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3.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1117-1128, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults with active lupus nephritis, the efficacy and safety of intravenous belimumab as compared with placebo, when added to standard therapy (mycophenolate mofetil or cyclophosphamide-azathioprine), are unknown. METHODS: In a phase 3, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 104-week trial conducted at 107 sites in 21 countries, we assigned adults with biopsy-proven, active lupus nephritis in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous belimumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The primary end point at week 104 was a primary efficacy renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of ≤0.7, an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] that was no worse than 20% below the value before the renal flare (pre-flare value) or ≥60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, and no use of rescue therapy), and the major secondary end point was a complete renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of <0.5, an eGFR that was no worse than 10% below the pre-flare value or ≥90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, and no use of rescue therapy). The time to a renal-related event or death was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 448 patients underwent randomization (224 to the belimumab group and 224 to the placebo group). At week 104, significantly more patients in the belimumab group than in the placebo group had a primary efficacy renal response (43% vs. 32%; odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 2.3; P = 0.03) and a complete renal response (30% vs. 20%; odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = 0.02). The risk of a renal-related event or death was lower among patients who received belimumab than among those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). The safety profile of belimumab was consistent with that in previous trials. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with active lupus nephritis, more patients who received belimumab plus standard therapy had a primary efficacy renal response than those who received standard therapy alone. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; BLISS-LN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01639339.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/urina , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Nefrite Lúpica/mortalidade , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012328, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About half of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require surgery within 10 years of diagnosis. Resection of the affected segment is highly effective, however the majority of patients experience clinical recurrence after surgery. Most of these patients have asymptomatic endoscopic recurrence weeks or months before starting with symptoms. This inflammation can be detected by colonoscopy and is a good predictor of poor prognosis.Therapy guided by colonoscopy could tailor the management and improve the prognosis of postoperative CD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prophylactic therapy guided by colonoscopy in reducing the postoperative recurrence of CD in adults. SEARCH METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched up to 17 December 2019: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Clinical Trials.gov, WHO Trial Registry and Cochrane IBD specialized register. Reference lists of included articles, as well as conference proceedings were handsearched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cohort studies comparing colonoscopy-guided management versus management non-guided by colonoscopy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently considered studies for eligibility, extracted the data and assessed study quality. Methodological quality was assessed using both the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for cohort studies. The primary outcome was clinical recurrence. Secondary outcomes included: endoscopic, surgical recurrence and adverse events. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for each dichotomous outcome and extracted the hazard ratio (HR) for time-to-event outcomes. All estimates were reported with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. The overall quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Two RCTs (237 participants) and five cohort studies (794 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not conducted as the studies were highly heterogeneous. We included two comparisons. Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus intensification guided by clinical recurrence One unblinded RCT and four retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. All participants received the same prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery. In the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was intensified in case of endoscopic recurrence; in the control group the therapy was intensified only in case of symptoms. In the RCT, clinical recurrence (defined as Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) > 150 points) in the colonoscopy-based management group was 37.7% (46/122) compared to 46.1% (21/52) in the control group at 18 months' follow up (RR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.18, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). There may be a reduction in endoscopic recurrence at 18 months with colonoscopy-based management (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). The certainty of the evidence for surgical recurrence was very low, due to only four cohort studies with inconsistent results reporting this outcome. Adverse events at 18 months were similar in both groups, with 82% in the intervention group (100/122) and 86.5% in the control group (45/52) (RR 0.95, 95% CI:0.83 to 1.08, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty of evidence).The most common adverse events reported were alopecia, wound infection, sensory symptoms, systemic lupus, vasculitis and severe injection site reaction. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. Initiation of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus initiation immediately after surgery An unblinded RCT and two retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. The control group received prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery, and in the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was delayed up to detection of endoscopic recurrence. The effects on clinical and endoscopic recurrence are uncertain (clinical recurrence until week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; endoscopic recurrence at week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; 1 RCT, 63 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Results from one cohort study were similarly uncertain (median follow-up 32 months, 199 participants). The effects on surgical recurrence at a median follow-up of 50 to 55 months were also uncertain in one cohort study (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.62, 133 participants, very low-certainty evidence). There were fewer adverse events with colonoscopy-based management (54.8% (17/31)) compared with the control group (93.8% (30/32)) but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.82; 1 RCT, 63 participants). Common adverse events were infections, gastrointestinal intolerance, leukopenia, pancreatitis and skin lesions. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy may reduce clinical and endoscopic postoperative recurrence of CD compared to intensification guided by symptoms, and there may be little or no difference in adverse effects. We are uncertain whether initiation of therapy guided by colonoscopy impacts postoperative recurrence and adverse events when compared to initiation immediately after surgery, as the certainty of the evidence is very low. Further studies are necessary to improve the certainty of the evidence of this review.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Doença de Crohn/prevenção & controle , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 404-412, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiopurines have proven efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. However, their use is limited by adverse effects in a subset of patients. AIMS: The present study aimed to evaluate toxicity profile and identify clinical predictive factors of thiopurine adverse effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted among inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with thiopurines. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for thiopurine adverse effects. RESULTS: A total of  210 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age at disease onset was 29.8±11.4 years.  One hundred sixty-nine (169) patients had Crohn's disease, 29 had ulcerative colitis and 12 had indeterminate colitis. During a median follow-up of 28.5 ± 20 months, 56 patients (26.6%) had thiopurine-related adverse effects including digestive intolerance (n=14; 6.6%), immunoallergic reactions (n=8; 3.8%), myelotoxicity (n=25; 11.9%) and hepatotoxicity (n=8; 3.8%). Treatment withdrawal was reported in 19 patients (9%).  The only independent predictive factor for thiopurine adverse effects found in this study was steroid-dependence (OR= 3.96; 95% CI: 1.07- 14.53; p= 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Almost a quarter of inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with thiopurines developed adverse effects. These adverse effects lead to drug withdrawal in almost 9% of patients either as monotherapy or as in combination with biologic therapies.  Steroid-dependent patients were significantly at higher risk for thiopurine-related toxicity.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Brasília; s.n; 21 maio 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097387

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 21 artigos.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Mercaptopurina/uso terapêutico
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012877, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional medications for Crohn's disease (CD) include anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants and corticosteroids. If an individual does not respond, or loses response to first-line treatments, then biologic therapies such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonists such as adalimumab are considered for treating CD. Maintenance of remission of CD is a clinically important goal, as disease relapse can negatively affect quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of adalimumab for maintenance of remission in people with quiescent CD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov from inception to April 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered for inclusion randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adalimumab to placebo or to an active comparator. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We analyzed data on an intention-to-treat basis. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes. The primary outcome was failure to maintain clinical remission. We define clinical remission as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of < 150. Secondary outcomes were failure to maintain clinical response, endoscopic remission, endoscopic response, histological remission and adverse events (AEs). We assessed biases using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We used GRADE to assess the overall certainty of evidence supporting the primary outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (1158 participants). We rated four trials at low risk of bias and two trials at unclear risk of bias. All participants had moderate-to-severe CD that was in clinical remission. Four studies were placebo-controlled (1012 participants). Two studies (70 participants) compared adalimumab to active medication (azathioprine, mesalamine or 6-mercaptopurine) in participants who had an ileocolic resection prior to study enrolment. Adalimumab versus placebo Fifty-nine per cent (252/430) of participants treated with adalimumab failed to maintain clinical remission at 52 to 56 weeks, compared with 86% (217/253) of participants receiving placebo (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.77; 3 studies, 683 participants; high-certainty evidence). Among those who received prior TNF-α antagonist therapy, 69% (129/186) of adalimumab participants failed to maintain clinical or endoscopic response at 52 to 56 weeks, compared with 93% (108/116) of participants who received placebo (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.85; 2 studies, 302 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Fifty-one per cent (192/374) of participants who received adalimumab failed to maintain clinical remission at 24 to 26 weeks, compared with 79% (149/188) of those who received placebo (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83; 2 studies, 554 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Eighty-seven per cent (561/643) of participants who received adalimumab reported an AE compared with 85% (315/369) of participants who received placebo (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.09; 4 studies, 1012 participants; high-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events were seen in 8% (52/643) of participants who received adalimumab and 14% (53/369) of participants who received placebo (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.80; 4 studies, 1012 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and withdrawal due to AEs was reported in 7% (45/643) of adalimumab participants compared to 13% (48/369) of placebo participants (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.91; 4 studies, 1012 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Commonly-reported AEs included CD aggravation, arthralgia, nasopharyngitis, urinary tract infections, headache, nausea, fatigue and abdominal pain. Adalimumab versus active comparators No studies reported failure to maintain clinical remission. One study reported on failure to maintain clinical response and endoscopic remission at 104 weeks in ileocolic resection participants who received either adalimumab, azathioprine or mesalamine as post-surgical maintenance therapy. Thirteen per cent (2/16) of adalimumab participants failed to maintain clinical response compared with 54% (19/35) of azathioprine or mesalamine participants (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.87; 51 participants). Six per cent (1/16) of participants who received adalimumab failed to maintain endoscopic remission, compared with 57% (20/35) of participants who received azathioprine or mesalamine (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.75; 51 participants; very low-certainty evidence). One study reported on failure to maintain endoscopic response at 24 weeks in ileocolic resection participants who received either adalimumab or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) as post-surgical maintenance therapy. Nine per cent (1/11) of adalimumab participants failed to maintain endoscopic remission compared with 50% (4/8) of 6-MP participants (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.33; 19 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Adalimumab is an effective therapy for maintenance of clinical remission in people with quiescent CD. Adalimumab is also effective in those who have previously been treated with TNF-α antagonists. The effect of adalimumab in the post-surgical setting is uncertain. More research is needed in people with recent bowel surgery for CD to better determine treatment plans following surgery. Future research should continue to explore factors that influence initial and subsequent biologic selection for people with moderate-to-severe CD. Studies comparing adalimumab to other active medications are needed, to help determine the optimal maintenance therapy for CD.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercaptopurina/uso terapêutico , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(8): 1070-1076, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the 10-year outcome of lupus nephritis (LN) treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or tacrolimus (TAC) induction in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Patients with active LN were treated with MMF or TAC combined with high-dose prednisolone. Responders were switched to azathioprine (AZA) at month 6. Clinical outcomes at 10 years (renal flares, renal function decline and mortality) were assessed. Factors affecting prognosis were studied by Cox regression. Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (uPCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at different time points were evaluated for their prediction of a poor prognosis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: 150 patients were studied (age 35.5±12.8 years). Complete renal response rate was similar between MMF (59%) and TAC-treated patients (62%; p=0.71). AZA maintenance was given to 79% patients. After 118.2±42 months, proteinuric and nephritic renal flares occurred in 34% and 37% of the MMF, and 53% and 30% of the TAC groups of patients, respectively (p=0.49). The cumulative incidence of a composite outcome of ↓eGFR ≥30%, chronic kidney disease stage 4/5 or death at 10 years was 33% in both groups (p=0.90). Factors independently associated with a poor renal prognosis were first-time LN (HR 0.12 (0.031 to 0.39); p=0.01), eGFR (HR 0.98 (0.96 to 0.99); p=0.008) and no response at month 6 (HR 5.18 (1.40 to 19.1); p=0.01). ROC analysis revealed an uPCr >0.75 and eGFR of <80 mL/min at month 18 best predicted a poor renal prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term data confirmed non-inferiority of TAC to MMF as induction therapy of LN. An uPCr≤0.75 and eGFR of ≥80 mL/min at month 18 best predicted a favourable 10-year outcome and may be suitable targets for induction/consolidation therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00371319.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(10): 1382-1383, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398281
