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2.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 31(9): 995-1000, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055100

RESUMO

Background High goiter prevalence caused by iodine deficiency (medium content 5.6 mg potassium iodide [KI]/kg of salt, median urine iodine concentration [UIC] 68 µg/L) in Croatia was observed in 1991 and 1995 when salt was iodized with 10 mg KI/kg. A new regulation introduced in 1996, specified 25 mg KI/kg of salt resulting in an increase of median UIC to 248 µg/L. Afterwards, goiter prevalence was only assessed in two small studies. Methods In this study, we investigated the prevalence and etiology of goiter in 3594 schoolchildren 17 years after an increase in salt iodization in Croatia. Thyroid size was determined by palpation in 1777 girls and 1817 boys aged 10-18 years. In goitrous children, a thyroid ultrasound and thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG) antibody measurements were performed. Results Goiter was found in 32 children (0.89% vs. 2.8% in 1991, p<0.00001 and 27% in 1995, p<0.00001), simple goiter (SG) in 18/32 (56%) goitrous children vs. 126/152 (82.8%) in 1991 p<0.00001, autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in 13/32 (40.6%) vs. 19/152 (12.5%) in 1991 p<0.0009, nodules in four: two cysts, toxic adenoma and carcinoma (in 1991 two adenomas and one cyst), Graves' disease was not found (four in 1991). Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in three children. Thyroid disease was diagnosed in four of 32 children before the investigation. Increased iodine supply decreased goiter prevalence and SG/AT ratio in goitrous patients. Conclusions As thyroid abnormalities were found in 0.89% of children and some required treatment, thyroid examination is important in apparently healthy children regardless of sufficient iodization.


Assuntos
Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Iodo/deficiência , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Criança , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(4): 976-979, 2017 Jul 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095024

RESUMO

In 1953, Dr. Felipe Rodríguez Moreno joined the Granada Research Group on Endemic Goiter, which was led by Dr. Ortiz de Landázuri. A high goiter prevalence (62% in women) was found out within the area, and that prevalence was observed to be related to the dietary habits of the time, being the most disadvantaged those who were showing a greater prevalence. A relationship between the high goiter prevalence and the family of the subjects with goiter was also found out, as they usually had a first-degree relative with affection. Iodine content of drinking water was poor throughout the area, so the prevalence was not significantly different between individuals who drank from different water sources. There were only two females with cretinism and two males affected by "idiocy", so the goiters were probably euthyroid. After introducing iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt in Güejar-Sierra, prevalence decreased from 53% to 13% between 1953 and 1958.


Assuntos
Bócio Endêmico/história , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Iodo/história , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Criança , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Recenti Prog Med ; 108(2): 90-97, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287203

RESUMO

Since ancient times in South Tyrol there was evidence of endemic goitre caused by iodine deficiency. In the early 80's an epidemiological research on adults and primary and secondary school children reported in the least a prevalence of goitre from grade 1 B-3 (WHO) of 23,66% (limits WHO >5%) and an urinary iodine of 10,2 µgI/L. Therefore South Tyrol population presented heavy endemic goitre. In 1982 started a generalized iodine prophylaxis with alimentary iodined salt after an intense prevention campaign. In 1990 it has been done another epidemiological research on primary and secondary school children of the province (neck palpation, thyroid ultrasound, blood and urine tests) which revealed a prevalence of goitre from grade 1 B (WHO) of 1,6% (limits WHO >5%) and an urinary iodine of 137,1 µgI/L. Therefore in South Tyrol there was no more evidence of endemic goitre. In 2001 another research over primary and secondary school children, of the same areas and with the same approaches of the previous researches reported a prevalence of goitre of 1,5% and a median of urinary iodine of 230 µgI/L. On the basis of the data of Istituto Superiore di Sanità (National Institute of Health) can be stated that in the Province of Bolzano there's a low presence of congenital hypothyroidism. It has been observed an increase in the thyroiditis and in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was marked an accentuation of papillar forms, less aggressive than the follicula. Unfortunately since 2001 no new epidemiological researches were done, due to lack of financial resources and the raising of other sanitary problems of higher priority.


Assuntos
Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Iodo/deficiência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Tireoidite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Minerva Med ; 108(2): 159-168, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079352

RESUMO

Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in Italy.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Iodo/deficiência , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/provisão & distribução , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/prevenção & controle , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/provisão & distribução , Itália/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
7.
Minerva Med ; 108(2): 124-135, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079353

RESUMO

In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.


