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1.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(2): 127-128, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Noninferiority or equivalence testing are often used when comparing a novel pharmaceutical, operation, or procedure to the current standard designated as safe. Noninferiority and equivalence testing require estimates of a metric called delta: the margin of meaningful difference. Inappropriate delta margins can lead to invalid conclusions, thereby creating uncertainty about a studys scientific credibility. We recommend that a working group be convened with the following goals: 1) to evaluate delta values currently in use in aviation; 2) to determine if it is possible to develop a systematic, evidence-based, and replicable process to derive delta values based on statistical properties from population data, rather than a mixture of evidence- and opinion-based processes; and 3) based on the findings of the second goal, update the current delta values in use in aviation. This working group should include, at a minimum, government agencies and other key stakeholders using these values within operational settings.Lamp ACM, Rempe MJ, Belenky GL. Delta: the value that matters in fatigue risk management. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(2):127128.


Assuntos
Aviação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga , Gestão de Riscos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão da Segurança , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of perceived stress and occupational burnout in groups of Polish maritime navigators and air traffic controllers. The study was part of research into occupational groups regarded as equally emotionally burdened. We tested the usability of a model linking occupational burnout, perceived stress, and seniority. METHODS: The set of questionnaires, including the link burnout questionnaire, perceived stress scale-10, and generalized self-efficacy scale were distributed to 54 maritime navigators and 88 air traffic controllers (rate of return: 18-56%). Spearman's rho, χ2 test, the Mann-Whitney U test, Cohen's d and Hedge's g coefficients, linear regression, and F statistic were used. RESULTS: The assumption that persons employed in occupations with the special professional requirements as air traffic controllers and maritime navigator with a risk of strong, chronic emotional overload evaluate their life situation as less stressful than other employees was confirmed. A higher level of occupational burnout was observed in groups of controllers and navigators compared to an equally emotionally burdening occupational group of Polish firefighters, but not Polish psychiatrists. The research groups differed regarding the source of stress: fear of helplessness in the air traffic controller group and inefficacy in overcoming adversities in the maritime navigators. Maritime navigators reported a higher level of occupational burnout, deterioration of relations with coworkers, and disappointment with their work compared to the air traffic controllers. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed differences in factors linked to workplace demands and the personal predispositions of employees, and the role these may play in mutual relations between occupational burnout, life situation evaluation, and personal resources. We postulate that the level of perceived stress should be taken into account in the studies of occupational burnout syndrome.


