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1.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(6): 985-996, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187593

RESUMO

Cetuximab-conjugated gold nanoparticles are known to target cancer cells, but display toxicity towards normal kidney, liver and endothelial cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated their pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and toxicity after intravenous administration in healthy mice. Our data showed that these nanoparticles were rapidly cleared from the blood and accumulated mainly in the liver and spleen with long-term retention. Acute liver injury, inflammatory activity and vascular damage were transient and negligible, as confirmed by the liver functionality tests and serum marker analysis. There was no sign of altered liver, kidney, lung and spleen morphology up to 4 weeks post-injection. After 6 months, kidney casts and splenic apoptosis appeared to be more prevalent than in the controls. Furthermore, occasional immune cell infiltration was observed in the lungs. Therefore, we recommend additional in vivo studies, in order to investigate the long-term toxicity and elimination of gold nanoparticles after multiple dosing in their preclinical validation as new targeted anti-cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Animais , Células Endoteliais , Ouro/metabolismo , Ouro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Baço/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5091, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037195

RESUMO

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs) are immunomodulatory receptors that are regulated by their glycan ligands. The connections between Siglecs and human disease motivate improved methods to detect Siglec ligands. Here, we describe a new versatile set of Siglec-Fc proteins for glycan ligand detection. Enhanced sensitivity and selectivity are enabled through multimerization and avoiding Fc receptors, respectively. Using these Siglec-Fc proteins, Siglec ligands are systematically profiled on healthy and cancerous cells and tissues, revealing many unique patterns. Additional features enable the production of small, homogenous Siglec fragments and development of a quantitative ligand-binding mass spectrometry assay. Using this assay, the ligand specificities of several Siglecs are clarified. For CD33 (Siglec-3), we demonstrate that it recognizes both α2-3 and α2-6 sialosides in solution and on cells, which has implications for its link to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility. These soluble Siglecs reveal the abundance of their glycan ligands on host cells as self-associated molecular patterns.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/análise , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/química , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/genética , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Células K562 , Espectrometria de Massas , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lectina 3 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/genética , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Sialiltransferases/genética , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo , Baço/citologia , Baço/metabolismo , Estreptavidina/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4596, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929083

RESUMO

Earlier studies indicate that either the canonical or non-canonical pathways of inflammasome activation have a limited role on malaria pathogenesis. Here, we report that caspase-8 is a central mediator of systemic inflammation, septic shock in the Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice and the P. berghei-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). Importantly, our results indicate that the combined deficiencies of caspases-8/1/11 or caspase-8/gasdermin-D (GSDM-D) renders mice impaired to produce both TNFα and IL-1ß and highly resistant to lethality in these models, disclosing a complementary, but independent role of caspase-8 and caspases-1/11/GSDM-D in the pathogenesis of malaria. Further, we find that monocytes from malaria patients express active caspases-1, -4 and -8 suggesting that these inflammatory caspases may also play a role in the pathogenesis of human disease.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Malária Cerebral/enzimologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Malária Cerebral/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/metabolismo , Plasmodium chabaudi/fisiologia , Baço/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239450, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone abnormality and leg disease in commercial broiler flocks are increasingly prominent, causing serious economic losses to the broiler breeding industry. Valgus-varus deformity (VVD) is a common deformity of the long bone in broilers that manifests as an outward or inward deviation of the tibiotarsus or tarsometatarsus. There is a paucity of studies on the molecular mechanisms of VVD. RESULTS: In this study, 6 cDNA libraries were constructed from spleen samples from VVD birds and normal birds. A total of 1951 annotated lncRNAs, 7943 novel lncRNAs and 30252 mRNAs were identified by RNA-sequencing. In addition, 420 differentially expressed (DE) mRNAs and 124 differentially expressed lncRNAs (adjusted P-value < 0.05) were obtained. A total of 16 dysregulated genes were confirmed by qPCR to be consistent with the results of the RNA-Seq. The functional lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network was constructed using differentially expressed mRNAs and target genes of the differentially expressed lncRNAs. 11 DE genes were obtained from the analysis. In order to gain insight into the interactions of genes, lncRNAs and pathways associated with VVD, we focused on the following pathways, which are involved in immunity and bone development: the Jak-stat signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Wnt-signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway and Fanconi anemia pathway. All together, 30 candidate DE genes were obtained from these pathways. We then analyzed the interaction between the DE genes and their corresponding lncRNAs. From these interaction network analyses we found that GARS, NFIC, PIK3R1, BMP6, NOTCH1, ACTB and CREBBP were the key core nodes of these networks. CONCLUSION: This study showed that differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways were related to immunity or bone development. These results increase the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VVD and provide some reference for the etiology and pathogenesis of VVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Galinhas/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Regulação para Baixo , Biblioteca Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/química , RNA Mensageiro/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Baço/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110903, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800238

