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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141903, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896736

RESUMO

Biogenic aerosols such as airborne grass pollen affect the public health badly by putting additional distress on people already suffering from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. In Belgium, daily airborne pollen concentrations are monitored offline at a few sites only, hampering the timely coverage of the country and short-term forecasts. Here we apply the Chemistry Transport Model SILAM to the Belgian territory to model the spatio-temporal airborne grass pollen levels near the surface based on bottom-up inventories of grass pollen emissions updated with the Copernicus land monitoring Service grassland map of 2015. Transport of aerosols in SILAM is driven by ECMWF ERA5 meteorological data. The emitted grass pollen amounts in SILAM are computed by the multiplication of the grass pollen source map with the release rate determined by the seasonal shape production curve during the grass flowering period. The onset and offset of this period follow a location-dependent prescribed calendar days. Here we optimize the grass pollen seasonal start and end in SILAM by comparing a 2008-2018 time series of daily airborne grass pollen concentrations from the Belgian aerobiological surveillance network with the simulations. The effect of the spatial distribution of grass pollen sources is quantified by constructing pollen source-receptor relations using model simulations with varying grass pollen emissions in five areas of the model domain as input. Up to 33% of the airborne grass pollen in one area was transport from others areas inside Belgium. Adjusting the start and end of the grass pollen season improved the model performance substantially by almost doubling the correlation with local observations. By introducing the temporal scaling of the inter-seasonal pollen amounts in the model, an additional R2 increase up to 22% was obtained. Further improvements can be made by including more detailed grass pollen sources and more dynamic start and end dates of the pollen season.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Pólen , Bélgica , Humanos , Poaceae , Estações do Ano
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202706

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought about several features that increased the sense of fear and confusion, such as quarantine and financial losses among other stressors, which may have led to adverse psychosocial outcomes. The influence of such stressors took place within a broader sociocultural context that needs to be considered. The objective was to examine how the psychological response to the pandemic varied across countries and identify which risk/protective factors contributed to this response. An online survey was conducted from 29 May 2020-12 June 2020, among a multinational sample of 8806 adults from eight countries/regions (Canada, United States, England, Switzerland, Belgium, Hong Kong, Philippines, New Zealand). Probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depression episode (MDE) were assessed. The independent role of a wide range of potential factors was examined using multilevel logistic regression. Probable GAD and MDE were indicated by 21.0% and 25.5% of the respondents, respectively, with an important variation according to countries/regions (GAD: 12.2-31.0%; MDE: 16.7-32.9%). When considered together, 30.2% of the participants indicated probable GAD or MDE. Several factors were positively associated with a probable GAD or MDE, including (in descending order of importance) weak sense of coherence (SOC), lower age, false beliefs, isolation, threat perceived for oneself/family, mistrust in authorities, stigma, threat perceived for country/world, financial losses, being a female, and having a high level of information about COVID-19. Having a weak SOC yielded the highest adjusted odds ratio for probable GAD or MDE (3.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73-3.77). This pandemic is having an impact on psychological health. In some places and under certain circumstances, however, people seem to be better protected psychologically. This is a unique opportunity to evaluate the psychosocial impacts across various sociocultural backgrounds, providing important lessons that could inform all phases of disaster risk management.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Betacoronavirus , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Cura Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Filipinas , Estresse Psicológico , Suíça , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(S1): 55-61, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211423

RESUMO

Chronicle of a crisis management at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of CHU Liège The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in December 2019 in China and its expansion across the world and Europe have requested the participation of clinical laboratories as major players in the diagnosis of COVID-19, to perform PCR tests mainly on nasopharyngeal swabs. In Belgium, the first confirmed COVID-19 patient was diagnosed in early February, the first of many, especially travelers returning from winter sports. In order to meet the ever-increasing demands for testing, the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the CHU of Liege had to adapt to this situation: firstly, by developing manual PCR tests and then automated solutions, permitting to increase the number of analyzes by ensuring a short turnaround time of results. Then, a system for the communication of results on a large scale has been set up, and finally solutions to deal with the lack of sampling devices have been found. This first wave of the pandemic has also highlighted an unprecedented solidarity within the institution. In this article, we recount the chronology of the management of this unprecedented health crisis within the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the CHU of Liege.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Bélgica , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
5.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(S1): 48-54, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211422