Assuntos
Aviação , Esgotamento Profissional , Ocupações , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina Naval , Polônia/epidemiologia , Navios , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD012921, 2020 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug- and alcohol-related impairment in the workplace has been linked to an increased risk of injury for workers. Randomly testing populations of workers for these substances has become a practice in many jurisdictions, with the intention of reducing the risk of workplace incidents and accidents. Despite the proliferation of random drug and alcohol testing (RDAT), there is currently a lack of consensus about whether it is effective at preventing workplace injury, or improving other non-injury accident outcomes in the work place. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of workplace RDAT to prevent injuries and improve non-injury accident outcomes (unplanned events that result in damage or loss of property) in workers compared with no workplace RDAT. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search to identify eligible published and unpublished studies. The date of the last search was 1 November 2020. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, two other databases, Google Scholar, and three trials registers. We also screened the reference lists of relevant publications known to us. SELECTION CRITERIA: Study designs that were eligible for inclusion in our review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials (CRTs), interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and controlled before-after (CBA) studies. Studies needed to evaluate the effectiveness of RDAT in preventing workplace injury or improving other non-injury workplace outcomes. We also considered unpublished data from clinical trial registries. We included employees working in all safety-sensitive occupations, except for commercial drivers, who are the subject of another Cochrane Review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Independently, two review authors used a data collection form to extract relevant characteristics from the included study. They then analysed a line graph included in the study of the prevalence rate of alcohol violations per year. Independently, the review authors completed a GRADE assessment, as a means of rating the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Although our searching originally identified 4198 unique hits, only one study was eligible for inclusion in this review. This was an ITS study that measured the effect of random alcohol testing (RAT) on the test positivity rate of employees of major airlines in the USA from 1995 to 2002. The study included data from 511,745 random alcohol tests, and reported no information about testing for other substances. The rate of positive results was the only outcome of interest reported by the study. The average rate of positive results found by RAT increased from 0.07% to 0.11% when the minimum percentage of workers who underwent RAT annually was reduced from 25% to 10%. Our analyses found this change to be a statistically significant increase (estimated change in level, where the level reflects the average percentage points of positive tests = 0.040, 95% confidence interval 0.005 to 0.075; P = 0.031). Our GRADE assessment, for the observed effect of lower minimum testing percentages associating with a higher rate of positive test results, found the quality of the evidence to be 'very low' across the five GRADE domains. The one included study did not address the following outcomes of interest: fatal injuries; non-fatal injuries; non-injury accidents; absenteeism; and adverse effects associated with RDAT. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In the aviation industry in the USA, the only setting for which the eligible study reported data, there was a statistically significant increase in the rate of positive RAT results following a reduction in the percentage of workers tested, which we deem to be clinically relevant. This result suggests an inverse relationship between the proportion of positive test results and the rate of testing, which is consistent with a deterrent effect for testing. No data were reported on adverse effects related to RDAT. We could not draw definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of RDAT for employees in safety-sensitive occupations (not including commercial driving), or with safety-sensitive job functions. We identified only one eligible study that reflected one industry in one country, was of non-randomised design, and tested only for alcohol, not for drugs or other substances. Our GRADE assessment resulted in a 'very low' rating for the quality of the evidence on the only outcome reported. The paucity of eligible research was a major limitation in our review, and additional studies evaluating the effect of RDAT on safety outcomes are needed.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Aviação , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12589-12592, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current pandemic makes the international flights facing multiple challenges including infection during flights. Here the objective is to analyze the infection trend of flights from a regional data set and discuss the solutions for diagnosis and travel medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The public data was applied for trend analysis and new solutions were provided based on the current diagnosis information and resembling cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Flights infection has decreased since the large-scale cease of flights. Challenges of prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in flights exist due to testing accuracy, asymptomatic and many other factors including people gathering. To avoid the pandemic worsen, the solutions are provided for new coming flight resumes. Hotel, mandatory PPE, airport diagnosis, rapid imaging/biomarker diagnosis by advanced high-technology and emergency-travel medicine department are suggested as solutions. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 prevention in flights needs multiple solutions by potential on-site diagnosis and urgent establishment of a travel medicine unit at airport.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Desinfecção , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Quarentena , Medicina Aeroespacial , Aeronaves , Infecções Assintomáticas , Aviação , Técnicas Biossensoriais , /transmissão , Portador Sadio , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Medicina de Viagem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aviation pilots and cabin crew regularly undertake shift work, and may experience circadian disruption, restricted sleep, sleepiness and impaired health. Research on aviation fatigue and sleepiness has focused on pilots, with less being known about cabin crew. This study aimed to identify likely predictors of fatigue, sleepiness, shift work disorder (SWD) and depression in cabin crew. METHODS: An online anonymous survey was distributed to active cabin crew around the world. It measured sleepiness, fatigue, and screened for insomnia, depression and SWD. Information on individuals' habits and work schedules were collected. RESULTS: 930 valid responses were analysed. 63.5% of the sample had abnormal levels of fatigue and 46.9% experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. 68.0% were at risk for SWD, 57.7% screened positive for insomnia, and 40.0% for depression. Caffeine and use of alcohol and drugs for sleep were independently associated with insomnia and SWD (p < 0.05), whereas, type of route (international, domestic, both) and number of duty days per week predicted fatigue (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cabin crew had a high prevalence of fatigue, sleepiness and elevated risk for SWD, insomnia and depression. Many cabin crew engaged in behaviours detrimental to good sleep hygiene, highlighting targets for future interventional studies.