Assuntos
Iodo/deficiência , Iodo/história , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/história , Erradicação de Doenças/história , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Saúde Global/história , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Bócio Endêmico/história , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Iodo/provisão & distribução , Nova Guiné , Gravidez , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/provisão & distribução , Oligoelementos/história , Estados Unidos
8.
Minerva Med ; 108(2): 147-158, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28001012

RESUMO

Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps in knowledge, determine necessary future steps, highlight landmarks in Scandinavian iodine research and consider ongoing studies in Scandinavian countries with high international impact. Historically, iodine deficiency disorders such as goiter were common in Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Different strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine. The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children, adolescents and young women. Monitoring a population's iodine status and dietary iodine sources is necessary to secure iodine nutrition in Scandinavia. Ongoing studies in Scandinavia will contribute significantly to the knowledge about the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/deficiência , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suécia/epidemiologia , Oligoelementos/urina
10.
Nutrients ; 8(7)2016 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438852

RESUMO

Salt iodisation is considered a key public health measure for assuring adequate iodine intake in iodine-deficient countries. In Slovenia, the iodisation of all salt was made mandatory in 1953. A considerable regulatory change came in 2003 with the mandatory iodisation of rock and evaporated salt only. In addition, joining the European Union's free single market in 2004 enabled the import of non-iodised salt. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of salt iodising in the food supply. We examined both the availability and sale of (non-)iodised salt. Average sales-weighted iodine levels in salt were calculated using the results of a national monitoring of salt quality. Data on the availability and sales of salts were collected in major food retailers in 2014. Iodised salt represented 59.2% of the salt samples, and 95.9% of salt sales, with an average (sales-weighted) level of 24.2 mg KI/kg of salt. The average sales-weighted KI level in non-iodised salts was 3.5 mg KI/kg. We may conclude that the sales-weighted average iodine levels in iodised salt are in line with the regulatory requirements. However, the regulatory changes and the EU single market have considerably affected the availability of non-iodised salt. While sales of non-iodised salt are still low, non-iodised salt represented 33.7% of the salts in our sample. This indicates the existence of a niche market which could pose a risk of inadequate iodine intake in those who deliberately decide to consume non-iodised salt only. Policymakers need to provide efficient salt iodisation intervention to assure sufficient iodine supply in the future. The reported sales-weighting approach enables cost-efficient monitoring of the iodisation of salt in the food supply.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Iodo/deficiência , Política Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , União Europeia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/etiologia , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Iodo/análise , Iodo/química , Iodo/economia , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente , Iodeto de Potássio/análise , Iodeto de Potássio/economia , Iodeto de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Eslovênia/epidemiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/economia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico
12.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 31(4): 667-74, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25629792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to examine the clinical and endocrine parameters of thyroid in a total of 460 pregnant women belonging to non-goiter areas (group 1; n = 156) and endemic areas without (group 2; n = 154) and with iodine supplementation (group 3; n = 150), and their respective newborns. METHODS: Women of group 3 with visible goiter were administered two capsules of iodized oil orally each containing 200 mg of iodine, from weeks 6--8 of pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from all groups during each trimester, at parturition (umbilical cord blood) and after delivery. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by specific enzyme immunoassays. RESULTS: In group 2, serum T4 concentrations were low while T3 and TSH levels were high which showed hypothyroidism in the women of endemic areas. Goiter size decreased in most of the subjects who received a single dose of iodized oil and resulted in increase in serum concentrations of thyroid hormones; whereas, TSH levels decreased. Iodine supplementation also resulted in raised T4 and low TSH levels in the cord blood of neonates. During the course of study, two abortions, three still births and one cretin were reported in group 2; none was reported in group 3; and one still birth was reported in group 1. CONCLUSIONS: The oral administration of a single dose of iodized oil is capable of correcting iodine deficiency both clinically and endocrinologically in mothers and neonates. Iodine supplementation has the potential to positively impact the birth weight of newborns.


Assuntos
Bócio Endêmico , Óleo Iodado/administração & dosagem , Complicações na Gravidez , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Bócio Endêmico/sangue , Bócio Endêmico/diagnóstico , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Iodo , Masculino , Paquistão , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez/sangue
13.
Vopr Pitan ; 84(2): 53-8, 2015.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841556