11.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(5): 391-401, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Azathioprine is used as a first-line treatment to prevent relapses of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Tocilizumab has been reported to reduce NMOSD disease activity in retrospective case reports. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab and azathioprine in patients with highly relapsing NMOSD. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 2 trial at six hospitals in China. We recruited adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with highly relapsing NMOSD diagnosed according to 2015 International Panel for Neuromyelitis Optica Diagnosis criteria, who had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 7·5 or lower, and had a history of at least two clinical relapses during the previous 12 months or three relapses during the previous 24 months with at least one relapse within the previous 12 months. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to intravenous tocilizumab (8 mg/kg every 4 weeks) or oral azathioprine (2-3 mg/kg per day) by an independent statistician using computer-generated randomisation software with permuted blocks of four. The central review committee, EDSS raters, laboratory personnel, and radiologists were masked to the treatment assignment, but investigators and patients were aware of treatment allocation. The minimum planned duration of treatment was 60 weeks following randomisation. The primary outcome was time to first relapse in the full analysis set, which included all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study drug, and the per-protocol population, which included all patients who used azathioprine or tocilizumab as monotherapy. For the analyses of the primary outcome, the patients were prespecified into two subgroups according to concomitant autoimmune disease status. Safety was assessed in the full analysis set. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03350633. FINDINGS: Between Nov 1, 2017, and Aug 3, 2018, we enrolled 118 patients, of whom 59 were randomly assigned to tocilizumab and 59 were randomly assigned to azathioprine. All 118 patients received one dose of study drug and were included in the full analysis set. 108 participants were included in the per-protocol analysis (56 in the tocilizumab group and 52 in the azathioprine group). In the full analysis set, median time to the first relapse was longer in the tocilizumab group than the azathioprine group (78·9 weeks [IQR 58·3-90·6] vs 56·7 [32·9-81·7] weeks; p=0·0026). Eight (14%) of 59 patients in the tocilizumab group and 28 (47%) of 59 patients in the azathioprine group had a relapse at the end of the study (hazard ratio [HR] 0·236 [95% CI 0·107-0·518]; p<0·0001). In the per-protocol analysis, 50 (89%) of 56 patients in the tocilizumab group were relapse-free compared with 29 (56%) of 52 patients in the azathioprine group at the end of the study (HR 0·188 [95% CI 0·076-0·463]; p<0·0001); the median time to first relapse was also longer in the tocilizumab group than the azathioprine group (67·2 weeks [IQR 47·9-77·9] vs 38·0 [23·6-64·9]; p<0·0001). In the prespecified subgroup analysis of the full analysis set stratified by concomitant autoimmune diseases, among patients without concomitant autoimmune diseases, three (9%) of 34 patients in the tocilizumab group and 13 (35%) of 37 patients in the azathioprine group had relapsed by the end of the study. Among patients with concomitant autoimmune diseases, a lower proportion of patients in the tocilizumab group had a relapse than in the azathioprine group (five [20%] of 25 patients vs 15 [68%] of 22 patients; HR 0·192 [95% CI 0·070-0·531]; p=0·0004). 57 (97%) of 59 patients in the tocilizumab group and 56 (95%) of 59 patients in the azathioprine group had adverse events. Treatment-associated adverse events occurred in 36 (61%) of 59 tocilizumab-treated patients and 49 (83%) of 59 azathioprine-treated patients. One death (2%) occurred in the tocilizumab group and one (2%) in the azathioprine group, but neither of the deaths were treatment-related. INTERPRETATION: Tocilizumab significantly reduced the risk of a subsequent NMOSD relapse compared with azathioprine. Tocilizumab might therefore be another safe and effective treatment to prevent relapses in patients with NMOSD. FUNDING: Tianjin Medical University, Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD002290, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 80% of children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) have relapses. Of these children, half relapse frequently, and are at risk of adverse effects from corticosteroids. While non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications prolong periods of remission, they have significant potential adverse effects. Currently, there is no consensus about the most appropriate second-line agent in children who are steroid sensitive, but who continue to relapse. In addition, these medications could be used with corticosteroids in the initial episode of SSNS to prolong the period of remission. This is the fourth update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2005, 2008 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications in SSNS in children with a relapsing course of SSNS and in children with their first episode of nephrotic syndrome. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 10 March 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs were included if they involved children with SSNS and compared non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications with placebo, corticosteroids (prednisone or prednisolone) or no treatment; compared different non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medications or different doses, durations or routes of administration of the same non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive medication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, risk of bias of the included studies and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using a random-effects model and results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 43 studies (91 reports) and included data from 2428 children. Risk of bias assessment indicated that 21 and 24 studies were at low risk of bias for sequence generation and allocation concealment respectively. Nine studies were at low risk of performance bias and 10 were at low risk of detection bias. Thirty-seven and 27 studies were at low risk of incomplete and selective reporting respectively. Rituximab (in combination with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and prednisolone) versus CNI and prednisolone probably reduces the number of children who relapse at six months (5 studies, 269 children: RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.43) and 12 months (3 studies, 198 children: RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93) (moderate certainty evidence). At six months, rituximab resulted in 126 children/1000 relapsing compared with 548 children/1000 treated with conservative treatments. Rituximab may result in infusion reactions (4 studies, 252 children: RR 5.83, 95% CI 1.34 to 25.29). Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and levamisole may have similar effects on the number of children who relapse at 12 months (1 study, 149 children: RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.16). MMF may have a similar effect on the number of children relapsing compared to cyclosporin (2 studies, 82 children: RR 1.90, 95% CI 0.66 to 5.46) (low certainty evidence). MMF compared to cyclosporin is probably less likely to result in hypertrichosis (3 studies, 140 children: RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.50) and gum hypertrophy (3 studies, 144 children: RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.42) (low certainty evidence). Levamisole compared with steroids or placebo may reduce the number of children with relapse during treatment (8 studies, 474 children: RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.82) (low certainty evidence). Levamisole compared to cyclophosphamide may make little or no difference to the risk for relapse after 6 to 9 months (2 studies, 97 children: RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.81) (low certainty evidence). Cyclosporin compared with prednisolone may reduce the number of children who relapse (1 study, 104 children: RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.83) (low certainty evidence). Alkylating agents compared with cyclosporin may make little or no difference to the risk of relapse during cyclosporin treatment (2 studies, 95 children: RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.48) (low certainty evidence) but may reduce the risk of relapse at 12 to 24 months (2 studies, 95 children: RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.74), suggesting that the benefit of the alkylating agents may be sustained beyond the on-treatment period (low certainty evidence). Alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil) compared with prednisone probably reduce the number of children, who experience relapse at six to 12 months (6 studies, 202 children: RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.60) and at 12 to 24 months (4 studies, 59 children: RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.46) (moderate certainty evidence). IV cyclophosphamide may reduce the number of children with relapse compared with oral cyclophosphamide at 6 months (2 studies, 83 children: RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.88), but not at 12 to 24 months (2 studies, 83 children: RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.29) and may result in fewer infections (2 studies, 83 children: RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.72) (low certainty evidence). Cyclophosphamide compared to chlorambucil may make little or no difference in the risk of relapse after 12 months (1 study, 50 children: RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.13) (low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: New studies incorporated in this review indicate that rituximab is a valuable additional agent for managing children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. However, the treatment effect is temporary, and many children will require additional courses of rituximab. The long-term adverse effects of this treatment are not known. Comparative studies of CNIs, MMF, levamisole and alkylating agents have demonstrated little or no differences in efficacy but, because of insufficient power; clinically important differences in treatment effects have not been completely excluded.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clorambucila/efeitos adversos , Clorambucila/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/efeitos adversos , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Levamisol/efeitos adversos , Levamisol/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/prevenção & controle , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Ribonucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(9): 102525, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240856

