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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012328, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About half of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require surgery within 10 years of diagnosis. Resection of the affected segment is highly effective, however the majority of patients experience clinical recurrence after surgery. Most of these patients have asymptomatic endoscopic recurrence weeks or months before starting with symptoms. This inflammation can be detected by colonoscopy and is a good predictor of poor prognosis.Therapy guided by colonoscopy could tailor the management and improve the prognosis of postoperative CD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prophylactic therapy guided by colonoscopy in reducing the postoperative recurrence of CD in adults. SEARCH METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched up to 17 December 2019: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Clinical Trials.gov, WHO Trial Registry and Cochrane IBD specialized register. Reference lists of included articles, as well as conference proceedings were handsearched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cohort studies comparing colonoscopy-guided management versus management non-guided by colonoscopy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently considered studies for eligibility, extracted the data and assessed study quality. Methodological quality was assessed using both the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for cohort studies. The primary outcome was clinical recurrence. Secondary outcomes included: endoscopic, surgical recurrence and adverse events. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for each dichotomous outcome and extracted the hazard ratio (HR) for time-to-event outcomes. All estimates were reported with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. The overall quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Two RCTs (237 participants) and five cohort studies (794 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not conducted as the studies were highly heterogeneous. We included two comparisons. Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus intensification guided by clinical recurrence One unblinded RCT and four retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. All participants received the same prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery. In the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was intensified in case of endoscopic recurrence; in the control group the therapy was intensified only in case of symptoms. In the RCT, clinical recurrence (defined as Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) > 150 points) in the colonoscopy-based management group was 37.7% (46/122) compared to 46.1% (21/52) in the control group at 18 months' follow up (RR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.18, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). There may be a reduction in endoscopic recurrence at 18 months with colonoscopy-based management (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). The certainty of the evidence for surgical recurrence was very low, due to only four cohort studies with inconsistent results reporting this outcome. Adverse events at 18 months were similar in both groups, with 82% in the intervention group (100/122) and 86.5% in the control group (45/52) (RR 0.95, 95% CI:0.83 to 1.08, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty of evidence).The most common adverse events reported were alopecia, wound infection, sensory symptoms, systemic lupus, vasculitis and severe injection site reaction. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. Initiation of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus initiation immediately after surgery An unblinded RCT and two retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. The control group received prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery, and in the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was delayed up to detection of endoscopic recurrence. The effects on clinical and endoscopic recurrence are uncertain (clinical recurrence until week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; endoscopic recurrence at week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; 1 RCT, 63 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Results from one cohort study were similarly uncertain (median follow-up 32 months, 199 participants). The effects on surgical recurrence at a median follow-up of 50 to 55 months were also uncertain in one cohort study (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.62, 133 participants, very low-certainty evidence). There were fewer adverse events with colonoscopy-based management (54.8% (17/31)) compared with the control group (93.8% (30/32)) but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.82; 1 RCT, 63 participants). Common adverse events were infections, gastrointestinal intolerance, leukopenia, pancreatitis and skin lesions. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy may reduce clinical and endoscopic postoperative recurrence of CD compared to intensification guided by symptoms, and there may be little or no difference in adverse effects. We are uncertain whether initiation of therapy guided by colonoscopy impacts postoperative recurrence and adverse events when compared to initiation immediately after surgery, as the certainty of the evidence is very low. Further studies are necessary to improve the certainty of the evidence of this review.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Doença de Crohn/prevenção & controle , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Brasília; CONITEC; jul. 2020. ilus, tab.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1122897

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A retocolite ulcerativa (RCU) é uma doença crônica que consiste na inflamação da camada mucosa do cólon, que afeta o reto e outras partes proximais do cólon. A diarreia sanguinolenta ou não, juntamente com o pequeno volume de cada evacuação e o aumento da frequência, caracterizam a doença. Além desses sintomas, observa-se febre, perda de peso, anemia, alterações laboratoriais, dores abdominais, dentre outros. A doença pode ser classificada de acordo com sua gravidade, o que auxilia no tratamento, em leve, moderada ou grave, a partir da aplicação de um índice específico. O tratamento atualmente preconizado no Sistema Único de Saúde é o uso de corticoides e aminossalicilatos. PERGUNTA: Citrato de tofacitinibe é eficaz e seguro para o tratamento da RCU ativa moderada a grave com resposta inadequada, perda de resposta ou intolerância a aminossalicilatos, corticosteroides, azatioprina, 6-mercaptopurina ou medicamentos biológicos da classe dos anti-TNF? TECNOLOGIA: Citrato de Tofacitinibe (Xeljanz®). EVIDÊNCIAS CI