Assuntos
Aviação , Fadiga , Pilotos , Sonolência , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Vigília , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto Jovem
6.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 33-39, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140931

RESUMO

Research objective identification of the peculiarities of indicators of audiological examination, registration of somatosensory induced potentials (SSSP), level of constant potential (LCP) and neuropsychological testing in persons of flight composition (LLS) of civil aviation exposed to intra-cabin noise, depending on the degree of expression of professional neurosensory noise (ONIHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thresholds of acoustical sensitivity, levels of perception of shepotny, informal conversation, UPP, characteristic of SSVP, neuropsychological features at 45 patients with easy degree of PNST (LONIHL) and at 50 - with moderate degree of ONIHL (UONIHL) are studied. RESULTS: LCP in the left frontal (Fs), central dark (Pz) leads increased in persons with ONIHL, and the inter-peak interval of the N13-N20 characterizing the central conduct time increased. The FAB, unlike the LONIHL, is characterized by deterioration of cognitive activity in the form of easily pronounced decrease of visual memory functions, expressive speech, FAB scale value indicating priority dysfunction of frontal, dark-occipital lobes, subcortical cerebral structures. CONCLUSION: Neurofunctional markers in UONIHL are the reduction of the indicators of the interfamily relations on the frontal department, conceptual thinking, visual image memory, expressive speech, MMSE and FAB tests, the increase of LCP in the left temporal, central dark, occipital right central N13-N20, inter-peak N25.


Assuntos
Aviação , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Encéfalo , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Ruído , Fala
7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(9): 1025-1028, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081885

RESUMO

With the development of society and economy, the disease spectrum of Chinese residents has undergone a major change, and the public health emergencies have occasionally occurred. The new situation has put forward higher requirements on the emergency capacity, professional technical level and treatment quality of critical care treatment system. Combining with the advantages of hospital aviation, ground and Internet emergency, Henan Provincial People's Hospital established a new construction path of emergency and critical care treatment system, namely "trinity" rescue system of aviation, ground and Internet emergency treatment and the "five-ring" model of critical care treatment system in hospital. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the practical experience of the construction of emergency and critical care system in Henan Provincial People's Hospital, so as to provide reference for the management of emergency and critical care in China.


Assuntos
Aviação , Tratamento de Emergência , China , Emergências , Humanos , Internet
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002082

RESUMO

A detailed situation awareness of the local environment is essential for safe flight in General Aviation. When operating under Visual Flight Rules, eyesight is crucial for maintaining situation awareness and objects may be overlooked. Technical solutions such as Flarm have been sought, but they only work on a basis of co-operation: obstacles without the proper equipment are invisible. Recent developments in the field of radar technology, partly empowered by the demand for sensors for autonomous cars, have improved the size and power consumption of available hardware. Today, the hardware exists to build a portable primary radar system for situation awareness. In this paper the results are presented of efforts to build the first portable primary radar for general, which has to be lightweight, cheap and have a low power consumption. The focus in this paper is on the software design of such a radar system. The physical principles of radar sensing are described, as well as the scientific steps needed to provide situation awareness. The hardware and software for the radar are both built and tested, and the results of these tests are presented. A flight experiment is performed with a small aircraft flying past a stationary radar on a small hill. It is found that the radar is capable of detecting the aircraft up to a distance of at least 3 kilometers. 3D localization is performed and the location determined by the radar was on average 46 meters away from the aircraft position as measured by satellite navigation, relative to a total distance of about 1000 meters from the radar. A low-pass filter can be applied on the raw results in order to improve the location estimation further. Future research will focus on bringing the portable radar in motion while operating.


Assuntos
Aviação/instrumentação , Radar/instrumentação , Software/normas
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 851-854, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018118

RESUMO

Air Traffic Control (ATC) has been classified as the fourth most stressful job. In this regard, sixteen controllers were asked to perform ecological ATC simulation during which behavioral (Radio Communications with pilots - RCs), subjective (stress perception) and neurophysiological signals (brain activity and skin conductance - SC) were collected. All the considered parameters reported significant changes under high stress conditions. In particular, the theta, alpha, and beta brain rhythms increased significantly (all p<0.05) all over the brain areas, and both the SC components exhibited higher values (p<0.01). Additionally, the number of speech under high stress decreased significantly (p<10-4) while both the mean and median value of the F0 component of the RC increased (p<0.01). The results can be employed to objectively measure and track the controller's stress level while dealing with ATC activities to better tailoring the workshift and maintaining high safety levels.