RESUMO

Republic of Bashkortostan refers to iodine-deficient regions of Russia. The incidence of endemic multinodular goiter in 2012 in the Republic amounted to 33.2 per 100 thousand of the population. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of group iodine prophylaxis of schoolchildren through the use of iodized milk. The study included 181 children of primary school (pre-pubertal) age (8-10 years), it has been carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO and the International Council for Control of iodine deficiency disorders using a unified system of identification of iodine deficiency states. Level of physical development was assessed according to anthropometric measurements, which were conducted by centile distribution tables according to age and sex, and the individual assessment of physical development was determined by the level of feature by its position in a number of centile. Assessment of iodine deficiency was carried out by determining levels of iodine excretion in a single urine sample. Iodine concentration in urine was determined by ceric ion-arsenious acid method. Frequency of iodine deficiency varying degrees before the iodine prophylaxis among urban children was 57.0%, among rural-92.3%. Urban junior schoolchildren showed severe iodine deficiency in 12.7% and moderate one in 16.4% of the cases, while in the countryside their prevalence was higher--27.4 and 35.2%, respectively. It was revealed that the number of children whose body growth values are within the average values is 36% in urban children, and 48.4% in rural areas. It should be noted that the low and very low body height predominate in rural students, it makes up 16.1% (while in the town it makes-up 2.3%). Iodine prophylaxis contributed to a significant reduction of iodine deficiency in children. In the town the median urinary iodine exceeded 100 mg/L and amounted to 159.4 mg/L. After iodine prophylaxis 82.5% of urban children and 72.1% of rural showed normal urinary iodine. When comparing the results of clinical and laboratory studies before and after the group prevention of iodine deficiency there has been revealed a positive trend in terms of reflecting the tensions of thyroid status.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/deficiência , Leite/química , Animais , Bashkiria/epidemiologia , Criança , Alimentos Fortificados/provisão & distribução , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Leite/provisão & distribução , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , População Urbana
14.
Eur J Pediatr ; 173(7): 929-34, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24500398

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Iodine is an essential nutrient for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are critical for brain development. Iodine deficiencies were prevalent in China until the introduction of universal salt iodization (USI) in 1995. USI has been considered as the world's best achievements. This study aims to assess children's iodine nutrition and goiter status in Zhejiang Province in order to provide reasonable suggestions to the government for policy-making under the USI period. A cross-sectional survey in Zhejiang Province was conducted to children aged 8-10 years by stage cluster random sampling method. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed. Thyroid ultrasonography examination was performed by special trained technicians using a 7.5-MHz transducer. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for thyroid functional status. The median urinary iodine concentration was found to be 173.3 µg/L. The percentage of urine samples with iodine concentration <100 µg/L, 100-300 µg/L, and >300 µg/L was 15.5, 42.0, and 13.3 %, respectively. Goiter prevalence rate with iodine concentration <100 µg/L, 100-300 µg/L, and >300 µg/L was 6.8, 10.0, and 14.9 %, respectively, with no significant difference. Children with goiter have lower serum FT3 and T3 concentrations compared to those without goiter (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The median urinary iodine concentration of children aged 8-10 years falls in optimal iodine status as recommended by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. Maintaining USI at an appropriate level is an important part of preventing iodine deficiency disorders and should always be based on routine monitoring urinary iodine concentration by the province.


Assuntos
Iodo/urina , Estado Nutricional , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
15.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 51(3): 242-254, sep.-dic. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-699695

RESUMO

Objetivo: caracterizar la magnitud y la severidad de la deficiencia de yodo en Cuba. Métodos: se caracterizó la magnitud y la severidad de la deficiencia de yodo en Cuba mediante la determinación de la yoduria y la prevalencia de bocio por inspección y palpación. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de corte transversal utilizando un muestreo complejo por conglomerados bietápico en tres estratos de selección: urbano, rural y montaña, el cual incluyó 67 municipios del país con un total de 2 101 escolares de 6 a 11 años. Resultados: se encontraron yodurias deficientes en el 6,4 por ciento de los niños evaluados a predominio del estrato de montaña. Se evidenció una ingesta excesiva de yodo en todos los estratos. La prevalencia de bocio fue de 27, 3 por ciento, considerada como endemia moderada con una mayor cifra en la montaña y sexo femenino. Los hallazgos indicaron el impacto de la yodación de la sal evaluado a través de la excreción urinaria como indicador de ingesta reciente. Conclusiones: el bocio endémico continúa siendo un problema nutricional poblacional, lo que sugiere realizar estudios de mayor profundidad para identificar las posibles relaciones causales


Objective: characterize the magnitude and severity of iodine deficiency in Cuba. Methods: characterization of the magnitude and severity of iodine deficiency in Cuba was based on determination of iodinuria and the prevalence of goitre by inspection and palpation. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted using complex two-staged cluster sampling of three selected strata: urban, rural and mountainous, including 67 municipalities and a total of 2 101 school children aged 6-11. Results: deficient iodinuria was found in 6.4 percent of the children evaluated, with a predominance of the mountainous stratum. Excessive iodine intake was present in all strata. Goitre was classed as moderately endemic, with a prevalence of 27.3 percent and a predominance in the mountainous stratum and the female sex. Findings revealed the impact of salt iodization, which was evaluated through examination of urinary excretion as an indicator of recent salt intake. Conclusions: endemic goitre continues to be a nutritional problem in the population, pointing to the need to conduct more profound studies to identify possible causal relationships


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Iodo/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Iodo/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais
16.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 51(3): 242-254, sep.-dic. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-57239