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19 outbreak, the Belgian Association of Urology recommended limiting non-emergency surgical care. The aim of this study was to analyze if a preoperative screening for COVID-19 was key to select optimal operative candidates and its impact on surgical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: we present a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients who underwent oncological high-risk and emergency urological surgeries in a Belgium tertiary center from March 30 to April 30, 2020. The screening protocol was based on clinical assessment and chest-CT to identify COVID-19-positive patients. RESULTS: a total of 32 patients underwent elective oncologic (n = 17; 53 %) and emergency (n = 15; 47 %) operations. Screening by chest-CT revealed three cases of COVID-19 (9 %) having led to postpone two interventions. The third positive COVID-19 patient died of respiratory complications after bladder perforation urgent procedure. Two patients developed compatible post-operatively symptoms with one positive chest-CT but no positive RT-PCR and successful recovery. Adapted safety measures were followed to mitigate in-hospital transmission. CONCLUSION: this report suggests feasibility and efficacy of systematic, preoperative screening for COVID-19 by chest computed tomography only. This strategy could allow to perform the majority of scheduled high-risk oncologic interventions safely for both the patients and the surgical staff.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Bélgica , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(11): 742-747, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155449

RESUMO

Forensic psychiatry is a medical (sub-) speciality covering a variety of different fields, such as general psychiatry, criminology, law, anthropology and sociology. Experts in forensic psychiatry are required to have a base of specific training, eclectic knowledge and correct ethical and professional practice. The cross-disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatry means that it demands flexibility, procedural rigour and a continuous dialogue between the medical field and the legal profession. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the evolution in this field, which is very specific and also essential to today's democracy. Indeed, forensic psychiatry can be traced all the way back to Antiquity, but it has undergone profound changes in the last few years, with the field gaining recognition and its practices becoming increasingly professionalised. This is indeed excellent news.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Legal , Bélgica , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143076

RESUMO

This study aimed to descript the Belgian COVID-19 responses process according to the WHO's (World Health Organization) Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Framework (Health EDRM Framework) and to present the measures taken and epidemic impact in the different phases of COVID-19 in Belgium. The WHO's EDRM Framework was used for reviewing the Belgian Public health emergency preparedness and responses in the context of COVID-19. Information on the measures taken was collected through the literature review including all government's communication, reports, and scientific papers. All epidemic data were extracted from a national open database managed and published by the Sciensano. Additionally, two authors closely followed the Belgian situation since the beginning of the pandemic and updated the data every day. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the anti-epidemic strategy was mainly to avoid medical resources exceeding the upper limit. Belgium issued a series of emergency decrees to limit the spread of the virus. An existing structure of "federal-region-municipal" as the framework of public health emergency preparedness and response was adapted. The emergency response process in Belgium was divided into four phases: information-evaluation-coordination-decision-making at the region level and the final decision-making at the federal level. Belgium also implemented a phased plan in the process of setting up and lifting the lockdown. However, it was vulnerable in early response, due to the shortage of medical equipment supplies in general, and more particularly for the long term care facilities (LTCFs). Belgium has achieved an intensive cooperation between stakeholders based on an existing multisectoral emergency organization framework. Legislation, medical insurance, and good communication also played a role in limiting the spread of viruses. However, the authorities underestimated the risk of an epidemic and did not take quarantine measures among people suspected affected by SARS-COV-2 in the early stages, resulting in insufficient medical equipment supply and a large number of deaths in the LTCF. The implementation of the lockdown measure in Belgium also encountered obstacles. The lockdown and its exit strategy were both closely related to the pandemic situation and social and economic life. The authorities should strengthen information management, improve the public awareness of the measures, and find out the balance points between the social and economic life and infection control measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) is a validated and safe method to establish the cause of death (COD), mainly in low-resource settings. However, the additional clinical value of MIA in Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients in a high-resource setting is unknown. The objective was to assess if and how MIA changed clinical COD and contributing diagnoses in deceased COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective observational cohort from April to May 2020 in a 981-bed teaching hospital in the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium was established. Patients who died with either PCR-confirmed or radiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection were consecutively included. MIA consisted of whole-body CT and CT-guided Tru-Cut® biopsies. Diagnostic modalities were clinical chart review, radiology, microbiology, and histopathology which were assessed by two independent experts per modality. MIA COD and contributing diagnoses were established during a multi-disciplinary meeting. Clinical COD (CCOD) and contributing diagnosis were abstracted from the discharge letter. The main outcomes were alterations in CCOD and contributing diagnoses after MIA, and the contribution of each diagnostic modality. We included 18 patients, of which 7 after intensive care unit hospitalization. MIA led to an alteration in 15/18 (83%) patients. The CCOD was altered in 5/18 (28%) patients. MIA found a new COD (1/5), a more specific COD (1/5), a less certain COD (1/5), or a contributing diagnosis to be the COD (2/5). Contributing diagnoses were altered in 14/18 (78%) patients: 9 new diagnoses, 5 diagnoses dismissed, 3 made more specific, and 2 made less certain. Overall, histopathology contributed in 14/15 (93%) patients with alterations, radiology and microbiology each in 6/15 (40%), and clinical review in 3/15 (20%). Histopathology was deemed the most important modality in 10 patients, radiology in two patients, and microbiology in one patient. CONCLUSION: MIA, especially histological examination, can add valuable new clinical information regarding the cause of death in COVID-19 patients, even in a high-resource setting with wide access to premortem diagnostic modalities. MIA may provide important clinical insights and should be applied in the current ongoing pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT04366882.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , Autopsia , Bélgica , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080869