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a type of toxic metal, in most cases, coming from fuel burning and aquatic plants. The cells of organisms can be caused serious damage, including pyroptosis, exposure to low concentrations of Cd in long-term. Pyroptosis is a recently discovered Caspase-1-mediated cell death. In this study, lymphocytes were extracted from the pronephros and spleens in carps, respectively. After treating cells with low concentration of Cd, the mRNA and protein expression levels of pyroptosis-related genes, NLRP3, Caspase-1, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased obviously. And the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria reactive oxygen species (mtROS) increased significantly, we also found the activities of CAT, GSH-px and T-SOD reduce significantly, and the content of MDA have a clear upward trend. We then added NLRP3 inhibitor, Glyburide, to the Cd-treated group, further confirming that NLRP3 is a key gene in pyroptosis pathways by detecting the mRNA and protein expression levels. Besides, the rupture of the cell membrane was also confirmed by Hoechst/PI double staining, red fluorescence increased obviously in the Cd treatment group. The experiment revealed that Cd exposure induces pyroptosis of lymphocytes in carp pronephros and spleens by activating NLRP3. Inhibition of NLRP3 activity can slow down the degree of lymphocytes pyroptosis. Thus, the above information provides a new avenue toward understanding the partial mechanism of Cd exposure-induced pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pronefro/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/fisiologia , Caspase 1 , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Linfócitos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000807, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760056

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is a commonly used conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Cytotoxicity limits the use of this life-saving therapy, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here, we use the syngeneic mouse BMT model to test the hypothesis that lethal radiation damages tissues, thereby unleashing signals that indiscriminately activate the inflammasome pathways in host and transplanted cells. We find that a clinically relevant high dose of radiation causes severe damage to bones and the spleen through mechanisms involving the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes but not the NLRC4 inflammasome. Downstream, we demonstrate that gasdermin D (GSDMD), the common effector of the inflammasomes, is also activated by radiation. Remarkably, protection against the injury induced by deadly ionizing radiation occurs only when NLRP3, AIM2, or GSDMD is lost simultaneously in both the donor and host cell compartments. Thus, this study reveals a continuum of the actions of lethal radiation relayed by the inflammasome-GSDMD axis, initially affecting recipient cells and ultimately harming transplanted cells as they grow in the severely injured and toxic environment. This study also suggests that therapeutic targeting of inflammasome-GSDMD signaling has the potential to prevent the collateral effects of intense radiation regimens.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Inflamassomos/efeitos da radiação , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Feminino , Fêmur/citologia , Fêmur/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/deficiência , Piroptose/genética , Piroptose/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Baço/efeitos da radiação , Transplante Isogênico , Irradiação Corporal Total , Raios X
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745117

RESUMO

Production of IFN-γ is a key innate immune mechanism that limits replication of intracellular bacteria such as Francisella tularensis (Ft) until adaptive immune responses develop. Previously, we demonstrated that the host cell types responsible for IFN-γ production in response to murine Francisella infection include not only natural killer (NK) and T cells, but also a variety of myeloid cells. However, production of IFN-γ by mouse dendritic cells (DC) is controversial. Here, we directly demonstrated substantial production of IFN-γ by DC, as well as hybrid NK-DC, from LVS-infected wild type C57BL/6 or Rag1 knockout mice. We demonstrated that the numbers of conventional DC producing IFN-γ increased progressively over the course of 8 days of LVS infection. In contrast, the numbers of conventional NK cells producing IFN-γ, which represented about 40% of non-B/T IFN-γ-producing cells, peaked at day 4 after LVS infection and declined thereafter. This pattern was similar to that of hybrid NK-DC. To further confirm IFN-γ production by infected cells, DC and neutrophils were sorted from naïve and LVS-infected mice and analyzed for gene expression. Quantification of LVS by PCR revealed the presence of Ft DNA not only in macrophages, but also in highly purified, IFN-γ producing DC and neutrophils. Finally, production of IFN-γ by infected DC was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Notably, IFN-γ production patterns similar to those in wild type mice were observed in cells derived from LVS-infected TLR2, TLR4, and TLR2xTLR9 knockout (KO) mice, but not from MyD88 KO mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the pivotal roles of DC and MyD88 in IFN-γ production and in initiating innate immune responses to this intracellular bacterium.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Francisella tularensis/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Tularemia/microbiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730271