Assuntos
Aviação , Neurofisiologia , Ritmo beta , Encéfalo , Humanos , Fala
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867124

RESUMO

Human factors are important causes of hazardous chemical storage accidents, and clarifying the relationship between human factors can help to identify the logical chain between unsafe behaviors and influential factors in accidents. Therefore, the human factor relationship of hazardous chemical storage accidents was studied in this paper. First, the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS), which originated from accident analysis in the aviation field, was introduced. Since some items were designed for aviation accident analysis, such as the item "Crew Resource Management", it is not fully applicable to the analysis of hazardous chemical storage accidents. Therefore, this article introduced some modifications and changes to make the HFACS model suitable for the analysis of hazardous chemical storage accidents. Based on the improved HFACS model, 42 hazardous chemicals storage accidents were analyzed, and the causes were classified. After analysis, we found that under the HFACS framework, the most frequent cause of accidents is resource management, followed by violations and inadequate supervision, and finally the organizational process and technological environment. Finally, according to the statistical results for the various causes of accidents obtained from the improved HFACS analysis, the chi-square test and odds ratio analysis were used to further explore the relevance of human factors in hazardous chemical storage accidents. The 16 groups of significant causal relationships among the four levels of factors include resource management and inadequate supervision, planned inappropriate operations and technological environment, inadequate supervision and physical/mental limitations, and technological environment and skill-based errors, among others.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Aviação , Ergonomia , Substâncias Perigosas , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho , Análise Fatorial , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892581

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the index system and weight of occupational stress risk assessment for civil aviation air traffic controllers (ATC) . Methods: In October 2018, a total of 489 ATC staff from an air traffic administration bureau were selected by cluster sampling. Through ATC questionnaire survey, the basic information, the influencing factors of occupational stress and the degree of occupational stress were understood. Based on the order relation analysis method (GL method) , the influencing factors of ATC occupational stress in civil aviation are evaluated. The fuzzy relation synthesis principle is applied to carry out multi-level fuzzy evaluation on the subordinate degree of occupational stress risk, and the ATC occupational stress risk evaluation system model is established. The weight of each index in the index system is determined, Establish a three-level comprehensive evaluation index system for ATC occupational stress risk, and quantify the occupational stress risk, Each Civil Aviation ATC occupational stress index corresponds to different degree of stress. Results: The influence degree of ATC occupational stress from heavy to light is: work factor, psychological factor, event factor, management factor, physiological factor, equipment factor and environmental factor (weight value is 0.2652, 0.2265, 0.1832, 0.1253, 0.1154, 0.045 5, 0.038 9 respectively) . Conclusion: GL method can be used to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the occupational stress risk of Civil Aviation ATC, which may be a feasible way to evaluate the occupational stress risk of Civil Aviation ATC.


Assuntos
Aviação , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956383

RESUMO

Disruptive behavior by passengers delayed at airport terminals not only affects personal safety but also reduces civil aviation efficiency and passenger satisfaction. This study investigated the causal mechanisms of disruptive behavior by delayed passengers in three aspects: environmental, managerial, and personal. Data on flight delays at Shenzhen Airport in 2018 were collected and analyzed. The main factors leading to disruptive behavior by delayed passengers were identified, and an early warning model for disturbances was developed using multiple logistic regression and a back-propagation(BP) neural network. The results indicated that the proposed model and method were feasible. Compared to the logistic regression model, the BP neural network model had advantages in predicting disturbances by delayed passengers, showing higher prediction accuracy. The BP network weight analysis method was used to obtain the influence weight of each factor on behavior change of delayed passengers. The influence weight of different factors was obtained, providing an assistant decision-making method to address disruption from flight-delayed passengers.


Assuntos
Aviação/organização & administração , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Viagem/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Satisfação Pessoal , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111214, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801103

RESUMO

Bio-aviation fuels are a major research and development topic, with strong interests from the aviation sector, the public, lawmakers and potential producers. Yet the development and market penetration in the air-transportation sector is slow, despite proven environmental benefits. Bio-fuels can indeed mitigate the environmental impact of the aviation sector mostly due to their low carbon intensity and favourable chemical structure. Such bio-aviation fuels must have "drop-in" characteristics with specifications and compatibility with the combustion behaviour of kerosene. The ASTM approval procedures are an important guarantee in this respect. Additional emission reductions rely on the production pathways, while optimum flight-related strategies are an additional benefit. An analysis of both the production pathways, and the environmental and Life Cycle Assessment findings delineates important research directions to enhance the production and use of bio-aviation fuels. Towards specific environmental issues, target research topics should include various topics. A better quantification of particulate and soot emissions, condensation contrails and NOx are of primary concern. The impact of geographic parameters on the bio-aviation fuel benefits should be investigated towards using bio-aviation fuels primarily in specific climate zones. Emission prediction models should be further developed. LCA approaches should be extended. More on-flight emission patterns should be measured to provide relevant data for the above considerations; Towards bio-aviation fuel characterization, safety and reliability are major criteria of the ASTM approval. Towards production pathways, the technical viability studies of synthesis pathways should be combined with economic assessments. Towards fuel costs, the reason for the high production cost of bio-aviation fuel is at least partly due to the oxygen-rich bio-polymer nature of biomass with unsuitable carbon chain length. In order to reduce the cost of bio-aviation fuel, several research directions are encouraged and discussed in the paper.