RESUMO

Azathioprine (AZA), an oral immunosuppressant, is safe during pregnancy. Some reports suggested different impairments in the offspring of mothers with autoimmune diseases (AI) exposed in utero to AZA. These observations are available from retrospective studies or case reports. However, data with respect to the long-term safety in the antenatally exposed child are still lacking. The aim of this study is to summarize the current knowledge in this field and to focus on the need for a prospective study on this population. We performed a PubMed search using several search terms. The actual data show that although the risk of congenital anomalies in offspring, as well as the infertility risk, are similar to those found in general population, there is a higher incidence of prematurity, of lower weight at birth and an intra-uterine delay of development. There is also an increased risk of materno- fetal infections, especially cytomegalovirus infection. Some authors raise the interrogations about neurocognitive impairment. Even though the adverse outcomes might well be a consequence of maternal illness and disease activity, interest has been raised about a contribution of this drug. However, the interferences between the external agent (in utero exposure to AZA), with the host (child genetic susceptibility, immune system anomalies, emotional status), environment (public health, social context, availability of health care), economic, social, and behavioral conditions, cultural patterns, are complex and represent confounding factors. In conclusion, it is necessary to perform studies on the medium and long-term outcome of children born by mothers with autoimmune diseases, treated with AZA, in order to show the safety of AZA exposure. Only large-scale population studies with long-term follow-up will allow to formally conclude in this field. TAKE HOME MESSAGES.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 713-723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS: The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/terapia
15.
Neurology ; 94(15): e1645-e1656, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and the risk of severe infectious events of immunosuppressive agents used early as first-line therapy in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: We retrospectively included patients with NMOSD and a seropositive status for aquaporin 4 or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies beginning first-line immunosuppressants within 3 years after the disease onset. The main outcome was occurrence of relapse after the initiation of immunosuppressants; the secondary outcome was the annual relapse rate (AAR). RESULTS: A total of 136 patients were included: 62 (45.6%) were treated with rituximab (RTX), 42 (30.9%) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and 23 (16.9%) with azathioprine (AZA). Compared with RTX-treated patients, the risk of relapse was higher among MMF-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.74 [1.17-6.40]; p = 0.020) after adjusting for age at disease onset, sex, antibody status, disease duration, ARR before treatment, corticosteroid intake, and relapse location. We did not observe any difference between RTX-treated and AZA-treated patients (HR, 2.13 [0.72-6.28]; p = 0.17). No interaction was found between the antibody status and immunosuppressive treatments. ARR was lower with RTX than with MMF (p = 0.039), but no difference was observed with AZA. We observed 9 serious infectious events with MMF, 6 with RTX, and none with AZA. CONCLUSIONS: The use of first-line RTX in NMOSD appears more effective than MMF in suppressing clinical activity, independent of the antibody status. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: That study provides Class III evidence that for patients with NMOSD, first-line RTX is superior to MMF to reduce the risk of relapse.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Aquaporina 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Aquaporina 4/imunologia , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Neuromielite Óptica/imunologia , Recidiva , Rituximab/uso terapêutico
16.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(3): 167-178, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055040

RESUMO

The introduction of biologic DMARDs into rheumatology has resulted in a substantial reduction of the burden of many rheumatic diseases. In the slipstream of the success achieved with these biologic DMARDs, some conventional immunosuppressive drugs have also found use in new indications. Notably, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and tacrolimus have made their way from solid organ transplantation drugs to become useful assets in rheumatology practice. Mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine inhibit the purine pathway and subsequently diminish cell proliferation. Both drugs have a pivotal role in the treatment of various rheumatic diseases, including lupus nephritis. Tacrolimus inhibits lymphocyte activation by inhibiting the calcineurin pathway. Mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus are, among other indications, increasingly being recognized as useful drugs in the treatment of interstitial lung disease in systemic rheumatic diseases and skin fibrosis in systemic sclerosis. A broad array of trials with mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and/or tacrolimus are ongoing within the field of rheumatology that might provide further novel avenues for the use of these drugs. In this Review, we discuss the historical perspective, pharmacodynamics, clinical indications and novel avenues for mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine and tacrolimus in rheumatology.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Reumatologia , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/farmacocinética , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/farmacocinética , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacocinética , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229028, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050011