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Proctocolite/tratamento farmacológico , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Mercaptopurina/efeitos adversos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
3.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 404-412, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiopurines have proven efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. However, their use is limited by adverse effects in a subset of patients. AIMS: The present study aimed to evaluate toxicity profile and identify clinical predictive factors of thiopurine adverse effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted among inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with thiopurines. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for thiopurine adverse effects. RESULTS: A total of  210 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age at disease onset was 29.8±11.4 years.  One hundred sixty-nine (169) patients had Crohn's disease, 29 had ulcerative colitis and 12 had indeterminate colitis. During a median follow-up of 28.5 ± 20 months, 56 patients (26.6%) had thiopurine-related adverse effects including digestive intolerance (n=14; 6.6%), immunoallergic reactions (n=8; 3.8%), myelotoxicity (n=25; 11.9%) and hepatotoxicity (n=8; 3.8%). Treatment withdrawal was reported in 19 patients (9%).  The only independent predictive factor for thiopurine adverse effects found in this study was steroid-dependence (OR= 3.96; 95% CI: 1.07- 14.53; p= 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Almost a quarter of inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with thiopurines developed adverse effects. These adverse effects lead to drug withdrawal in almost 9% of patients either as monotherapy or as in combination with biologic therapies.  Steroid-dependent patients were significantly at higher risk for thiopurine-related toxicity.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD002290, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 80% of children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) have relapses. Of these children, half relapse frequently, and are at risk of adverse effects from corticosteroids. While non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications prolong periods of remission, they have significant potential adverse effects. Currently, there is no consensus about the most appropriate second-line agent in children who are steroid sensitive, but who continue to relapse. In addition, these medications could be used with corticosteroids in the initial episode of SSNS to prolong the period of remission. This is the fourth update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2005, 2008 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications in SSNS in children with a relapsing course of SSNS and in children with their first episode of nephrotic syndrome. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 10 March 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs were included if they involved children with SSNS and compared non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications with placebo, corticosteroids (prednisone or prednisolone) or no treatment; compared different non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications or different doses, durations or routes of administration of the same non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, risk of bias of the included studies and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using a random-effects model and results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 43 studies (91 reports) and included data from 2428 children. Risk of bias assessment indicated that 21 and 24 studies were at low risk of bias for sequence generation and allocation concealment respectively. Nine studies were at low risk of performance bias and 10 were at low risk of detection bias. Thirty-seven and 27 studies were at low risk of incomplete and selective reporting respectively. Rituximab (in combination with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and prednisolone) versus CNI and prednisolone probably reduces the number of children who relapse at six months (5 studies, 269 children: RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.43) and 12 months (3 studies, 198 children: RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93) (moderate certainty evidence). At six months, rituximab resulted in 126 children/1000 relapsing compared with 548 children/1000 treated with conservative treatments. Rituximab may result in infusion reactions (4 studies, 252 children: RR 5.83, 95% CI 1.34 to 25.29). Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and levamisole may have similar effects on the number of children who relapse at 12 months (1 study, 149 children: RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.16). MMF may have a similar effect on the number of children relapsing compared to cyclosporin (2 studies, 82 children: RR 1.90, 95% CI 0.66 to 5.46) (low certainty evidence). MMF compared to cyclosporin is probably less likely to result in hypertrichosis (3 studies, 140 children: RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.50) and gum hypertrophy (3 studies, 144 children: RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.42) (low certainty evidence). Levamisole compared with steroids or placebo may reduce the number of children with relapse during treatment (8 studies, 474 children: RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.82) (low certainty evidence). Levamisole compared to cyclophosphamide may make little or no difference to the risk for relapse after 6 to 9 months (2 studies, 97 children: RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.81) (low certainty evidence). Cyclosporin compared with prednisolone may reduce the number of children who relapse (1 study, 104 children: RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.83) (low certainty evidence). Alkylating agents compared with cyclosporin may make little or no difference to the risk of relapse during cyclosporin treatment (2 studies, 95 children: RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.48) (low certainty evidence) but may reduce the risk of relapse at 12 to 24 months (2 studies, 95 children: RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.74), suggesting that the benefit of the alkylating agents may be sustained beyond the on-treatment period (low certainty evidence). Alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil) compared with prednisone probably reduce the number of children, who experience relapse at six to 12 months (6 studies, 202 children: RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.60) and at 12 to 24 months (4 studies, 59 children: RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.46) (moderate certainty evidence). IV cyclophosphamide may reduce the number of children with relapse compared with oral cyclophosphamide at 6 months (2 studies, 83 children: RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.88), but not at 12 to 24 months (2 studies, 83 children: RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.29) and may result in fewer infections (2 studies, 83 children: RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.72) (low certainty evidence). Cyclophosphamide compared to chlorambucil may make little or no difference in the risk of relapse after 12 months (1 study, 50 children: RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.13) (low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: New studies incorporated in this review indicate that rituximab is a valuable additional agent for managing children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. However, the treatment effect is temporary, and many children will require additional courses of rituximab. The long-term adverse effects of this treatment are not known. Comparative studies of CNIs, MMF, levamisole and alkylating agents have demonstrated little or no differences in efficacy but, because of insufficient power; clinically important differences in treatment effects have not been completely excluded.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clorambucila/efeitos adversos , Clorambucila/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Levamisol/efeitos adversos , Levamisol/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/prevenção & controle , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Ribonucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária
5.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(9): 102525, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240856