RESUMO

Botswana's Okavango Delta is a World Heritage Site and biodiverse wilderness. In 2016-2018, following arrival of the annual flood of rainwater from Angola's highlands, and using continuous oxygen logging, we documented profound aquatic hypoxia that persisted for 3.5 to 5 months in the river channel. Within these periods, dissolved oxygen rarely exceeded 3 mg/L and dropped below 0.5 mg/L for up to two weeks at a time. Although these dissolved oxygen levels are low enough to qualify parts of the Delta as a dead zone, the region is a biodiversity hotspot, raising the question of how fish survive. In association with the hypoxia, histological samples, collected from native Oreochromis andersonii (threespot tilapia), Coptodon rendalli (redbreast tilapia), and Oreochromis macrochir (greenhead tilapia), exhibited widespread hepatic and splenic inflammation with marked granulocyte infiltration, melanomacrophage aggregates, and ceroid and hemosiderin accumulations. It is likely that direct tissue hypoxia and polycythemia-related iron deposition caused this pathology. We propose that Okavango cichlids respond to extended natural hypoxia by increasing erythrocyte production, but with significant health costs. Our findings highlight seasonal hypoxia as an important recurring stressor, which may limit fishery resilience in the Okavango as concurrent human impacts rise. Moreover, they illustrate how fish might respond to hypoxia elsewhere in the world, where dead zones are becoming more common.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/química , Tilápia/metabolismo , Animais , Ceroide/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemossiderina/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rios , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008283, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702070

RESUMO

Prions are pathogens formed from abnormal conformers (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). PrPSc conformation to disease phenotype relationships extensively vary among prion strains. In particular, prions exhibit a strain-dependent tropism for lymphoid tissues. Prions can be composed of several substrain components. There is evidence that these substrains can propagate in distinct tissues (e.g. brain and spleen) of a single individual, providing an experimental paradigm to study the cause of prion tissue selectivity. Previously, we showed that PrPC expression levels feature in prion substrain selection in the brain. Transmission of sheep scrapie isolates (termed LAN) to multiple lines of transgenic mice expressing varying levels of ovine PrPC in their brains resulted in the phenotypic expression of the dominant sheep substrain in mice expressing near physiological PrPC levels, whereas a minor substrain replicated preferentially on high expresser mice. Considering that PrPC expression levels are markedly decreased in the spleen compared to the brain, we interrogate whether spleen PrPC dosage could drive prion selectivity. The outcome of the transmission of a large cohort of LAN isolates in the spleen from high expresser mice correlated with the replication rate dependency on PrPC amount. There was a prominent spleen colonization by the substrain preferentially replicating on low expresser mice and a relative incapacity of the substrain with higher-PrPC level need to propagate in the spleen. Early colonization of the spleen after intraperitoneal inoculation allowed neuropathological expression of the lymphoid substrain. In addition, a pair of substrain variants resulting from the adaptation of human prions to ovine high expresser mice, and exhibiting differing brain versus spleen tropism, showed different tropism on transmission to low expresser mice, with the lymphoid substrain colonizing the brain. Overall, these data suggest that PrPC expression levels are instrumental in prion lymphotropism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Priônicas/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Doenças Priônicas/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3421, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647184

RESUMO

The OX40-OX40L pathway provides crucial co-stimulatory signals for CD4 T cell responses, however the precise cellular interactions critical for OX40L provision in vivo and when these occur, remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that provision of OX40L by dendritic cells (DCs), but not T cells, B cells nor group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), is critical specifically for the effector Th1 response to an acute systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). OX40L expression by DCs is regulated by cross-talk with NK cells, with IFNγ signalling to the DC to enhance OX40L in a mechanism conserved in both mouse and human DCs. Strikingly, DC expression of OX40L is redundant in a chronic intestinal Th1 response and expression by ILC3s is necessary. Collectively these data reveal tissue specific compartmentalisation of the cellular provision of OX40L and define a mechanism controlling DC expression of OX40L in vivo.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Ligante OX40/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Sinais (Psicologia) , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Intestinos/citologia , Antígeno Ki-1/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Receptores OX40/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614882