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system. The extent of disability depends on the severity of the disease and the number of relapses. Although azathioprine is currently the main treatment for patients with NMOSD in Thailand, patients often relapse during its use. Hence, it is argued that there are other drugs that would be more effective. The purpose of this study is to evaluate, from a societal perspective and from the economic impact on Thailand's healthcare system, the cost utility of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and rituximab in patients resistant to azathioprine. The Markov model with a one-year cycle length was applied to predict the health and cost outcomes in patients with NMOSD over a lifetime. The results showed that rituximab exhibited the highest quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains among all the options. Among the rituximab-based treatments, the administration of a rituximab biosimilar with CD27+ memory B cell monitoring proved to be the most cost-effective option. At the willingness-to-pay threshold of 160,000 Thai baht (THB), or 5,289 US dollar (USD), per QALY gained, the treatment exhibited the highest probability of being cost effective (48%). A sensitivity analysis based on the adjusted price of a generic MMF determined that the treatment was cost effective, exhibiting an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -164,653 THB (-5,443 USD) and a 32% probability of being cost effective. The calculated budget impact of treating patients resistant to conventional therapy was 1-6 million THB (33,000-198,000 USD) for the first three years, while after the third year, the budget impact stabilized at 3-4 million THB (99,000-132,000 USD). These data indicate that, in Thailand, treatment of drug resistant NMOSD with a rituximab biosimilar with CD27+ memory B cell monitoring or treatment with a generic MMF would be cost effective and would result in a low budget impact. Therefore, the inclusion of both the rituximab biosimilar and a generic MMF in the National Drug List of Essential Medicine for the treatment of NMOSD may be appropriate.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Ácido Micofenólico/economia , Neuromielite Óptica/epidemiologia , Rituximab/economia , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Neuromielite Óptica/diagnóstico , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Tailândia/epidemiologia
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(3): 723-727, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe immune thrombocytopenia complicating pregnancy may require treatment beyond first-line medications (intravenous immunoglobulins or corticosteroids), but there is a paucity of literature on the use of such second-line agents in pregnancy. CASE: The patient is a 29-year-old woman with early-onset severe immune thrombocytopenia at 13 weeks of gestation. Maternal platelet counts reached a nadir of less than 5×10/L. The thrombocytopenia persisted despite first-line medications. Romiplostim, rituximab, and azathioprine were added to the therapeutic regimen. Platelet counts eventually stabilized at greater than 150×10/L before delivery. After delivery at term, the neonate had transient B-cell suppression, which was presumed to be secondary to rituximab, but was otherwise doing well and meeting all milestones at 7 months of age. CONCLUSION: The addition of second-line agents was associated with sustained elevation in maternal platelet counts and may have obviated the need for splenectomy.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Fc/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Trombopoetina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
19.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(5): 570-574, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035011

RESUMO

Herein we report a case of sporadic inclusion-body myositis (sIBM) occurring at an unusually young age in a patient with primary Sjögren syndrome, and use the case to explore possible shared mechanisms for disease susceptibility. Possible factors may include the association of both conditions with the 8.1 ancestral haplotype; the presence of anti-cN1A antibodies, which, although considered specific for sIBM, are also seen in pSS; and the shared association with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGLL). Further evaluation of this patient did in fact reveal underlying T-LGLL and mechanisms by which T cells in sIBM may escape immune regulation and contribute to disease phenotype are explored. Despite myofiber infiltration with CD8-positive T cells in sIBM, and, although sIBM is traditionally considered treatment-refractory, we report a significant response to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, and discuss possible mechanisms by which this response may be mediated.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Granular Grande/imunologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Granular Grande/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/complicações , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/patologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/terapia , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/terapia
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