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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17363, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577734

RESUMO

Spleen is typically injured in blunt abdominal trauma. Spleen injuries make 42% of all blunt abdominal injuries. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective assessment of the cases of acute and subacute isolated traumatic spleen ruptures.A retrospective study performed on 50 patients, whose cause of death was isolated spleen rupture and bleeding into the abdominal cavity.An acute spleen rupture was diagnosed in 47 cases, whereas the rest 3 cases demonstrated a subacute rupture. In cases of acute spleen rupture, the mean weight of spleen was 309.6 g, whereas in 3 cases of subacute rupture the mean weight of the organ achieved 710 g. The mean weight of spleen in the control group with no spleen rupture was 144.7 g.Recording of the cases of isolated acute and subacute traumatic spleen ruptures and morphological assessment of them are important in forensic pathology science and in clinical practice as well.


Assuntos
Baço/patologia , Ruptura Esplênica/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 777, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Splenic abscess usually arises from hematogenous spread. Causative pathogens are various and anaerobic pathogens are rarely reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 50-year-old male patient who was admitted for sepsis due to gangrenous necrosis of the spleen associated with bacteremia. Causative pathogens were Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus gallolyticus. The patient was successfully treated by splenectomy and targeted intravenous antibiotics. No underlying or predisposing disease was found. CONCLUSION: Gangrenous necrosis of the spleen is a rare entity that can be successfully treated by splenectomy and antibiotics.


Assuntos
Gangrena Gasosa/diagnóstico , Esplenopatias/diagnóstico , Abscesso Abdominal/diagnóstico , Abscesso Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Abdominal/microbiologia , Abscesso Abdominal/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/cirurgia , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Gangrena Gasosa/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/cirurgia , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia , Esplenectomia , Esplenopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Esplenopatias/microbiologia , Esplenopatias/cirurgia , Streptococcus gallolyticus/isolamento & purificação
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107756, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494217

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite, which affects worm-blooded animals including human. The commonest chemotherapeutics used for treatment of symptomatic toxoplasmosis have numerous adverse effects. Thus there is an eminent need to develop new therapeutic agents. Here we described the therapeutic efficacy of 4-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)-6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (PPQ-8); a quinoline-related compound in a mouse model of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. In acute infection, PPQ-8 decreased the parasite load in liver and spleen with amelioration of the hepatic and splenic pathology. In addition, recovered tachyzoites showed distorted shapes, reduced sizes, irregularities, surface protrusions, erosions and peeling besides apical region distortion when seen by scanning electron microscopy. In chronic toxoplasmosis, PPQ-8 produced degeneration and reduction of the brain cysts without stimulating a damaging inflammatory response within the brain. In both models acute and chronic, PPQ-8 prolonged the survival time of mice. These findings hold promise for the development of a novel anti-toxoplasmosis drug using PPQ-8, but further in vivo studies should be carried out to elucidate PPQ-8 mechanism of action and to report its efficacy in combination with other anti-toxoplasmosis agents.


Assuntos
Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Análise de Variância , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/parasitologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Distribuição Normal , Quinolinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/ultraestrutura , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408623

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan of major medical and veterinary importance. Its treatment is difficult since the available drugs have severe side effects and reactivation may occur anytime. Vaccination with irradiated parasites exhibits ideal characteristics for vaccine development. In our experimental mice model, the protection against challenge with the virulent RH strain was assessed, using 255Gy irradiated tachyzoites. Eighty mice were allocated into 3 groups: naive control group, challenged with virulent RH tachyzoites group and a third group which is challenged with 1 × 106 irradiated tachyzoites, administered as two biweekly doses intraperitoneally. Protection was tested by challenging vaccinated mice with the virulent type RH tachyzoites 30 days after the 2nd vaccination dose. The assessment was built on qualitative clinical, quantitative parasitological, histopathological parameters and measurement of serum Nitric Oxide (NO). The results showed prolonged survival rate, absence of tachyzoites in the peritoneal aspirate by counting, absence of tachyzoites in all examined organs by impression smears, amelioration of histopathological changes in the liver, spleen, brain and lung specimens and increase of the serum NO level in the vaccinated group. Therefore, we propose that irradiated Toxoplasma tachyzoites confer protection for challenged mice and could be an alternative immunization schedule for vaccine development especially for who are at risk of severe immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos da radiação , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Vacinação/métodos , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/parasitologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Colorimetria , Feminino , Raios gama , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/mortalidade
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107736, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442455

