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J Virol ; 93(3)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429342


Ubiquitination is critical for several cellular physical processes. However, ubiquitin modification in virus replication is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the presence and effect of ubiquitination on polymerase activity of viral protein 1 (VP1) of avibirnavirus. We report that the replication of avibirnavirus is regulated by ubiquitination of its VP1 protein, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In vivo detection revealed the ubiquitination of VP1 protein in IBDV-infected target organs and different cells but not in purified IBDV particles. Further analysis of ubiquitination confirms that VP1 is modified by K63-linked ubiquitin chain. Point mutation screening showed that the ubiquitination site of VP1 was at the K751 residue in the C terminus. The K751 ubiquitination is independent of VP1's interaction with VP3 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A II. Polymerase activity assays indicated that the K751 ubiquitination at the C terminus of VP1 enhanced its polymerase activity. The K751-to-R mutation of VP1 protein did not block the rescue of IBDV but decreased the replication ability of IBDV. Our data demonstrate that the ubiquitination of VP1 is crucial to regulate its polymerase activity and IBDV replication.IMPORTANCE Avibirnavirus protein VP1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is responsible for IBDV genome replication, gene expression, and assembly. However, little is known about its chemical modification relating to its polymerase activity. In this study, we revealed the molecular mechanism of ubiquitin modification of VP1 via a K63-linked ubiquitin chain during infection. Lysine (K) residue 751 at the C terminus of VP1 is the target site for ubiquitin, and its ubiquitination is independent of VP1's interaction with VP3 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A II. The K751 ubiquitination promotes the polymerase activity of VP1 and unubiquitinated VP1 mutant IBDV significantly impairs virus replication. We conclude that VP1 is the ubiquitin-modified protein and reveal the mechanism by which VP1 promotes avibirnavirus replication.

Avibirnavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/fisiologia , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Avibirnavirus/classificação , Infecções por Birnaviridae/enzimologia , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/virologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , RNA Replicase/química , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/química