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2.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 108: 104472, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494191

RESUMO

The OECD guideline 407 outlines the conduct of 28-day studies in rodents to detect systemic toxicity with focus on endocrine and immunotoxic effects. It was validated with the rat as preferred model species. Justification is required for other rodent species, as an increased variability is expected compared to the rat. We investigated the variability of organ weights in the mouse and compared this to data published for the rat in the validation report of test guideline 407. Furthermore, the influence of the immunotoxic model substance cyclophosphamide on spleen and thymus weights in the mouse in immunotoxicity studies (duration 28 days) is reported and discussed, an immunotoxic model substance was not included in the validation report. Historical control data were compiled for mouse studies performed according to OECD 407 and for immunotoxicity studies between 2008 and 2013 at BASF SE. For absolute weights, the coefficient of variation was determined for each study group and compared with the rat. Adrenal glands, ovaries and to lesser degree testes and prostate showed higher coefficients of variation in the mouse (most pronounced in adrenal glands in male animals: rat 5%-17%, CD1 mouse 20%-51%). Effects of cyclophosphamide were best detected measuring the thymus weight.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Peso Corporal , Grupos Controle , Tamanho do Órgão , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda , Glândulas Suprarrenais/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Feminino , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/anatomia & histologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Ann Anat ; 224: 161-171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121286

RESUMO

The microvascular architecture of the spleen plays an important role in the immunological function of this organ. The different types of vessels are related to different reticular cells each with their own immunomodulatory functions. The present study describes an immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of the various types of vessels in 21 human autopsy non-pathological splenic samples. On an area of 785,656.37 µm2 for each sample, we classified and quantified the type and number of vascular structures, each according to their morphology and immunohistochemical profile, and obtained the ratios between them. The distribution of trabecular vessels and the characteristics of the venules are reviewed. In our material the so-called "cavernous perimarginal sinus" (anatomical structure previously described by Schmidt et al., 1988) was observed and interpreted as a curvilinear venule shaped by the follicle in contact with the trabecular vein. Our material comprised 261 trabeculae (containing 269 arterial sections and 508 venous sections), 30,621 CD34+ capillaries, 7739 CD271+ sheathed capillaries, 2588 CD169+ sheathed capillaries, and 31,124 CD8+ sinusoids. The total area (TA) (14,765,714.88 µm2) occupied by the sinusoidal sections of the 21 cases was much higher than the TA of the capillary sections (1,700,269.83 µm2). Similarly, the TA (651,985 µm2) occupied by the sections of the trabecular veins was much higher than the TA of the trabecular arteries (88,594 µm2). The total number of CD34+ capillaries and of sinusoids CD8+ was similar for the sum of the 21 cases, nevertheless there were large differences in each case. Statistically the hypothesis that the number of capillaries and sinusoids are present with the same frequency is discarded. In view of the absence of a numerical correlation between capillaries and sinusoids, we postulate that very possibly the arterial and the venous vascular trees are two anatomically independent structures separated by the splenic cords. We believe that this is the first work where splenic microvascularization is simultaneously approached from a morphometric and immunohistochemical point of view.


Assuntos
Microvasos/anatomia & histologia , Microvasos/química , Baço/irrigação sanguínea , Actinas/imunologia , Adapaleno/imunologia , Antígenos CD34/imunologia , Arteríolas/anatomia & histologia , Arteríolas/química , Autopsia , Antígenos CD8/imunologia , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mucoproteínas/imunologia , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/imunologia , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/imunologia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Esplênica/anatomia & histologia , Artéria Esplênica/química
4.
J Fish Biol ; 95(2): 428-443, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038739

RESUMO

A combination of traditional and emerging methodologies was used to assess the trade-offs between several life-history traits (linked to reproduction and condition) and parasitism in a commercially-exploited cold-water species, blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, in the Mediterranean Sea. The use of histological and gravimetric methods revealed conflicting evidence as to the fecundity type (indeterminate or determinate) of this species. Moreover, there seem to be condition-mediated compensations between egg quality and egg quantity. The effects of parasitism on reproduction and condition are species-specific and occur mainly at high intensities of infection; they include a lower batch fecundity (affecting reproductive potential), a higher hepatosomatic index and a higher spleen-somatic index. Considering the fact that larger fish spawn more eggs and that the minimum landing size is lower than the size at maturity, these results may have implications for the future management of M. poutassou stocks in the Mediterranean Sea. Local environmental conditions may account for geographical differences regarding infection in M. poutassou. Altogether, the results support the idea that the complex trade-offs between parasitism, reproduction and condition need to be considered in order to understand the status of cold-water species such as M. poutassou.