RESUMO

Goats are frequently described as an intermediate host for the protozoan Neospora caninum, manifesting the disease mainly by recurrent abortions with placentitis and encephalitis in fetuses. Several reports of natural and experimental infections in cattle and mice show differences in the immune response, and the outcome of the infection can be variable depending on the species affected and by the behavior of the infective strain. This study describes for the first time two Neospora caninum strains isolated from naturally infected goats from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One placenta and one brain from different goats were processed for a first bioassay in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Subsequently, a second bioassay was performed by inoculating the processed brain samples from gerbils into Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) knockout mice (KO mice). Tachyzoites collected from the peritoneal fluid of the KO mice were inoculated into VERO cell monolayers, where they presented a very slow growth rate. The tachyzoites were also inoculated into BALB/c mice with a dose of 106 tachyzoites per animal. After a 5-week follow up, the animals infected with both of the strains developed a strong polarized Th1 response with increased serum and spleen gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (mainly IFN-γ and TNF-α) in the first week. Tissue lesions were mild in the animals infected with both strains. Despite the strong immune response preventing an infection in the visceral organs, the parasite was able to reach the brain, causing progressive brain lesions from the second to fifth week post infection. The NC-goat1-infected mice presented with severe meningoencephalitis, but the NC-goat2-infected animals had considerable histological brain lesions only at week 5. Immunohistochemical analysis of the mouse brains revealed a different pattern of inflammatory cells compared to the naturally infected goats. A severe inflammatory infiltrate of CD3+ T lymphocytes was found in the NC-goat1-infected mice. A more discrete infiltrate of CD3+ T cells was found in the NC-goat2-infected animals. Additionally, IBA1 IHC revealed an intense microglial reaction and monocyte perivascular cuffs in the NC-goat1-infected animals and lower microglia/monocyte infiltrates in the NC-goat2-infected mice. This work contributes knowledge on the pathogenicity of new Neospora caninum strains in mice, comparable with other well-established mouse models of the disease, and demonstrates the importance of studying goats as an intermediate host of this parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Neospora/patogenicidade , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gerbillinae , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Pâncreas/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Vero
8.
Presse Med ; 48(7-8 Pt 1): 842-849, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447330

RESUMO

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a well-defined entity. Proliferation with hair cells, morphological aspects of hairy cells are easy to identify. Hairy cells express markers CD11c, CD25, CD103 and CD123. In 80% of cases, a BRAFV600E mutation is highlighted. In the absence of a BRAFV600E mutation, the differential diagnosis with other hair cell proliferations can be difficult, especially with the variant form of hairy leukemia, diffuse lymphoma of the red pulp of the spleen or splenic lymphoma of the marginal zone. Purine analogues (PNA) with or without anti-CD20 antibodies remain the first-line reference treatment. In case of relapse or resistance to PNA, BRAF inhibitors, with or without MEK inhibitors, are proposed in patients with the mutation. In the absence of BRAFV600E mutation, moxetumomab-pasudotox represents an interesting alternative. A multidisciplinary discussion is always necessary. In complex cases, expert advice is desirable.


Assuntos
Leucemia de Células Pilosas , Linfócitos B/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/diagnóstico , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/epidemiologia , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/patologia , Leucemia de Células Pilosas/terapia , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Baço/patologia , Neoplasias Esplênicas/patologia
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4455-4462, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Platinum-based chemotherapy often fails due to its severe adverse effects. The aim of this study was to examine the adverse effects profile and efficacy of dicycloplatin and compare them to those of cisplatin and carboplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cystoscopy surveillance of the first American cancer patient treated with dicycloplatin was performed quarterly. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted using immunoblotting and flow cytometry to assess immune status of spleen and bone marrow of mice treated with dicycloplatin, cisplatin and carboplatin. RESULTS: The American patient did not suffer clinically significant myelosuppression; dicycloplatin has sustained remission in this patient to date. Experimental studies showed that dicycloplatin is less toxic to bone marrow and spleen of mice than cisplatin and carboplatin. CONCLUSION: Dicycloplatin is a promising drug in cancer chemotherapy with less aggressive side-effects than those typically associated with cisplatin and carboplatin. This is an important therapeutic advantage in cancer chemotherapy. Clinical investigation of dicycloplatin as an alternative to cisplatin or carboplatin is warranted.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cistoscopia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Combinação de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Glutamatos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Camundongos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Baço/patologia
10.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307672