RESUMO

There are different patterns in the COVID-19 outbreak in the general population and amongst nursing home patients. We investigate the time from symptom onset to diagnosis and hospitalization or the length of stay (LoS) in the hospital, and whether there are differences in the population. Sciensano collected information on 14,618 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admissions from 114 Belgian hospitals between 14 March and 12 June 2020. The distributions of different event times for different patient groups are estimated accounting for interval censoring and right truncation of the time intervals. The time between symptom onset and hospitalization or diagnosis are similar, with median length between symptom onset and hospitalization ranging between 3 and 10.4 days, depending on the age of the patient (longest delay in age group 20-60 years) and whether or not the patient lives in a nursing home (additional 2 days for patients from nursing home). The median LoS in hospital varies between 3 and 10.4 days, with the LoS increasing with age. The hospital LoS for patients that recover is shorter for patients living in a nursing home, but the time to death is longer for these patients. Over the course of the first wave, the LoS has decreased.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMO

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Idioma , Laos/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108854, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971301

RESUMO

Artisanal vegetable fermentations are regaining popularity in industrialized countries, but they could be prone to contamination with foodborne pathogens. By simulating home or small-scale restaurant fermentations, we evaluated the microbiological safety of spontaneous carrot juice fermentations. Raw carrot juice was spiked with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and the microbial dynamics were followed throughout the entire fermentation process by cultivation and amplicon sequencing. In addition, the behavior of these pathogens was also monitored after addition of raw cucumber juice and storage under refrigerated conditions to mimic post-contamination issues. Although the numbers of the pathogens increased during the first phase of the fermentation, the pathogens were not able to persist throughout the fermentation. Their numbers fell below the detection limit after 8 days of fermentation at 20 °C. Further investigation using amplicon sequencing also showed that there was no major impact on the general microbial dynamics of the spontaneous carrot juice fermentation. This indicates that the artisanal carrot juice fermentation is a robust process which resists the persistence of pathogens. More caution is needed however when mixing the final fermented product with a raw juice. When simulating pathogen post-contamination, both Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli were able to survive in the refrigerated fermented juice up to 10 days after the fermentation. Listeria monocytogenes was detected up to 8 days in the refrigerated juice. Pasteurization of the raw juice before adding it to the fermented product is thus recommended.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bélgica , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Viabilidade Microbiana , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Verduras/microbiologia
12.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(10): 2117-2131, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969449