Assuntos
Gadiformes/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gadiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nível de Saúde , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mar Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Reprodução , Alimentos Marinhos , Especificidade da Espécie , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/fisiologia
5.
Med Arch ; 73(1): 32-34, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097857

RESUMO

Introduction: Spleen acts as blood reservoir both in animals and human beings. Spleen contracts during the exercise and so augment the systemic circulation and helps body to maintain longer on high intensity exercise. Reviewing all available literature, the human spleen shows a decrease in volume, in range from 8% to 56%, depending on the work intensity. Aim: To evaluate the percentage of the decrease in splenic volume after the treadmill exercise at specific workloads: aerobic threshold intensity, anaerobic threshold intensity, submaximal intensity and maximal intensity. Methods: This prospective study with repeated measurements included 16 healthy subjects, divided in two groups. First group consisted of 8 elite long-distance runners and second group of 8 recreational runners. First testing consisted of treadmill ergospirometry test. This data was crucial for the second testing where subjects were exercising on treadmill at specific workloads. Four specific workloads were determined: treadmill exercise at aerobic threshold intensity (1st workload), anaerobic threshold intensity (2nd workload), submaximal intensity (3rd workload) and maximal intensity (4th workload). Workloads were controlled by the speed of treadmill, for each subject individually regarding the ergospirometry test. Ultrasound measurement of spleen was done before and after each workload. Results: Elite long-distance runners showed greater spleen contraction than recreational runners after four workloads. Spleen contraction was the biggest after the 3rd workload in elite long-distance runners. Smallest contraction was in group of recreational runners after the 1st workload. Statistically significant difference was not found between the groups, regarding the splenic volume after exercise at four specific workloads (p>0.05). Conclusion: Elite long-distance runners had greater decrease in splenic volume than recreational runners, after exercise at four specific workloads, without significant difference. Greatest decrease happened in elite long-distance runners, after exercise at submaximal intensity - 49% decrease in splenic volume.


Assuntos
Atletas , Corrida/fisiologia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Esforço Físico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(4): 315-324, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968443

RESUMO

Spleen is one of the important lymphoid organs with wide variations of morphological and physiological functions according to species. Morphology and function of the spleen in bats, which are hosts to several viral strains without exhibiting clinical symptoms, remain to be fully elucidated. This study aims to examine the spleen morphology of fruit bats associated with their physiological functions. Spleen histological observations were performed in three fruit bats species: Cynopterus titthaecheilus (n = 9), Rousettus leschenaultii (n = 3) and Pteropus vampyrus (n = 3). The spleens of these fruit bats were surrounded by a thin capsule. Red pulp consisted of splenic cord and wide vascular space filled with blood. Ellipsoids in all three studied species were found numerously and adjacent to one another forming macrophages aggregates. White pulp consisted of periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS), lymphoid follicles and marginal zone. The lymphoid follicle contained a germinal centre and a tingible body macrophage that might reflect an active immune system. The marginal zone was prominent and well developed. This study reports some differences in spleen structure of fruit bats compared to other bat species previously reported and discusses possible physiological implications of the spleen based on its morphology.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/anatomia & histologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/fisiologia , Animais , Quirópteros/classificação
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(14): e15104, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946375