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic avian α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of malignant transformation of T cells in domestic chickens. The latently infected CD4+CD8- T cells carry the virus through the blood stream and establish lymphomas in the skin, visceral organs and peripheral nerves. The feather follicle epithelium (FFE) is the only anatomical site where fully infectious enveloped virions are produced and eventually disseminated into the environment to infect contact birds. Therefore, skin and FFE play a critical role as being the common source of re-infection of birds sharing the same habitat. The molecular mechanism involved in the replication and assembly of MDV in the FFE leading to the production and release of cell-free infectious virus particles is unknown and to date no viral or host gene has been implicated in the process. To examine alterations in the expression pattern of viral genes, we performed RNA-seq on the skin samples of Marek's disease virus-infected susceptible chickens at 10, 20, and 30 days post infection. For comparative analysis of the expression patterns of viral genes between the skin and spleen of the MD-susceptible and resistant lines, Real-Time RT-PCR was employed. In total, RNA-seq based analysis identified 42 viral genes that were differentially expressed in the skin of infected birds. Majority of the identified genes are involved in DNA replication, capsid, tegument, and envelop formation. Comparative analysis between the skin and spleen of MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines, revealed significantly higher expression of the genes in the skin of either lines than the spleen. Furthermore, much higher expression of the genes was observed in the skin of the susceptible line than the resistant line.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/genética , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Pele/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Pele/patologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
11.
Immunogenetics ; 71(7): 489-499, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297569

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications have been shown to be important for immune cell differentiation by regulating gene transcription. However, the role and mechanism of histone methylation in the development and differentiation of iNKT cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) mice have yet to be deciphered. The DBA/1 mouse RA model was established by using a modified GPI mixed peptide. We demonstrated that total peripheral blood, thymus, and spleen iNKT cells in RA mice decreased significantly, while iNKT1 in the thymus and spleen was increased significantly. PLZF protein and PLZF mRNA levels were significantly decreased in thymus DP T cells, while T-bet protein and mRNA were significantly increased in thymus iNKT cells. We found a marked accumulation in H3K27me3 around the promoter regions of the signature gene Zbtb16 in RA mice thymus DP T cells, and an accumulation of H3K4me3 around the promoters of the Tbx21 gene in iNKT cells. The expression levels of UTX in the thymus of RA mice were significantly reduced. The changes in the above indicators were particularly significant in the progressive phase of inflammation (11 days after modeling) and the peak phase of inflammation (14 days after modeling) in RA mice. Developmental and differentiation defects of iNKT cells in RA mice were associated with abnormal methylation levels (H3K27me3 and H3K4me3) in the promoters of key genes Zbtb16 (encoding PLZF) and Tbx21 (encoding T-bet). Decreased UTX of thymus histone demethylase levels resulted in the accumulation of H3K27me3 modification.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Células T Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Timo/fisiologia , Animais , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Metilação , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/genética , Proteína com Dedos de Zinco da Leucemia Promielocítica/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 212-217, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271953

RESUMO

Goose parvovirus (GPV) is the etiological agent of Derzsy's disease, with a natural reservoir consisting only of geese and Muscovy ducks. However, the pathological changes in the immune organs of ducklings experimentally infected with GPV remain unknown. In this study, 2-day-old Cherry Valley ducklings were intramuscularly injected with GPV. Immune organs (e.g., thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, Harderian gland, cecal tonsil, bone marrow, and peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBLs]) were collected 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Pathological lesions were assessed by histology and the viral load was concurrently assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. GPV antigen was detected via immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry. No clinical symptoms or death were observed in the infected ducklings from 1 to 14 dpi; however, lesions with different degrees of hemorrhage and hyperemia were observed in the thymus, spleen and Harderian gland. Lymphocyte necrosis was identified in the thymus and spleen. In the immune organs, the highest viral loads were found in the spleen at 7 dpi, followed by the bone marrow, PBLs, and cecal tonsil at 3 dpi, and the bursa, Harderian gland, and thymus at 1 dpi. GPV antigen was primarily expressed in the cecal tonsil, spleen, and Harderian gland at 5 dpi, as well as in the PBLs and bone marrow at 3 dpi. Our findings indicate widespread GPV replication and dissemination in the immune organs of Cherry Valley ducklings.