RESUMO

Objetivo: caracterizar la magnitud y la severidad de la deficiencia de yodo en Cuba. Métodos: se caracterizó la magnitud y la severidad de la deficiencia de yodo en Cuba mediante la determinación de la yoduria y la prevalencia de bocio por inspección y palpación. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico de corte transversal utilizando un muestreo complejo por conglomerados bietápico en tres estratos de selección: urbano, rural y montaña, el cual incluyó 67 municipios del país con un total de 2 101 escolares de 6 a 11 años. Resultados: se encontraron yodurias deficientes en el 6,4 por ciento de los niños evaluados a predominio del estrato de montaña. Se evidenció una ingesta excesiva de yodo en todos los estratos. La prevalencia de bocio fue de 27, 3 por ciento, considerada como endemia moderada con una mayor cifra en la montaña y sexo femenino. Los hallazgos indicaron el impacto de la yodación de la sal evaluado a través de la excreción urinaria como indicador de ingesta reciente. Conclusiones: el bocio endémico continúa siendo un problema nutricional poblacional, lo que sugiere realizar estudios de mayor profundidad para identificar las posibles relaciones causales(AU)


Objective: characterize the magnitude and severity of iodine deficiency in Cuba. Methods: characterization of the magnitude and severity of iodine deficiency in Cuba was based on determination of iodinuria and the prevalence of goitre by inspection and palpation. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted using complex two-staged cluster sampling of three selected strata: urban, rural and mountainous, including 67 municipalities and a total of 2 101 school children aged 6-11. Results: deficient iodinuria was found in 6.4 percent of the children evaluated, with a predominance of the mountainous stratum. Excessive iodine intake was present in all strata. Goitre was classed as moderately endemic, with a prevalence of 27.3 percent and a predominance in the mountainous stratum and the female sex. Findings revealed the impact of salt iodization, which was evaluated through examination of urinary excretion as an indicator of recent salt intake. Conclusions: endemic goitre continues to be a nutritional problem in the population, pointing to the need to conduct more profound studies to identify possible causal relationships(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Deficiência de Iodo/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Iodo/prevenção & controle , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais
17.
Food Nutr Bull ; 34(3): 331-7, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24167913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in Shenzhen, China, in 1996, evaluation of the time trend of USI to indicate the control of iodine-deficiency disorders has not been performed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the time trend of median urinary iodine and total goiter rates from 1997 to 2011. METHODS: Probability-proportionate-to-size sampling was employed in the surveillance of iodine-deficiency disorders, for which schoolchildren aged 8 to 10 years were randomly selected from five districts of the city during each iodine-deficiency disorders survey. Urinary iodine content and thyroid size were measured by ammonium persulfate oxidation and B ultrasound, respectively. RESULTS: The coverage of iodized salt increased from 73.2% in 1997 to more than 90% in 2011. The median urinary iodine of children aged 8 to 10 years varied between 207.1 and 278.8 microg/L; these levels were above the urinary iodine level in 1995. The proportion of urine samples with iodine content above 300 microg/L was 45.6% in 1997 and decreased to 20.8% in 2011, indicating excessive consumption of iodine by the children. The goiter rate among children dropped from 10.8% in 1997 to 1.3% in 2011; both values were lower than the goiter rate in 1995, indicating that the spread of endemic goiter was under control. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders was achieved by USI in Shenzhen. Nevertheless, some problems still existed, such as over-iodization. To clarify the causes of excessive urinary iodine content, the various sources of iodine from the diet need to be investigated in the future.


Assuntos
Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Iodo/deficiência , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/urina , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Vigilância da População/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Indian J Med Res ; 138(3): 418-33, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24135192

RESUMO

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.


Assuntos
Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Endocr Pathol ; 24(3): 125-31, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23666798

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the natural history of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) in the iodine-deficient province of Salta, Argentina, in relation to salt iodization and health care standards. Five hundred ninety-three thyroid cancers diagnosed from 1958 to2012 were reviewed based mainly on the WHO classification and grouped into three periods, one before and two after iodine prophylaxis. The incidence of UTC was analyzed in relation to changing concentrations of potassium iodide (KI) in salt during the prophylaxis period (from 40 to 33.3 mg KI/kg salt), establishment of primary health care centers throughout the region, and use of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. Twenty-nine UTCs were found in the whole series. The frequency of UTC decreased from 15.2 % (9/59 cases) in the first period to 2.6 % (10/381 cases) well after salt iodination (x (2) Fisher's test, p < 0.0002), and the incidence from 1.4/10(6)/year to 0.1/10(6)/year (Student's t test, p < 0.06), respectively. The decline of UTC after iodine prophylaxis occurred even after decreasing concentrations of KI in salt and timely coincided with the establishment of primary health care centers throughout the region and routine use of FNA. The lower rate of UTC after iodine prophylaxis in the province of Salta is mostly related to earlier detection of more differentiated thyroid tumors rather than higher salt iodization.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Iodo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Iodo/deficiência , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide , Adulto Jovem
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