RESUMO

Azathioprine (AZA), an oral immunosuppressant, is safe during pregnancy. Some reports suggested different impairments in the offspring of mothers with autoimmune diseases (AI) exposed in utero to AZA. These observations are available from retrospective studies or case reports. However, data with respect to the long-term safety in the antenatally exposed child are still lacking. The aim of this study is to summarize the current knowledge in this field and to focus on the need for a prospective study on this population. We performed a PubMed search using several search terms. The actual data show that although the risk of congenital anomalies in offspring, as well as the infertility risk, are similar to those found in general population, there is a higher incidence of prematurity, of lower weight at birth and an intra-uterine delay of development. There is also an increased risk of materno- fetal infections, especially cytomegalovirus infection. Some authors raise the interrogations about neurocognitive impairment. Even though the adverse outcomes might well be a consequence of maternal illness and disease activity, interest has been raised about a contribution of this drug. However, the interferences between the external agent (in utero exposure to AZA), with the host (child genetic susceptibility, immune system anomalies, emotional status), environment (public health, social context, availability of health care), economic, social, and behavioral conditions, cultural patterns, are complex and represent confounding factors. In conclusion, it is necessary to perform studies on the medium and long-term outcome of children born by mothers with autoimmune diseases, treated with AZA, in order to show the safety of AZA exposure. Only large-scale population studies with long-term follow-up will allow to formally conclude in this field. TAKE HOME MESSAGES.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(5): 391-401, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Azathioprine is used as a first-line treatment to prevent relapses of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Tocilizumab has been reported to reduce NMOSD disease activity in retrospective case reports. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab and azathioprine in patients with highly relapsing NMOSD. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 2 trial at six hospitals in China. We recruited adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with highly relapsing NMOSD diagnosed according to 2015 International Panel for Neuromyelitis Optica Diagnosis criteria, who had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 7·5 or lower, and had a history of at least two clinical relapses during the previous 12 months or three relapses during the previous 24 months with at least one relapse within the previous 12 months. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg every 4 weeks) or oral azathioprine (2-3 mg/kg per day) by an independent statistician using computer-generated randomisation software with permuted blocks of four. The central review committee, EDSS raters, laboratory personnel, and radiologists were masked to the treatment assignment, but investigators and patients were aware of treatment allocation. The minimum planned duration of treatment was 60 weeks following randomisation. The primary outcome was time to first relapse in the full analysis set, which included all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study drug, and the per-protocol population, which included all patients who used azathioprine or tocilizumab as monotherapy. For the analyses of the primary outcome, the patients were prespecified into two subgroups according to concomitant autoimmune disease status. Safety was assessed in the full analysis set. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03350633. FINDINGS: Between Nov 1, 2017, and Aug 3, 2018, we enrolled 118 patients, of whom 59 were randomly assigned to tocilizumab and 59 were randomly assigned to azathioprine. All 118 patients received one dose of study drug and were included in the full analysis set. 108 participants were included in the per-protocol analysis (56 in the tocilizumab group and 52 in the azathioprine group). In the full analysis set, median time to the first relapse was longer in the tocilizumab group than the azathioprine group (78·9 weeks [IQR 58·3-90·6] vs 56·7 [32·9-81·7] weeks; p=0·0026). Eight (14%) of 59 patients in the tocilizumab group and 28 (47%) of 59 patients in the azathioprine group had a relapse at the end of the study (hazard ratio [HR] 0·236 [95% CI 0·107-0·518]; p<0·0001). In the per-protocol analysis, 50 (89%) of 56 patients in the tocilizumab group were relapse-free compared with 29 (56%) of 52 patients in the azathioprine group at the end of the study (HR 0·188 [95% CI 0·076-0·463]; p<0·0001); the median time to first relapse was also longer in the tocilizumab group than the azathioprine group (67·2 weeks [IQR 47·9-77·9] vs 38·0 [23·6-64·9]; p<0·0001). In the prespecified subgroup analysis of the full analysis set stratified by concomitant autoimmune diseases, among patients without concomitant autoimmune diseases, three (9%) of 34 patients in the tocilizumab group and 13 (35%) of 37 patients in the azathioprine group had relapsed by the end of the study. Among patients with concomitant autoimmune diseases, a lower proportion of patients in the tocilizumab group had a relapse than in the azathioprine group (five [20%] of 25 patients vs 15 [68%] of 22 patients; HR 0·192 [95% CI 0·070-0·531]; p=0·0004). 57 (97%) of 59 patients in the tocilizumab group and 56 (95%) of 59 patients in the azathioprine group had adverse events. Treatment-associated adverse events occurred in 36 (61%) of 59 tocilizumab-treated patients and 49 (83%) of 59 azathioprine-treated patients. One death (2%) occurred in the tocilizumab group and one (2%) in the azathioprine group, but neither of the deaths were treatment-related. INTERPRETATION: Tocilizumab significantly reduced the risk of a subsequent NMOSD relapse compared with azathioprine. Tocilizumab might therefore be another safe and effective treatment to prevent relapses in patients with NMOSD. FUNDING: Tianjin Medical University, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Neurology ; 94(15): e1645-e1656, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and the risk of severe infectious events of immunosuppressive agents used early as first-line therapy in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: We retrospectively included patients with NMOSD and a seropositive status for aquaporin 4 or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies beginning first-line immunosuppressants within 3 years after the disease onset. The main outcome was occurrence of relapse after the initiation of immunosuppressants; the secondary outcome was the annual relapse rate (AAR). RESULTS: A total of 136 patients were included: 62 (45.6%) were treated with rituximab (RTX), 42 (30.9%) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and 23 (16.9%) with azathioprine (AZA). Compared with RTX-treated patients, the risk of relapse was higher among MMF-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74 [1.17-6.40]; p = 0.020) after adjusting for age at disease onset, sex, antibody status, disease duration, ARR before treatment, corticosteroid intake, and relapse location. We did not observe any difference between RTX-treated and AZA-treated patients (HR, 2.13 [0.72-6.28]; p = 0.17). No interaction was found between the antibody status and immunosuppressive treatments. ARR was lower with RTX than with MMF (p = 0.039), but no difference was observed with AZA. We observed 9 serious infectious events with MMF, 6 with RTX, and none with AZA. CONCLUSIONS: The use of first-line RTX in NMOSD appears more effective than MMF in suppressing clinical activity, independent of the antibody status. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: That study provides Class III evidence that for patients with NMOSD, first-line RTX is superior to MMF to reduce the risk of relapse.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Aquaporina 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Aquaporina 4/imunologia , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Neuromielite Óptica/imunologia , Recidiva , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
8.
Xenobiotica ; 50(1): 101-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682552