Assuntos
Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Patos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Baço/patologia , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/virologia , Gansos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/patologia , Parvovirus/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Baço/virologia , Carga Viral
13.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103617, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283962

RESUMO

The bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, is an important aquacultural and recreational species in southern China because of its excellent taste, rapid growth rate, and good looks. At present, few pathogens are known to affect the bluegill sunfish. However, an iridovirus-like disease recently caused heavy losses to the bluegill sunfish aquaculture industry in Guangdong, China. We report that a virus, designated BSMIV-SD-20171020, was isolated from diseased bluegill sunfish in China. The isolate was efficiently propagated in a Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line. The cytopathic effect was observed, the MCP gene PCR amplified, and the virus observed with electron microscopy. Its viral titer in CPB cells reached 104.13 TCID50 mL-1. The mortality rate was 100% when bluegill sunfish were challenged with BSMIV-SD-20171020 at a dose of 103.13 TCID50/fish. A histopathological examination revealed basophilic hypertrophied cells in the intestine, liver, and spleen. A nucleotide sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein revealed that isolate BSMIV-SD-20171020 is the species Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), in the genus Megalocytivirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Iridoviridae/classificação , Iridoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes/virologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Encéfalo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/classificação , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Linhagem Celular , China , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Peixes , Iridoviridae/genética , Iridoviridae/patogenicidade , Rim/patologia , Rim/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Percas , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4723-4739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308655

RESUMO

Background: Much consideration has been paid to the toxicological assessment of nanoparticles prior to clinical and biological applications. While in vitro studies have been expanding continually, in vivo investigations of nanoparticles have not developed a cohesive structure. This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity of different concentrations of chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles (Ch-AgNPs) in main organs, including liver, kidneys, and spleen. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups (n=7). Group 1 was kept as a negative control group. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated intraperitoneally with Ch-AgNPs each day for 14 days at doses of 50, 25, and 10 mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Histopathological, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies were performed as well as oxidative stress evaluations, and specific functional examinations for each organ were elucidated. Results: It was revealed that Ch-AgNPs induced dose-dependent toxicity, and the repeated dosing of rats with 50 mg/kg Ch-AgNPs induced severe toxicities. Histopathological examination showed congestion, hemorrhage, cellular degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatic and renal tissue as well as lymphocytic depletion with increasing tangible macrophages in the spleen. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (MDA, ALT, AST) and the lowest levels of reduced glutathione, immunoglobulin G, M and total protein (GSH, IgG, IgM, TP) were observed in this group. On the other hand, repeated dosing with 25 mg/kg induced mild to moderate disturbance in the previous parameters, while there was no significant difference in results of pathological examination and biochemical tests between the control group and those treated with 10 mg/kg bwt Ch-AgNPs. Conclusion: Chitosan-coated silver nanoparticles induce dose-dependent adverse effects on rats.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 224-230, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195231

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), as a kind of ubiquitous and highly toxic heavy metal pollutants, has been known to result in immunotoxicity in animals. As a multifunctional bioactivity disaccharide, trehalose (Tre) is characterized by antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and accelerating autophagy. In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and/or Tre to explore the molecular mechanisms of Tre-protected against spleen injury caused by Cd exposure. Firstly, the results showed that Tre partially recovered splenic pathological changes induced by Cd exposure. Secondly, Tre dramatically declined the level of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and elevated the level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) to weaken oxidative stress caused by Cd exposure in spleen tissue. Moreover, the results showed that Tre significantly suppressed Cd-induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and up-regulated the protein expression of nuclear Nrf2. Thirdly, Tre remarkably reduced the protein expression of sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3II (LC-3II) to restore autophagy inhibition induced by Cd exposure. Finally, the results of TUNEL and the expression of apoptosis marker proteins showed that Tre significantly inhibited Cd-induced apoptosis in spleen tissue to exert its protective effects. In summary, the results indicated that Tre modulated Nrf2 signaling pathway, which interacted with apoptosis and autophagy to against Cd-induced spleen injury, providing potential therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of Cd-related immune system diseases.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Trealose/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia
16.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 984-989, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234266

RESUMO

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widely used plasticizer, is reported to have widespread environmental and global health hazards. Trace amounts of phthalates in the environment are sufficient to disrupt ecological balance and affect human health. However, DEHP-induced splenic toxicity remains in an unknown state. Therefore, to explore the mechanism of DEHP-induced splenic toxicity, male quail were employed with 0, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight DEHP by daily gastric perfusion for 45 days. Notably, splenic corpuscular border and cell gap enlargement were observed in the spleen tissue of DEHP-exposed quail under the histopathological analysis. Furthermore, DEHP induced dysregulation of oxidative stress markers by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and decreasing superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities. Low concentration of DEHP (≤250 mg/kg) exposure suppressed nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, while high concentration of DEHP (≥500 mg/kg) exposure activated Nrf2-mediated defense response. DEHP induced splenic oxidative stress via interfering Nrf2 signal pathway and altering the transcription of its downstream genes. In conclusion, this study suggested that DEHP induced splenic toxicity.