RESUMO

To prospectively compare the reproducibility of normal pancreas-normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements for the normal pancreas and mean normalized ADCs at different pancreas anatomic locations.In total, 22 healthy volunteers underwent pancreatic 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including axial diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging with 3 b values used (0, 400, and 800 s/mm) and with the respiratory-triggered (RT) technique. The mean ADCs from 3 regions of interest (ROIs) in 5 anatomic locations (head [H], body [B], and tail [T] of pancreas and spleen [S] and erector spinae muscles [M]) were calculated. The pancreas-normalized ADC was defined as the ratio of the ADC for the pancreas to the ADC for the spleen or erector spinae muscle. Reproducibility of ADCs and normalized ADCs was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. The ADC and normalized ADC data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA.Mean ADC and normalized ADC values did not differ (P >.05) with repeated measurements at the different pancreas anatomic locations. Reproducibility of pancreas-normalized ADC measurements in each of the 3 pancreatic anatomic locations was better with the erector spinae muscle rather than the spleen used as a reference. Mean ADC and normalized ADC values significantly differed between the 3 pancreatic segments (H: 1.36 × 10 mm/s, B: 1.38 × 10 mm/s, T: 1.25 × 10 mm/s, P = .022; H/S: 1.75, B/S: 1.78, T/S: 1.59, P = .009; H/M: 0.91, B/M: 0.95, T/M: 0.85, P = .008). Mean ADC values and normalized ADC values showed a trend to decrease from the pancreatic head to tail.Our preliminary results suggest that normalized ADC measurements for the pancreas show good intra- and interobserver reproducibility, the erector spinae muscle is a better choice than the spleen for calculating normalized ADC values for the pancreas, and the normalized ADC values are lower for the pancreatic tail than other pancreatic segments.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(2): 159-167, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To describe perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver, spleen, and kidneys of healthy adult male cats as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult male cats. PROCEDURES Each cat was anesthetized. Morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen was performed. A region of interest (ROI) was established on MRI images for each of the following structures: liver, spleen, cortex and medulla of both kidneys, and skeletal muscle. Signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma and kidneys on diffusion-weighted MRI images. The normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma. RESULTS Perfusion-weighted MRI variables differed among the 5 ROIs. Median ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 1.38 × 10-3 mm2/s, and mean ± SD normalized ADC for the liver was 1.86 ± 0.18. Median ADC of the renal cortex and renal medulla was 1.65 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.93 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of structures in the cranial aspect of the abdomen of healthy adult male cats. Additional studies of cats of different sex and age groups as well as with and without cranial abdominal pathological conditions are necessary to validate and refine these findings.


Assuntos
Gatos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Rim/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Baço/fisiologia
9.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 46(2): 195-199, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689067

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate spleen stiffness values with shear wave elastography (SWE) quantitatively in healthy adults and investigate the relationship of spleen stiffness with age, gender, and spleen size. METHODS: This study included 65 healthy individuals. Spleen stiffness measurement was obtained with 2 dimensional (2-D) SWE method from the middle portion of spleen and calculated in kilopascals by taking the average of three valid measurements. Longitudinal and transverse spleen sizes were measured. The relationship of spleen stiffness with age, gender, and spleen size was investigated. The association between spleen size and age and gender was also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean spleen stiffness value was 13.82 ± 2.91 kPa, and the spleen stiffness was not affected by age, gender, or spleen size. Longitudinal spleen size was significantly lower in females than that in males. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between longitudinal spleen size and age (r = 0.247, p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Spleen stiffness can be quantitatively measured by 2-D SWE, and the spleen stiffness is not affected by age, gender, and spleen size. The values obtained in this study can be used as normal base values in examination of different spleen pathologies.


Assuntos
Baço/fisiologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Minerva Pediatr ; 71(1): 28-33, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26616559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth of the liver and spleen is a dynamic process in children, and is related to the somatic parameters of the child, and may be affected by many diseases in children. It is of paramount importance to have standard reference values for the size of these organs for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The aim of our study was to provide practical and reliable normal reference values for the size of the liver and spleen in children and to correlate the values with age, height, and weight. METHODS: Three hundred fifteen children (142 boys and 173 girls) were prospectively examined by ultrasound due to problems unrelated to the liver or spleen. All of the subjects had normal sonographic appearance of their organs. The ages of the subjects ranged from newborns to 14 years. The liver and spleen size was correlated with age, height, and weight. The spleen size was compared with previous internationally published data. RESULTS: There was no statistical significant difference in the size of the liver and spleen between boys and girls (P>0.05). There was steady increase in the size of the liver and spleen, with good correlation with age and all the somatic parameters. The spleen size was in close proximity to those previously reported in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Standard spleen and liver size reference values were obtained by ultrasound for Jordanian children and were in concordance with international values.


Assuntos
Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Jordânia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
12.
Toxicol Pathol ; 47(1): 53-72, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563426

RESUMO

We assessed the variability of spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) microscopic observations and the correlations of these observations with other study data from 478 control cynomolgus monkeys from 53 routine nonclinical safety studies. Spleen weight parameters (absolute and relative to body or brain weights) were highly variable both within a control group on an individual study (up to 5.11-fold) and among animals with the same light microscopic observation. Grades for microscopic observations were also highly variable. The most frequent microscopic observations for spleen were changes in the size and number of germinal centers (58%), acidophilic (hyaline) material in lymphoid follicles (52%), and compound lymphoid follicles (20%). The most frequent microscopic observations in the MLN were eosinophil infiltrates (90%), changes in size and number of germinal centers (42%), and brown pigment (21%). The only meaningful relationships ( r2 > 0.3) were positive correlations between reticuloendothelial hyperplasia and malarial pigment in the spleen and between each of these observations and spleen weight parameters. We conclude that determination of test article-related effects on the immune system in routine monkey toxicology studies requires careful consideration and a weight-of-evidence approach due to the low numbers of animals/group, the inherent variability in spleen and MLN parameters, and the infrequent correlation among immune system-related end points.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/anatomia & histologia , Macaca fascicularis/imunologia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Testes de Toxicidade/normas , Envelhecimento , Animais , Grupos Controle , Centro Germinativo , Linfonodos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfonodos/imunologia , Macaca fascicularis/anatomia & histologia , Macaca fascicularis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho do Órgão , Baço/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baço/imunologia
13.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 53-56, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440339