RESUMO

The thiopurine drugs azathioprine and mercaptopurine are effective in the treatment of disorders of immune regulation and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although developed in the 1950s, thiopurines remained relevant in the anti-tumour necrosis factor biologic era, finding widespread use as a co-immunomodulator. Step changes in the management of patients treated with thiopurines have reduced the incidence of severe, sometimes life-threatening toxicity. Testing for thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency directs a safe initial dose for therapy. The introduction of red cell thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) monitoring provides a basis for dose adjustment and the identification of patients with high levels of red cell methylmercaptopurine (MMP) and an increase in the MMP:TGN ratio. These patients are at risk for hepatotoxicity and where TGN levels are sub-therapeutic, non-response to therapy. Switching thiopurine hypermethylators to low-dose thiopurine and allopurinol combination therapy resolves hepatoxicity and increases sub-therapeutic TGN levels to regain clinical response. NUDT15 variants are a common cause of severe myelotoxicity in Asian populations where the frequency of TPMT deficiency is low. There is increasing evidence that testing for NUDT15 and TPMT deficiency in all populations prior to the start of thiopurine therapy is clinically useful and should be the first step in personalising thiopurine therapy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo da Purina-Pirimidina/genética , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mercaptopurina/efeitos adversos , Mercaptopurina/análogos & derivados , Mercaptopurina/uso terapêutico , Metiltransferases , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Purinas/efeitos adversos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816823

RESUMO

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often present poor bone health and are 40% more at risk of bone fracture. Studies have implicated autophagy in IBD pathology and drugs used to treat IBD stimulate autophagy in varying degrees, however, their effect on the skeleton is currently unknown. Here, we have utilised the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of colitis in mice to examine the effects of the thiopurine drug azathioprine on the skeleton. Ten-week-old male mice (n = 6/group) received 3.0% DSS in their drinking water for four days, followed by a 14-day recovery period. Mice were treated with 10 mg/kg/day azathioprine or vehicle control. Histopathological analysis of the colon from DSS mice revealed significant increases in scores for inflammation severity, extent, and crypt damage (p < 0.05). Azathioprine provided partial protection to the colon, as reflected by a lack of significant difference in crypt damage and tissue regeneration with DSS treatment. MicroCT of vehicle-treated DSS mice revealed azathioprine treatment had a significant detrimental effect on the trabecular bone microarchitecture, independent of DSS treatment. Specifically, significant decreases were observed in bone volume/tissue volume (p < 0.01), and trabecular number (p < 0.05), with a concurrent significant increase in trabecular pattern factor (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemical labelling for LC3 revealed azathioprine to induce autophagy in the bone marrow. Together these data suggest that azathioprine treatment may have a deleterious effect on IBD patients who may already be at increased risk of osteoporotic bone fractures and thus will inform on future treatment strategies for patient stratification.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Tíbia/patologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Curr Drug Metab ; 20(11): 889-897, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a common disease affecting many patients. This disease is treated by azathioprine and TPMT genetic polymorphism affecting the patient's tolerance. The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of TMPT genotyping in reducing the incidence of adverse effects of azathioprine. METHODS: One hundred and forty-one IBD patients were followed for azathioprine Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR). Patients were genotyped for TPMT*2, TPMT*3A, TPMT*3B, TPMT*3C. RESULTS: The frequency of Azathioprine adverse effect was about 35.5%. An association between TPMT genotypes 1/3A and 3B/3B and azathioprine related bone marrow suppression was found (P value ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that there was a significant association between TPMT genotypes 1/3A and 3B/3B and azathioprine related bone marrow suppression.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Metiltransferases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 23(10): 751-757, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556692