RESUMO

A great deal of attention has been focused on nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with the promise of tumor-selective delivery. However, despite intense work in the field over many years, the biggest obstacle to this vision remains extremely low delivery efficiency of nanoparticles into tumors. Due to the cost, time, and impact on the animals for in vivo studies, the nanoparticle field predominantly uses cellular uptake assays as a proxy to predict in vivo outcomes. Extensive research has focused on decreasing macrophage uptake in vitro as a proxy to delay nanoparticle accumulation in the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), mainly the liver and spleen, and thereby increase tumor accumulation. We have recently reported novel synthetic methods employing small molecule crosslinkers for the controlled assembly of small nanoparticles into larger aggregates and found that these nanoaggregates had remarkably high surface coverage and low cell uptake, even in macrophages. We further found that this extremely low cellular uptake could be recapitulated on solid gold nanoparticles by densely coating their surface with small molecules. Here we report our studies on the biodistribution and clearance of these materials in comparison to more conventional PEGylated gold nanoparticles. It was expected that the remarkably low macrophage uptake in vitro would translate to extended blood circulation time in vivo, but instead we found no correlation between either surface coverage or in vitro macrophage cell uptake and in vivo blood circulation. Gold nanoaggregates accumulate more rapidly and to a higher level in the liver compared to control gold nanoparticles. The lack of correlation between in vitro macrophage uptake and in vivo blood circulation suggests that the field must find other in vitro assays to use as a primary proxy for in vivo outcomes or use direct in vivo experimentation as a primary assay.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Ouro/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Polietilenoglicóis , Animais , Endocitose , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Ouro/sangue , Meia-Vida , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/classificação , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Projetos Piloto , Células RAW 264.7 , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
12.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(7): 985-1007, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619159

RESUMO

Recent studies reported adverse liver effects and intestinal tumor formation after oral exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO2). Other oral toxicological studies, however, observed no effects on liver and intestine, despite prolonged exposure and/or high doses. In the present assessment, we aimed to better understand whether TiO2 can induce such effects at conditions relevant for humans. Therefore, we focused not only on the clinical and histopathological observations, but also used Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to consider earlier steps (Key Events). In addition, aiming for a more accurate risk assessment, the available information on organ concentrations of Ti (resulting from exposure to TiO2) from oral animal studies was compared to recently reported concentrations found in human postmortem organs. The overview obtained with the AOP approach indicates that TiO2 can trigger a number of key events in liver and intestine: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. TiO2 seems to be able to exert these early effects in animal studies at Ti liver concentrations that are only a factor of 30 and 6 times higher than the median and highest liver concentration found in humans, respectively. This confirms earlier conclusions that adverse effects on the liver in humans as a result of (oral) TiO2 exposure cannot be excluded. Data for comparison with Ti levels in human intestinal tissue, spleen and kidney with effect concentrations were too limited to draw firm conclusions. The Ti levels, though, are similar or higher than those found in liver, suggesting these tissues may be relevant too.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Humanos , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Titânio/química , Titânio/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234731, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544181

RESUMO

Airborne fungi are associated with upper and lower airway inflammatory diseases. Alternaria is commonly found in nasal secretions and induces the production of chemical mediators from sinonasal mucosa. This study aimed to establish an Alternaria-induced chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) mouse model and determine the influence of host allergic background on the immunopathological characteristics of CRS. BALB/c mice were used for establishing the CRS model. Alternaria was intranasally instilled for 8 or 16 weeks with or without ovalbumin (OVA) presensitization. Total serum IgE and Alternaria-specific IgE levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and splenocytes were measured by ELISA and their mRNAs and levels of associated transcription factors in sinonasal mucosa were determined with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hematoxylin-eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining were performed to evaluate histological changes. Total serum IgE was increased in both allergic and non-allergic CRS. IL-4 was strongly expressed in NLF in both allergic and non-allergic CRS at 16 weeks and not only eosinophils but also neutrophils were increased in NLF of non-allergic CRS mice. The levels of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines and transcription factor mRNAs were significantly increased in sinonasal mucosa of non-allergic CRS mice. Both inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were increased in CRS mice. Repeated intranasal instillation of Alternaria results in sinonasal inflammation with inflammatory cell infiltration. The sinonasal mucosal immune responses against Alternaria were shown to differ depending on the host allergic background.