RESUMO

Automated segmentation of the spleen in CT volumes is difficult due to variations in size, shape, and position of the spleen within the abdominal cavity as well as similarity of intensity values among organs in the abdominal cavity. In this paper we present a method for automated localization and segmentation of the spleen within axial abdominal CT volumes using trained classification models, active contours, anatomical information, and adaptive features. The results show an average Dice score of 0.873 on patients experiencing various chest, abdominal, and pelvic traumas taken at different contrast phases.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Baço , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Abdome , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
World J Emerg Surg ; 13: 50, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450123

RESUMO

Abdominopelvic trauma has been for decades classified with the AAST-OIS (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale) classification. It has represented a milestone. At present, the medical evolutions in trauma management allowed an incredible progress in trauma decision-making and treatment. Non-operative trauma management has been widely applied. The interventional radiological procedures and the modern conception of Hybrid and Endovascular Trauma and Bleeding Management (EVTM) led to good results in increasing the rate of patients managed non-operatively, opening new scenarios and options. Even severe anatomical lesions in hemodynamically stable patients can be safely managed non-operatively. The driving issue in deciding for the best treatment is anatomy, as well as physiology, for the patient physiological derangement grade is even more important. The emergency general surgeon must be prepared in those pathophysiological issues that play the pivotal role in the team management of trauma patients. Moreover, the classification of trauma patients cannot only remain anchored to anatomical lesions. The necessity to follow the modern possibilities of treatment imposes addressing trauma using a classification based on anatomical lesions and on the physiological status of the patient.


Assuntos
Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/classificação , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico , Rim/lesões , Fígado/lesões , Baço/lesões , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/cirurgia , Competência Clínica/normas , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Humanos , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radiografia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Traumatologia
15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 28(11): 834-839, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the normal liver, spleen, and renal parameters in adult patients with no comorbidities. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Dow Institute of Radiology, Ojha Campus, LEJ Campus, and Al-Mustafa Hospital Karachi, from October 2016 to March 2017. METHODOLOGY: A total of 3,136 study participants with more than 16 years of age of either gender underwent ultrasound examination. All individuals with morbid conditions like hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), liver cirrhosis, hydronephrosis, renal cyst, and liver mass were excluded. Ultrasound scan was performed and longitudinal and transverse sections were obtained of both kidneys (in full inspiration), spleen and liver. RESULTS: A significant positive correlation was observed between age and spleen size of the individuals (r=0.053, p=0.012). The correlation of BMI and liver size was also found significantly positive (r=0.237, p <0.001). The correlation of age and kidney size was found significantly negative in between age and right kidney (r=-0.074, p <0.001) and left kidney (r=-0.087, p <0.001). Similarly, the correlation of BMI and renal size was found significantly weak positive between BMI and right kidney (r=0.206, p <0.001) and BMI and left kidney (r=0.227, p <0.001). CONCLUSION: BMI was found significantly positively correlated with liver size and both kidneys in study participants. Moreover, spleen was found directly and renal size inversely correlated with age of the individuals.


Assuntos
Rim/anatomia & histologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Paquistão , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202741, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We determined the range of normal spleen dimensions evaluated by ultrasonography (US) in children according to sex and age and the relationship between splenic measurements, auxological data and body proportions, in order to define splenomegaly parameters in support of the surgical mini-invasive approaches in pediatrics. METHODS: We prospectively examined 317 caucasian children of both sexes. The patients were divided into three groups: 0-3 years; 4-10 years; 11-18 years. Sex, weight, height/length, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and xipho-pubic distance were determined for each child. US spleen evaluation included longitudinal/antero-posterior/transverse diameters, transverse area and volume. Spleen volume/abdominal volume, longitudinal spleen diameter/longitudinal left kidney diameter and longitudinal spleen diameter/xipho-pubic distance ratios were also calculated. RESULTS: For caucasian subjects, in different age groups spleen volume, transverse area and diameter increased while the spleen/abdominal volume ratio decreased significantly (p<0.001). A significant (p<0.001) decrease in longitudinal spleen diameter/xipho-pubic distance ratio was noted between the 0-3 years group and both 4-10 and 11-18 years group. Age and auxological data, except BMI, showed a high correlation with spleen dimension (r≥0.8). CONCLUSIONS: The current concept of splenomegaly is not applicable in pediatric surgery. A dedicated classification of splenomegaly is needed for children and would improve the safety and feasibility of treatment.