RESUMO

Aims: Azathioprine (AZA) is commonly used to treat autoimmune diseases, but its applications have been limited due to significant adverse effects, particularly leukopenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of NUDT15, TPMT, and inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) polymorphisms with AZA-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 86 Chinese patients with autoimmune diseases were recruited, and the NUDT15*2-*6, TPMT*3C, and ITPA rs7270101 genotypes of these patients were characterized by Sanger sequencing. Sociodemographic data and clinical records over a period of 6 months were also collected. Results: The TPMT*3C and NUDT15*3 genotypes were significantly associated with AZA-induced leukopenia (p = 0.007 and 4.475 × 10-6, respectively). The p-value for the correlation between ITPA rs7270101 and leukopenia was 0.059. In addition, NUDT15*3 was significantly associated with gastrointestinal effects, erythropenia, hypochromia, and thrombocytopenia [p = 0.002, 1.109 × 10-5, 1.653 × 10-7, and 9.110 × 10-6, respectively; allelic odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 5.714 (1.56-20.95), 9.333 (2.96-29.47), 13.18 (4.15-41.87), and 20.13 (3.40-119.18), respectively]. The TPMT*3C genotypes were also significantly associated with gastrointestinal discomfort [p = 0.028, 12.08 (0.71-204.49)], alopecia [p = 2.864 × 10-4, 33 (1.80-606.47)], and hypochromia [p = 0.045, 10.33 (0.61-173.66)]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that NUDT15*3 and TPMT*3C are both highly predictive genetic markers for AZA-induced toxicity in Chinese populations with rheumatic diseases.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Leucopenia/diagnóstico , Metiltransferases/genética , Pirofosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Biomarcadores , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Leucopenia/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/genética , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(7): 780-788, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiopurines are the most widely used immunosuppressants in IBD although drug-related adverse events (AE) occur in 20%-30% of cases. AIM: To evaluate the safety of thiopurines in elderly IBD patients METHODS: Cohort study including all adult patients in the ENEIDA registry who received thiopurines. Patients were grouped in terms of age at the beginning of thiopurine treatment, specifically in those who started thiopurines over 60 years or between 18 and 50 years of age. Thiopurine-related AEs registered in the ENEIDA database were compared. RESULTS: Out of 48 752 patients, 1888 started thiopurines when over 60 years of age and 15 477 under 50 years of age. Median treatment duration was significantly shorter for those who started thiopurines >60 years (13 [IQR 2-55] vs 32 [IQR 5-82] months; P < .001). Patients starting >60 years had higher rates of all types of myelotoxicity, digestive intolerance and hepatotoxicity. Thiopurines were discontinued due to AEs (excluding malignancies and infections) in more patients starting >60 years (67.2% vs 63.1%; P < .001). Elderly age and female sex were independent risk factors for most AEs. CONCLUSION: In elderly IBD patients, thiopurines are associated with an increased risk of non-infectious, non-neoplastic, AEs.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Mercaptopurina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Mercaptopurina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
S D Med ; 72(5): 214-216, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454474

RESUMO

Cirrhosis resulting from autoimmune hepatitis is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A common treatment for autoimmune hepatitis, azathioprine, is also associated with the development of many other cancers, predominantly lymphomas. The strongest association is seen for post-transplant lymphoma and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients; there is also an association with a variety of cutaneous malignancies. A relationship between azathioprine and sarcoma has not been demonstrated, though there have been sporadic case reports. We report here the development of leiomyosarcoma in a patient who was treated with azathioprine for autoimmune hepatitis without cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Leiomiossarcoma , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Leiomiossarcoma/induzido quimicamente
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387318

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: In patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the use of azathioprine results in adverse events at a rate of 5% to 20%. The aim of the study was to assess a possible correlation between genetic variability of the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and the development of toxicity to azathioprine. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, single center, blind, case-control study was conducted on 200 IBD patients, of whom 60 cases suspended azathioprine due to toxicity (leukopenia, pancreatitis, hepatitis, and nausea or vomiting), and 140 controls continued treatment with the drug without adverse events. Results: In the entire cohort, only 8 cases of heterozygous mutations of TPMT were observed, corresponding to 4% mutated haplotype rate, much lower than that reported in literature (close to 10%). No homozygous mutation was found. Regarding the TPMT allelic variants, we did not find any statistically significant difference between patients who tolerated azathioprine and those who suffered from adverse events. (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.08-7.72; p = 0.82). Conclusions: According to our study, in IBD patients, the search for TPMT gene mutations before starting treatment with azathioprine is not helpful in predicting the occurrence of adverse events. Importantly, patients with allelic variants should not be denied the therapeutic option of azathioprine, as they may tolerate this drug.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Metiltransferases/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Metiltransferases/análise , Metiltransferases/sangue , Metiltransferases/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(9): 2395-2403, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290039