Assuntos
Alternaria/patogenicidade , Rinite/patologia , Sinusite/patologia , Alternaria/imunologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Interleucina-10/análise , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/análise , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Líquido da Lavagem Nasal/química , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rinite/imunologia , Sinusite/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(6): 827-846, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552239

RESUMO

Prior studies showed nanoparticle clearance was different in C57BL/6 versus BALB/c mice, strains prone to Th1 and Th2 immune responses, respectively. Objective: Assess nanoceria (cerium oxide, CeO2 nanoparticle) uptake time course and organ distribution, cellular and oxidative stress, and bioprocessing as a function of mouse strain. Methods: C57BL/6 and BALB/c female mice were i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg nanoceria or vehicle and terminated 0.5 to 24 h later. Organs were collected for cerium analysis; light and electron microscopy with elemental mapping; and protein carbonyl, IL-1ß, and caspase-1 determination. Results: Peripheral organ cerium significantly increased, generally more in C57BL/6 mice. Caspase-1 was significantly elevated in the liver at 6 h, to a greater extent in BALB/c mice, suggesting inflammasome pathway activation. Light microscopy revealed greater liver vacuolation in C57BL/6 mice and a nanoceria-induced decrease in BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice vacuolation. Nanoceria increased spleen lymphoid white pulp cell density in BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice. Electron microscopy showed intracellular nanoceria particles bioprocessed to form crystalline cerium phosphate nanoneedles. Ferritin accumulation was greatly increased proximal to the nanoceria, forming core-shell-like structures in C57BL/6 but even distribution in BALB/c mice. Conclusions: BALB/c mice were more responsive to nanoceria-induced effects, e.g. liver caspase-1 activation, reduced liver vacuolation, and increased spleen cell density. Nanoceria uptake, initiation of bioprocessing, and crystalline cerium phosphate nanoneedle formation were rapid. Ferritin greatly increased with a macrophage phenotype-dependent distribution. Further study will be needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the observed differences.


Assuntos
Cério/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cério/química , Cério/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Baço/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(3): e12915, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533866

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune syndrome characterized by the development of autoantibodies to a wide range of antigens. Together with B cells, respective self-reactive T cells have an important contribution in disease progression as being responsible for inflammatory cytokines secretion, B cell activation and promoting amplification of the autoimmune response. Annexin A1 is expressed by many cell types and binds to phospholipids in a Ca2+ -dependent manner. Abnormal expression of annexin A1 was found on activated B and T cells in both murine and human autoimmunity suggesting its potential role as a therapeutic target. In the present study, we have investigated the possibility to suppress autoimmune manifestation in spontaneous mouse model of lupus using anti-annexin A1 antibody. Groups of lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice were treated with the anti-annexin A1 monoclonal antibody, and the disease activity and survival of the animals were following up. Flow cytometry, ELISA assays, and histological and immunofluorescence kidney analyses were used to determine the levels of Annexin A1 expression, cytokines, anti-dsDNA antibodies and kidney injuries. The administration of this monoclonal antibody to MRL/lpr mice resulted in suppression of IgG anti-dsDNA antibody production, modulated IL-10 secretion, decreased disease activity and prolonged survival compared with the control group.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/antagonistas & inibidores , Anexina A1/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Animais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/urina , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(3): e12920, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594535

RESUMO

The maintenance of inner integrity of an organism is founded on the proper performance of two immunity branches, innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, it became apparent that subset of splenic B cells named marginal zone B cells (MZB cells) exhibits unique developmental and functional features that bridge these two immunity branches. Strategically positioned at the site where blood and lymph are filtered, MZB cells represent a population of sentinels that rapidly proliferate and differentiate into IgM plasmablast cells when encountered with blood-borne, thymus-independent (TI) Ags. Moreover, MZB cells have intrinsic capability to induce potent CD4+ helper T cell response and cytokine production upon stimulation with soluble antigens. Due to their ability to overcome a time gap prior the establishment of the full adaptive response towards pathogens, MZB cells connect and direct innate and adaptive immunity. An additional interesting characteristic of MZB cells is capacity to function as regulatory cells in autoimmune processes. MZB cells may also contribute to the control of autoimmunity via the induction of tolerance by apoptotic cells. Importantly, in the clear association with inflammation and autoimmunity, MZB cells may transform into MALT lymphoma, representing a concurrence point for the infection, immunity and malignancy. This paper presents an insight into the complex biology of marginal zone B cells and their role in intertwining and directing innate and adaptive immune processes at the physiological and pathological level.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Homeostase , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Microambiente Celular/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Baço/patologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2761, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487994