RESUMO

Veterinary drugs, such as coccidiostats and anthelmintics are routinely administered in extensive animal husbandry, finding their way into the aquatic environment through urine and/or feces of treated animals kept outdoors or by the application of contaminated liquid manure on agricultural fields and subsequent mechanisms of surface run-off, leaching and drift. Several of these compounds are known to exert acute and chronic toxicity effects on aquatic organisms, and can lead to changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The overall objective of this research was to develop, validate and apply a highly sensitive, multi-residue SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of 12 coccidiostats, registered as a feed supplement or veterinary medicine in Europe and three regularly used anthelmintics, in pond water, often functioning as amphibian habitat. Sample extraction was optimized using a fractional factorial resolution design. Pond water filtration efficiency (i.e. 80-118%, ≤25% RSD) and matrix effects (i.e. 72-119%, ≤39% RSD) were evaluated using water from respectively 3 and 20 different ponds in Flanders. By incorporating internal standards, overall results improved and adequate precision values (i.e.≤15%) were obtained according to the EMA guidelines. Acceptable within-run and between-run apparent recoveries, satisfactory precision as well as good linearity were demonstrated according to the CD 2002/657/EC, SANTE/12682/2019 and VICH 49 guidelines, except for robenidine for which the between-day precision was between 21.0 and 34.5%. Sample storage stability studies indicated that storage at 4 °C and analysis performed within 96 hours after sampling was sufficient to avoid loss by degradation for all compounds, excluding robenidine. Values for the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were in nanograms per liter, which was essential for the environmental application of this novel method. The method was successfully applied on grab water samples from the water surface of 18 different ponds across Flanders, Belgium, detecting amprolium and levamisole at concentrations below the LOQ of 2.5 ng L-1 and at 250.0 ng L-1 or below the LOQ of 250.0 ng L-1, respectively. In conclusion, our newly developed method may provide insights about the contamination status of amphibian breeding ponds.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Coccidiostáticos , Drogas Veterinárias , Animais , Bélgica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Água Doce , Tanques , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Eur Addict Res ; 26(6): 309-315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has led to measures of social distancing and quarantine worldwide. This stressful period may lead to psychological problems, including increases in substance use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption before and during COVID-19 lockdown and motives for these changes in substance use. METHOD: A web-based survey was filled out by an unselected population during the social distancing measures of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium that assessed changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption in the period before and during the COVID-19 lockdown and also asked about reasons for change. RESULTS: A total of 3,632 respondents (mean age 42.1 ± 14.6 years; 70% female) filled out the survey. Overall, respondents reported consuming more alcohol (d = 0.21) and smoking more cigarettes (d = 0.13) than before the COVID-19 pandemic (both p < 0.001), while no significant changes in the consumption of cannabis were noted. The odds of consuming more alcohol during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.981, p < 0.001), more children at home (OR = 1.220, p < 0.001), non-healthcare workers (p < 0.001), and being technically unemployed related to COVID-19 (p = 0.037). The odds of smoking more cigarettes during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.988, p = 0.027), current living situation (p < 0.001), lower education (p = 0.015), and working situation related to COVID-19 (p = 0.018). Boredom, lack of social contacts, loss of daily structure, reward after a hard-working day, loneliness, and conviviality were the main reasons for consuming more of the various substances. CONCLUSIONS: During the lockdown, individuals consumed slightly more alcohol and smoked marginally more cigarettes compared to the period before the lockdown. Further research focussing on follow-up of individuals at risk may be useful to provide appropriate care in post-COVID times.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Tédio , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Características de Residência , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Kidney Int ; 98(5): 1092-1094, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916178