Assuntos
Coturnix/fisiologia , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Baço/patologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 61-71, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213273

RESUMO

Anti-phage activity of serum is of importance in repeated phage therapy. Higher serum anti-phage activity has been associated with greater susceptibility of phages to neutralisation and phage therapy failure. In this study, in vivo and in vitro survivability and immunogenicity of four coliphages (TM1, TM2, TM3 and TM4) were investigated in naive chickens and chickens pre-immunised with phage TM1. Furthermore, two phages that displayed different survivability and immunogenicity (TM1 and TM3) were compared with respect to their efficacy in treating naive or pre-immunised (TM1) chickens suffering from colibacillosis. The efficacy of the treatments was evaluated based on body weight, relative organ weights, mortality, E. coli counts in the lungs as well as severity and frequency of internal organ lesions. At the end of the experiment, both naive and pre-immunised chickens treated with TM3 showed significantly lower mortality and higher body weights than untreated chickens and those treated with TM1. The same trend was observed in incidence and severity of organ lesions as well as relative spleen weight. However, naive chickens treated with TM1 also showed a shortened inflammation period as indicated by spleen weights. E. coli counts in the lungs of chicken treated with TM3 were lower than those of chickens treated with TM1 on days 3 and 10 post challenge. These data indicate that the outcome of phage therapy and the impact of serum anti-phage activity are highly phage-type dependent in broilers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Colífagos/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Terapia por Fagos/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Inflamação , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Terapia por Fagos/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Soro , Baço/microbiologia , Baço/patologia
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150781

RESUMO

Acute and subacute toxicities of the ethanol extract from Epigynum auritum (EAE) wereperformed by oral administration in pathogen-free mice. Acute toxicity study was performed at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days, while subacute toxicity test was conducted by daily oral administration of EAE at doses of 312, 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg for 28 days. Acute toxicity study showed that LD50 of EAE was over 5000 mg/kg. The results of subacute toxicity showed no significant adverse effect of EAE at 312 mg/kg. Moreover, EAE exhibited toxicities to liver, spleen and kidney in mice determined by hematological, serum biochemical and histological analyses during daily oral administration of 1250 mg/kg and 2500 mg/kg EAE. The results revealed that the dose of EAE lower than 625 mg/kg can be regarded as safe.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Baço/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
19.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(3): 232-237, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205057

RESUMO

Sudden infant deaths might be attributable to adverse reaction to vaccination, but separating them from coincidental occurrences is difficult. This study retrospectively investigated vaccination-related details and postmortem findings for 57 cases of sudden death in children 2 years or younger. Data were extracted from autopsy files at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine. Vaccination histories were available in 50 cases based on the maternity passbook. Of the 32 cases in which any vaccines were administered, 7 infants (21.9%) had received immunization within 7 days of death. The most frequent vaccine cited as the last immunization before death was Haemophilus influenzae B. Although a temporal association of vaccines with sudden death was present for two 3-month-old and one 14-month-old infants in whom death occurred within 3 days of receiving the H. influenzae type b and other vaccinations, a definitive relationship between the vaccine and death could not be identified. Histopathological examinations revealed pneumonia and upper respiratory infection as contributing to death in their cases. Moreover, all 3 cases showed hemophagocytosis in the spleen and lymph nodes, which are similar features to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Judgment of the disorders as truly related to vaccination is difficult, but suspicious cases do exist. Forensic pathologists must devote more attention to vaccination in sudden infant death cases.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Encefalopatias/mortalidade , Enterite/mortalidade , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Humanos , Íleus/mortalidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Fagocitose , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Baço/patologia , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
20.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 79-85, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229802

RESUMO

Although the diagnosis of drowning may appear straightforward the reality is that it is sometimes one of the most difficult in forensic pathology. To begin with, there is no universal agreement on what constitutes drowning with some definitions using the term in the absence of a lethal outcome. Next are the significant problems that arise in finding immersed bodies and in assessing the death scene. Prolonged post mortem intervals are associated with artefactual modifications of the body from putrefaction and post mortem animal predation. Both of these may create and disguise injuries. The absence of pathognomonic pathological features at autopsy and the presence of potentially life threatening underlying organic illnesses complicate determination of both the cause and manner of death. There may even be no autopsy findings to indicate that immersion had occurred. Finally, the unreliability of laboratory tests with significant overlap with control cases where death had no association with immersion presents further problems. Thus lethal drowning remains a complex event that requires the use of a wide variety of information sources, not just data gleaned from the dissection table.


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Patologia Legal/métodos , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Comorbidade , Consenso , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/patologia , Eletrólitos/análise , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Pele/patologia , Baço/patologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Túnica Íntima/patologia
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