Assuntos
Aviação , Carvão Mineral , Querosene , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fuligem
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(14): 8580-8588, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639745

RESUMO

Impacts of aviation emissions on air quality in and around residences near airports remain underexamined. We measured gases (CO, CO2, NO, and NO2) and particles (black carbon, particle-bound aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (reported using particle number concentrations (PNC) as a proxy)) continuously for 1 month at a residence near the Logan International Airport, Boston. The residence was located under a flight trajectory of the most utilized runway configuration. We found that when the residence was downwind of the airport, the concentrations of all gaseous and particulate pollutants (except PM2.5) were 1.1- to 4.8-fold higher than when the residence was not downwind of the airport. Controlling for runway usage and meteorology, the impacts were highest during overhead landing operations: average PNC was 7.5-fold higher from overhead landings versus takeoffs on the closest runway. Infiltration of aviation-origin emissions resulted in indoor PNC that were comparable to ambient concentrations measured locally on roadways and near highways. In addition, ambient NO2 concentrations at the residence exceeded those measured at regulatory monitoring sites in the area including near-road monitors. Our results highlight the need for further characterization of outdoor and indoor impacts of aviation emissions at the neighborhood scale to more accurately estimate residential exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aviação , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aeroportos , Boston , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
18.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 58(7): 843-847, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576468

RESUMO

The COVID-19 crisis has caused many issues across healthcare. In surgery, many operations have been cancelled with some surgeons losing their regular operating lists. During this time, technical expertise and decision making can deteriorate. In aviation after a prolonged period of absence from flying, this deficit in keeping skills and thinking up to date is known as being "out of currency" or "not current". Although aviation and healthcare cannot be compared, numerous human factors concepts are applicable to both. In this article, we explore the likely impact of potentially prolonged absences in operating on surgical skills and psyche, and introduce the concept of a Surgical Skills Currency Barometer. We also discuss a "task-o-meter" thought experiment, and suggest practices which could be adopted to help protect surgeon workload from exceeding surgical capability when returning to operating following a period of prolonged absence.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral , Aviação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Retorno ao Trabalho
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 312: 123596, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507633

RESUMO

This article reviews the production of renewable aviation fuels from biomass and residual wastes using gasification followed by syngas conditioning and Fischer-Tropsch catalytic synthesis. The challenges involved with gasifying wastes are discussed along with a summary of conventional and emerging gasification technologies. The techniques for conditioning syngas including removal of particulate matter, tars, sulphur, carbon dioxide, compounds of nitrogen, chlorine and alkali metals are reported. Recent developments in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, such as new catalyst formulations are described alongside reactor technologies for producing renewable aviation fuels. The energy efficiency and capital cost of converting biomass and residual wastes to aviation fuels are major barriers to widespread adoption. Therefore, further development of advanced technologies will be critical for the aviation industry to achieve their stated greenhouse gas reduction targets by 2050.


Assuntos
Aviação , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Biomassa , Catálise , Alcatrões
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408602

RESUMO

Air travel has a decisive role in the spread of infectious diseases at the global level. We present a methodology applied during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic that uses detailed aviation data at the final destination level in order to measure the risk of the disease spreading outside China. The approach proved to be successful in terms of identifying countries with a high risk of infected travellers and as a tool to monitor the evolution of the pandemic in different countries. The high number of undetected or asymptomatic cases of COVID-19, however, limits the capacity of the approach to model the full dynamics. As a result, the risk for countries with a low number of passengers from Hubei province appeared as low. Globalization and international aviation connectivity allow travel times that are much shorter than the incubation period of infectious diseases, a fact that raises the question of how to react in a potential new pandemic.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Aviação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial , Incerteza
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