RESUMO

Thiopurines have been widely used for the maintenance of remission or steroid sparing in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, potential drug-related adverse events frequently interfere with their use. Indeed, drug withdrawals associated with adverse reactions have been reported in approximately 25% of patients. To balance the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of thiopurines, regular monitoring of biomarkers (complete blood cell count, liver function test, and metabolic profiles), steady dose escalation, and pretreatment thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype screening have been routinely recommended. However, the complex thiopurine metabolic pathway and individual differences attributed to pharmacogenetic diversity limit the effectiveness of these strategies in the optimization of thiopurine therapy. Recently, in an effort to facilitate more accurate and personalized prediction of thiopurine response or toxicity, novel genetic markers including NUDT15 and FTO genes were discovered. These discoveries are remarkable because TPMT screening has minimal efficacy for predicting myelosuppression especially in Asian populations, despite the fact that thee populations have a higher frequency of myelosuppression than Western populations. This review focuses on the current understanding of the metabolic pathway and the pharmacogenetics of thiopurines and suggests a personalized preventive strategy against potential adverse drug reactions to optimize their therapeutic application.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Mercaptopurina/administração & dosagem , Mercaptopurina/efeitos adversos , Mercaptopurina/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metiltransferases/genética , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Pirofosfatases/genética , Tioguanina/sangue
17.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(22): 2809-2818, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare chronic inflammatory liver disease with a high risk of progression to liver cirrhosis. The initial treatment for AIH usually includes a steroid, with or without azathioprine. AIH can present at any age; however, the most effective and safe induction treatment for AIH in the elderly remains unclear. AIM: To systematically review available data on both effectiveness and safety of AIH treatments in elderly subjects. METHODS: To identify studies on AIH induction treatment in elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age), an electronic research was performed (PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases) until February 2019. Eligible studies were selected through screening of titles and abstracts, followed by full-text critical evaluation. After risk of bias assessment, data on study designs, interventions, and outcomes were extracted and reviewed. RESULTS: Among the 1736 retrieved papers, 15 studies were selected. Out of them, eight studies were excluded because of a critical risk of bias. The remaining seven studies included 789 patients and out of them 239 subjects were elders. First-line treatment was a steroid either alone or in combination with azathioprine in most patients (87.6%) and only one study investigated the effect of combined steroid and mycophenolate mofetil therapy. Standard therapy was effective in inducing remission in the elderly. Moreover, treatment failure and relapses occurred less often in the elderly compared to younger people. CONCLUSION: Treatment of AIH is challenging in elderly patients. This systematic review confirms the efficacy and safety of standard induction treatment for AIH in the elderly. Available evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusion on the effect of novel AIH treatments in elderly subjects.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Hepatite Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hepatite Autoimune/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152640

RESUMO

The active metabolite of azathioprine, 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) is the main component responsible for the immunosuppressive effect in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the concentration of 6-thioguanine nucleotide and disease activity, azathioprine-related adverse effects and time duration of treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Thirty-four patients were included in this study. Type of disease, gender, time duration of therapy and adverse effects were recorded. Metabolite concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Twenty-one percent of patients have experienced an adverse effect, with leucocytopenia most commonly occurring (42.9%). More adverse effects were registered when patients were treated with azathioprine in a period of less than 3 months in comparison to the group of patients that have been under therapy between 3-12 months and more than 12 months (p˂0.05). Most of the patients that presented any adverse effect had high 6-TGN concentration (>450 pmol/8x108 Er). The mean value of 6-TGN metabolite concentration in IBD patients treated with azathioprine was 437.46 pmol/8x108 Er ± 198.82 pmol/8x108. The time duration of azathioprine treatment did not have any significant impact on the achieved 6-TGN concentration (p>0.05).Twenty patients (58.9%) had achieved remission after therapy initiation with azathioprine. More alertness is recommended to clinicians towards patients in the first 3 months of the therapy. Our study demonstrated that higher 6-TGN concentration is associated with azathioprine toxicity.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Tionucleotídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tionucleotídeos/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
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