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported a variety of urine abnormalities in patients hospitalized due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. In a single-center study from Belgium, Werion et al. present a concise investigation of tubular dysfunction in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, identifying potential risk factors for increased disease severity. These data complement current evidence regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 presence and potential infection in the kidney.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Bélgica , Humanos
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 36-41, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental anxiety about young people's use of media has increased with the advent of Generation Alpha. Excessive consumption is assumed to lead to a sedentary lifestyle, psychiatric disorders, overconsumption of sexual content and suicidal behaviour. But are these assumptions valid? METHODS: We supplemented data from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study for Belgium with a bibliographical search of online databases (Medline, Scopus, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed) with the keywords 'adolescent' - 'internet' and 'sedentarity' or 'suicide' or 'family' or 'sex*' or 'porno*' for articles published between 2014 and 2019. We selected 27 original research articles and/ or quantitative or qualitative meta-analyses. RESULTS: Total consumption of different media (television, video games, internet) remained stable until 2010, and significantly increased in 2014. No parallel increase in sedentarity was reported. Controversy continues to surround the quantification of overconsumption, and the definition of 'problematic use'. Nevertheless, it appears that 5% of young people have unusual internet use, and 97.5% of these meet the criteria for a mental disorder. The risk of overconsumption is related to four factors: familial, personality, peer influence and supply. These general factors are supplemented by specific factors related to the abuse of sexual content and suicidal behaviour. For the latter, specific risk factors are the same as for suicidal young people who are not influenced by social media. CONCLUSION: Even if screen time is higher for Generation Alpha, these young people are no more at risk unless they accumulate risk factors. They are also exposed to challenges that researchers have not yet studied in any depth. One question relates to how they can manage their privacy if their parents published, without their consent, photographs of them as children? Another issue is their relationship to knowledge, given that everything they need to know can easily be found online.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Suicídio , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , Humanos , Tempo de Tela
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 146-149, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Belgium, 82% of the population consumes alcohol occasionally while 10% consume in a way that can be seen as problematic. On a European level, only 8% of the people who can be characterized as having Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) would have consulted professional assistance in the past year. In this context, the KCE (Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre) has addressed multiple recommendations to health professionals to reduce the "treatment gap" concerning the patients' care: (1) encourage screening and preventative interventions, (2) promote the acquirement of communicational and relational competences (3) develop collaborations between professionals. The objective of this article is to better understand their functioning. METHOD: We format a non-systematic literature review concerning these recommendations. RESULTS: The implementation of these Brief Interventions programs in primary care is relevant due to the moderately positive impact on the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption but both the quality of the therapeutic relationship and collaboration with the care network would optimize Brief Interventions. The quality of the therapeutic relationship alone appears to have an impact on therapeutic outcome. CONCLUSION: Training concerning patient-professional relationship is necessary to maximize the effectiveness of BIs.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Bélgica , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105037, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907738

RESUMO

Marine zooplankton are increasingly being affected by recent environmental changes, such as climate change, and respond with profound spatial relocations and shifts in phenology and physiology. In order to predict whether populations are able to persist or adapt to such new conditions, it is essential to understand the molecular basis of such adaptations, which ultimately get translated into these physiological responses. To explore variation in population gene expression across time and space, we investigated transcriptome-level profiles of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis, that were collected at four different locations in the Belgian Part of the North Sea (BPNS) on three different time points (April, June, October) in 2018. RNA-seq analysis of field collected adults identified large seasonal differences in gene expression, mainly between spring-summer and autumn samples. The largest log-fold changes occurred in a set of genes encoding for ribosomal and myosin (heavy chain) transcripts. Enrichment analysis revealed a strong seasonal pattern in vitellogenin, cuticle and glycolytic gene expression as well. We also found a positive correlation between vitellogenin expression and densities of T. longicornis. No clear spatial variation in expression patterns was found in the BPNS. This study underlines the potential of field gene expression studies for biomonitoring purposes and the significance of considering seasonal variation in future studies.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Expressão Gênica , Animais , Bélgica , Copépodes/genética , Mar do Norte , Estações do Ano , Zooplâncton
20.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106315, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892895

RESUMO

The activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb were modelled in Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine trees) on a uniform CaF2 sludge heap in Belgium. The aim of this work is to enhance the knowledge of how transfer factors behave in NORM landfills. The simplest possible model in radioecology is used, which is based on Concentration Ratios (CR-s) measured in equilibrium and activity concentrations of the above-mentioned radionuclides measured in the substrate where pine trees grow. Two alternative CR-s were used: (1) international CR compilations by the IAEA (2014) and (2) CR-s specifically determined for pine trees studied in British Columbia (Mahon and Mathews, 1983). Both CR-s were applied assuming lognormal distributions fitted from data reported in the literature. The results were compared with activity concentrations measured in trees sampled on-site. Modelled concentrations match the measured ones best in the case of 238U. For the studied NORM waste site, the approach using generic IAEA concentration ratios does not fulfill the conservatism requirement in the cases of 238U and 226Ra, as the concentration of radionuclides in trees is underestimated. On the other hand, the ratios from Mahon and Mathews, (1983) produce wide distributions, ensuring conservatism due to larger CR-s. The measured concentrations are narrowly distributed in general, which can be expected on a small sampling site on a uniform substrate. The generic approach outlined here is practical but, as a result of the uniqueness of the site considered, should be applied cautiously in other NORM situations.


Assuntos
Pinus sylvestris , Monitoramento de Radiação , Resíduos Radioativos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Bélgica , Colúmbia Britânica , Árvores , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
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