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite. Previous studies have shown that circulating microparticles during P. vivax acute attacks are indirectly associated with severity. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are therefore major components of circulating plasma holding insights into pathological processes. Here, we demonstrate that plasma-derived EVs from Plasmodium vivax patients (PvEVs) are preferentially uptaken by human spleen fibroblasts (hSFs) as compared to the uptake of EVs from healthy individuals. Moreover, this uptake induces specific upregulation of ICAM-1 associated with the translocation of NF-kB to the nucleus. After this uptake, P. vivax-infected reticulocytes obtained from patients show specific adhesion properties to hSFs, reversed by inhibiting NF-kB translocation to the nucleus. Together, these data provide physiological EV-based insights into the mechanisms of human malaria pathology and support the existence of P. vivax-adherent parasite subpopulations in the microvasculature of the human spleen.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Plasma , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Reticulócitos/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Adesão Celular , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vesículas Extracelulares/parasitologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microvasos/parasitologia , Proteômica , Reticulócitos/parasitologia , Baço/patologia
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484296

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) on the growth and immunity of mouse pups in artificial rearing (AR) system. Mouse pups were reared in the AR system with artificial milk including 5% WPH (AR with WPH) or not (AR without WPH), and the remaining pups were reared by their mother (dam) for 14 days after birth. The body weight change and body weight gain rates in the AR with WPH group were significantly higher than those observed in the AR without WPH group and similar to those in the dam group. Moreover the feed and protein efficiencies in the AR with WPH group were significantly higher than those of the AR without WPH group. In addition, the supplement of WPH in the AR system was shown to significantly elevate the number of CD3+ CD8+ , B220+ CD19+ , IA/IE+ CD11c+ , and CD11b+ in the thymocyte and/or splenocyte, and the thymus weight. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis identified the amino acid sequences corresponding to some peptides, and indicated that VRTPEVDDE had the highest relative intensity among the peptides from tested WPH. Therefore, WPH would be required to not only promote growth, but also exert immunomodulatory activities in mouse pups in AR system.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos/imunologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Baço/metabolismo , Timócitos/metabolismo
19.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(7): 893-907, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529924

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intratesticular injection of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on reproductive parameters and health of rats, and to evaluate the AgNPs biodistribution in order to develop a nanotechnological contraceptive agent for male animals. Treated animals received 220 µL of AgNPs solution (0.46 µg-Ag/ml) in each testicle and were euthanized: seven, 14, 28, and 56 days after injection. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the percentage of motile sperm in D7 (8.8%) was observed, comparing to the control (73.3%), D14 (86.0%), D28 (68.2%), and D56 (90.0%) groups. D7 group also presented a decrease (p < 0.05) in the percentage of normal spermatozoa. Additionally, D7 group showed an increase (p < 0.05) in abnormal midpiece and sperm head morphology compared to the Control group. Seminiferous tubules presented all germline cell types and spermatozoa for all groups. However, D7 group did not present spermatozoa in the epididymis, whereas some spermatozoa and cellular debris were visible in D14 and D28 groups. All animals presented hematological parameters, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase values within the normal limits for Wistar rats. The percentage of silver found in the liver was always higher than in the other organs analyzed. A pioneering mathematical model is proposed, from which the half-life time of silver in the liver (17 days), spleen (23 days), lungs (30 days), and kidneys (35 days) was extracted. In conclusion, some acute and severe toxic effects were observed in sperm cells following intratesticular injection of AgNPs, although these effects were reversible. No adverse effects to general animal health were observed.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/farmacocinética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
J Neuroimmunol ; 344: 577264, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder. After SCI, it initiates a robust immune response. Considering the spleen is one of the most important immune organs, the present study further characterizes the inflammatory cytokine profile of spleen in acute SCI. METHODS: Adult rats were divided into sham and SCI groups (n = 36). SCI was produced at the T3 vertebral level. The whole blood and spleen was collected at 6, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 168 h after SCI. The levels of the inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-ß) in spleen and serum were measured with an ELISA kit. RESULTS: The results showed significantly elevated levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in spleen compared with control group levels. Inflammatory cytokine levels of spleen correlated negatively with spleen index. CONCLUSION: It was found that inflammatory cytokines in spleen showed dynamic responses to SCI, which suggest their specificity change of spleen caused by SCI. These results suggest that a possible involvement of spleen in the initiation of the inflammatory response after SCI.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/imunologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões
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