Gavia adamsii) loons sampled at three locations along the coast of Alaska, US from 2008 to 2017 to gain a better understanding of the potential role loons play in IAV ecology. We screened loon sera for IAV antibodies using three tests-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), and hemagglutination inhibition (HI)-and examined patterns in seroprevalence among species and sampling locations. We found evidence of IAV infection in all loon species and at all breeding locations, although concordance was imperfect among serological tests. Diagnostic tests yielded seroprevalence estimates of 24% (42/172) with bELISA, 8% (5/60) with AGID, and 6% (4/70) with HI. The IAV subtypes to which loon sera reacted using HI were consistent with those detected in waterfowl and gulls at other locations in Alaska, suggesting that loons may be exposed to IAV maintained in sympatric waterbirds. Our study provided evidence that loons inhabiting Alaska were exposed to IAV. However, given imperfect concordance among serologic tests, and relatively low seroprevalence as compared to other avian taxa exposed to IAV in Alaska, they make poor IAV surveillance targets.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aves/sangue , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Influenza Aviária/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Environ Res ; 173: 77-86, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901611

RESUMO

Identifying animals as sentinels for humans and other animal species is an excellent method for understanding exposure to environmental contamination at different times and places. Shorebirds are useful sentinels because they have a world-wide distribution, eat a range of prey, and are eaten by a range of other species, including humans. We collected blood from semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) wintering in northern (Suriname N = 71) and northeastern (Brazil N = 61) South America to examine levels of heavy metals and metalloids (arsenic, selenium), and compare them to blood levels in sandpipers at a heavily used stopover site in New Jersey (N = 30; Delaware Bay, NJ). Since blood represents relatively recent exposure, it can provide information on where and when the birds were exposed. Levels were highest in Brazil for arsenic and particularly selenium; highest in Suriname for cadmium and lead; and highest in New Jersey for chromium. Samples from Brazil and Suriname presented higher levels of mercury than did those from New Jersey. There were no geographic differences for cobalt. Levels of all metals were generally within an order of magnitude. The significant geographic difference for selenium was interesting because it is regulated in the body. Selenium levels in the NJ sample were directly proportional to levels found in their principle food at this migration stopover site (eggs of horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus). Mean selenium level was almost an order of magnitude higher in the semipalmated sandpiper blood samples from Brazil (mean of 27,500 µg/L= ppb) compared to the other sampling locations (mean > 5330 µg/L). This is a toxic level and cause for concern and further investigation, alerting us to look for other evidence of excess selenium exposure. Otherwise the levels of other metals are generally not high enough to cause harm to the sandpipers themselves or to predators that eat them. We discuss the implications for these birds and their exposure to contaminants at different stopover sites.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Metais/sangue , Selênio , Animais , Baías , Brasil , Delaware , New Jersey , Suriname
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 93, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To conduct a hematological analysis of avian blood samples, standard automated cell counting is unreliable because all avian blood cells are nucleated. Therefore, quantitative white blood cell counting in birds is still performed manually, whereby the Natt-Herrick method is widely used in veterinary laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new commercially available single test system for avian white blood cell counting, the Natt-Herricks-Tic®, which would allow easy in-house analysis by clinicians or technicians. A total of 40 avian ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood samples from 24 different species were included in the study. To assess method agreement, each blood sample was analyzed for total white blood cell count with the test method and the Natt-Herrick reference method. To determine the imprecision of the reference method and the Natt-Herricks-Tic® method, the noncorrected white blood cell count was determined ten consecutive times from one avian EDTA blood sample for each method. RESULTS: The Natt-Herricks-Tic® method performed well concerning staining quality and countability of the granulocytes by the hemocytometer. In the agreement study, the Natt-Herricks-Tic® method showed a small proportional systematic error with a small positive mean bias of 282 white blood cells/µL but had wide 95% limits of agreement (- 4683 cells/µL to 5227 cells/µL), indicating random error. The precision study resulted in a coefficient of variation of 16% for the Natt-Herricks-Tic® method (the mean ± standard deviation: 9.7 ×  103/µL ± 1.5 × 103/µL) and 23% (the mean ± standard deviation: 7.9 × 103/µL ± 1.8 × 103/µL) for the reference method. CONCLUSIONS: The Natt-Herricks-Tic® method showed acceptable precision for a manual method and demonstrated good agreement with the reference method. It can be recommended as a reliable and suitable method for determining white blood cell counts in avian EDTA blood if nonstatistical quality control measures are used in the daily routine. The application of individual reference intervals for the interpretation of white blood cell counts in birds may improve the diagnostic performance of this important analyte in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Animais , Ácido Edético , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos/métodos , Valores de Referência
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212517, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779816

RESUMO

The study of host associations of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) provides valuable information to assist in our understanding of a variety of related issues, from their life-history to the entomological surveillance of pathogens. In this study, we identified and characterized mosquito blood meals from both urban and forested areas in the city of Paranaguá, state of Paraná, Brazil, by analyzing the amplification of host DNA ingested by mosquitoes under different storage conditions and digestion levels. Host DNA preservation was evaluated in fresh blood meals according to storage duration (30 to 180 days) and temperature (-20°C / -80°C) and, in digested blood, according the degree of digestion classified on the Sella scale. Molecular analysis of blood meals was based on DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene. We determined that, up to180 days of storage, the evaluated temperatures did not influence the preservation of fresh blood meals DNA, whereas the amplification success was increasingly reduced over the course of the digestion process. The species Anopheles cruzii, Aedes fluviatilis, Aedes scapularis, Psorophora ferox, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex mollis, and Culex intrincatus, together with specimens representing four subgenera and one genus of Culicidae [Ae. (Ochlerotatus), Cx. (Culex), Cx. (Melanoconion), Cx. (Microculex), and Limatus, respectively] had their blood meals identified. Their diverse host use was evidenced by the identification of 19 species of vertebrate host, namely two amphibians, three mammals and 14 birds. Birds were the most commonly identified host in blood meals. These results not only show the diversity of mosquito hosts, but also underscore the challenges involved in monitoring arboviruses of public health importance, given potential combinations of host use for each mosquito species.


Assuntos
Culicidae/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Aedes/genética , Aedes/metabolismo , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/metabolismo , Anopheles/virologia , Aves/sangue , Brasil , Cidades , Culex/genética , Culex/metabolismo , Culex/virologia , Culicidae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Florestas , Humanos , Mamíferos/sangue , Refeições , Répteis/sangue , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...