Assuntos
Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Rim/anatomia & histologia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Esplenomegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Esplenomegalia/etnologia , Ultrassonografia
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1019, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867987

RESUMO

CD154 is a transmembrane cytokine expressed transiently on activated CD4 T cells upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation that interacts with CD40 on antigen-presenting cells. The signaling via CD154:CD40 is essential for B-cell maturation and germinal center formation and also for the final differentiation of CD4 T cells during T-dependent humoral immune responses. Recent data demonstrate that CD154 is critically involved in the selection of T-cell clones during the negative selection process in the thymus. Whether CD154 signaling influences the TCR repertoire during peripheral T-dependent humoral immune responses has not yet been elucidated. To find out, we used CD154-deficient mice and assessed the global TCRß repertoire in T-cell zones (TCZ) of spleens by high-throughput sequencing after induction of a Th2 response to the multiepitopic antigen sheep red blood cells. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the splenic TCZ-specific TCRß repertoires revealed that CD154 deficiency shifts the distribution of Vß-Jß genes after antigen exposure. This data led to the conclusion that costimulation via CD154:CD40 during the interaction of T cells with CD40-matured B cells contributes to the recruitment of T-cell clones into the immune response and thereby shapes the peripheral TCR repertoire.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/genética , Ligante de CD40/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos CD40/genética , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/imunologia , Células Th2/enzimologia , Células Th2/imunologia
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 79: 175-180, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763734

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with the extrats of propolis and Aloe barbadensis (aloe) on the antioxydant enzime activity, hematology and histology of the spleen of Nile tilapia challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Seventy two juvenile Nile tilapia were divided in four treatments and three replicates and fed extract mixture for 15 days: fish fed supplemented diet with 1% of the mixture of extracts of propolis and aloe (1:1) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); fish fed suplemented diet with 1% of the mixture of extracts of propolis and aloe (1:1) injected with the A. hydrophila, fish fed supplemented diet with the mixture of propolis extracts and aloe, injected with PBS and injected with A. hydrophila. The influence of the supplementation of propolis and Aloe extracts on the immunomodulation in tilapias was observed by the evaluation of the survival of the animals after challenge with A. hydrophila. Non-supplemented fish had a 44.5% survival rate and those supplemented with 1% of the mixture of extracts showed 55.6% survival 7 days after challenge. The supplemented animals also showed a significant increase in the number of lymphocytes in the evaluation of the blood parameters and, consequently, in the histopathological evaluation, presented greater presence of centers of melanomacrophages. In addition, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) in the spleen presented a significant difference in fish supplemented with 1% of the extracts mixture, being superior in the animals injected with PBS when compared to those challenged with A. hydrophila.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Aloe/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Própole/administração & dosagem , Própole/metabolismo , Própole/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço/anatomia & histologia
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 60: 76-83, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705532

RESUMO

Paeoniflorin (PF), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used in clinical practice in China because of its dual immunoregulatory effects. A previous study found that PF inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in vitro; however, whether PF plays an antifungal role in vivo is still unexplored. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of PF alone or in combination with an antifungal agent, fluconazole (FCZ), using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results showed that the survival time of mice treated with PF alone or PF + FCZ decreased compared with the Infected alone and FCZ treated groups, respectively (8.20 ±â€¯1.75 vs 10.40 ±â€¯2.50 days, P < 0.05; 24.60 ±â€¯6.55 vs 29.00 ±â€¯3.16 days, P < 0.05). The fungal burden in the kidney of mice increased in the PF alone and PF + FCZ treated groups compared with the Infected alone or FCZ treated group. Furthermore, it was found that the PF and PF + FCZ treated groups showed significantly decreased levels of serum interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-17, and IL-22, and an increased level of serum IL-4; PF had no effect on the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). PF alone or in combination with FCZ decreased the proliferation of Th1 (IFN-γ+CD4+) and Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+) and increased the expression of Th2 cells (IL-4+CD4+). These results suggested that PF treatment could be detrimental to the host response to systemic C. albicans infection in mice. Thus, caution might be required for clinical use of PF in patients with fungal infection.


Assuntos
Candidíase/imunologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Candida albicans , Candidíase/sangue , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
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