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1.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102477, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619383

RESUMO

Babesia gibsoni, the causative agent of canine piroplasmosis, is a tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite predominantly reported in Asian countries. The present study aimed at genotypic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates prevalent in dogs in Kerala, a southern state of India. Blood samples were collected from 272 dogs in Kerala and B. gibsoni infection was detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular confirmation of B. gibsoni parasites was carried out by 18S rRNA nested-PCR, followed by sequencing. Nested-PCR detected a higher percentage of dogs (40.44%) positive for B. gibsoni infection than microscopy where 15.81% dogs were detected positive for infection. Genetic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates (n = 11) prevalent in dogs in the state of Kerala was carried out by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 855 bp thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) gene fragment. Phylogenetic analysis of the B. gibsoni TRAP (BgTRAP) gene revealed that B. gibsoni isolates from Kerala formed a distinct cluster with the isolates from north India and Bangladesh, away from other East Asian isolates. Nucleotide analysis of the tandem repeats of BgTRAP gene showed considerable genetic variation among Indian isolates that was shared by B. gibsoni isolates of Bangladesh but not by the isolates of East Asian countries. The results of the present study further confirmed that B. gibsoni parasites in a distinct genetic clade are endemic in dogs in India and Bangladesh. However, elaborate studies are required for better understanding of the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Trombospondinas/análise
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2066-2069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to determine the ultramicroscopic characteristics of erythrocytes in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, borreliosis or toxoplasmosis as a marker, comorbid or concomitant pathology for babesiosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Blood samples from the patients with revealed borreliosis (Lyme disease) (19 cases), toxoplasmosis (15 cases), rheumatoid arthritis in the stage of exacerbation (10 cases) served as the study material (group 2). In all patients of group 2, positive results for babesiosis were obtained during the polymerase chain reaction. The group of comparative control (group 1) consisted of clinically healthy people (n=31), who underwent the blood cytological examination (light microscopy) preceding the scanning electron microscopy, followed by verification of the results by resources of molecular genetic research (polymerase chain reaction). Scanning electron microscopy was used in this study. RESULTS: Results: In patients with babesiosis and marker, comorbid and concomitant conditions for this disease (rheumatoid arthritis, borreliosis, toxoplasmosis) it was identified the specific diagnostic criteria for the presence of extraerythrocyte forms of babesia, constant number of erythrocytes and their regenerative forms, the appearance of degenerative forms of erythrocytes with their size and shape pathology. The latter lead to hemodynamic disorders, the development of ischemic and hypoxic changes in tissues of different organs of human body. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Scanning electron microscopy of erythrocytes in patients with babesiosis and marker, comorbid and concomitant conditions for this disease (rheumatoid arthritis, borreliosis, toxoplasmosis) plays the role of an objective method of verifying the results of previous clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The use of scanning electron microscopy allow us to determine in these patients the specific diagnostic criteria for the presence of extraerythrocyte forms of babesia, constant number of erythrocytes and their regenerative forms, degenerative forms of erythrocytes with their size and shape pathology.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Babesiose , Toxoplasmose , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Babesiose/complicações , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
3.
R I Med J (2013) ; 104(9): 29-33, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705904

RESUMO

Human cases of tick-borne diseases have been increasing in the United States. In particular, the incidence of Lyme disease, the major vector-borne disease in Rhode Island, has risen, along with cases of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, all vectored by the blacklegged tick. These increases might relate, in part, to climate change, although other environmental changes in the northeastern U.S. (land use as it relates to habitat; vertebrate host populations for tick reproduction and enzootic cycling) also contribute. Lone star ticks, formerly southern in distribution, have been spreading northward, including expanded distributions in Rhode Island. Illnesses associated with this species include ehrlichiosis and alpha-gal syndrome, which are expected to increase. Ranges of other tick species have also been expanding in southern New England, including the Gulf Coast tick and the introduced Asian longhorned tick. These ticks can carry human pathogens, but the implications for human disease in Rhode Island are unclear.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 298: 109539, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375806

RESUMO

Zoonotic babesiosis caused by Babesia divergens, B. microti and B. venatorum is a vector-borne protozoan zoonosis of increasing public health importance worldwide. A complex system of animal reservoirs including a wide range of mammals and a limited number of birds play a central role in maintaining the infection. Governed by the PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the global prevalence, distribution and the diversity of zoonotic Babesia species in animal reservoirs. We pooled data using the random-effects model and determined quality of individual studies, heterogeneity and across study bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal instrument for prevalence studies, Cochran's Q-test and Egger's regression test respectively. Seventy nine studies from 29 countries reported a total 9311 positive cases of zoonotic Babesia infections from 46,649 animal reservoirs, yielding an overall estimated prevalence of 12.45% (95% CI: 10.09-15.27). Continental prevalence ranged between 8.55 (95% CI: 1.90-31.11) in Africa and 27.81% (95% CI: 21.25-35.48) in North America. Estimated prevalence in relation to country income levels, methods of diagnosis, study periods, sample sizes and reservoir categories ranged between 4.97 (95% CI: 1.80-13.00) and 30.12% (95% CI: 22.49-39.04). B. divergens was the most prevalent (12.50%, 95% CI: 8.30-18.39) of the 3 species of zoonotic Babesia reported in animal reservoirs. Zoonotic Babesia infections are prevalent in animal reservoirs across the world with the highest prevalence in North America and domestic animals. B. microti had the widest geographic distribution. We recommend tick control as well as strategic and prophylactic treatment against these parasites in animal reservoirs to curtail the economic losses associated with zoonotic Babesia species and possible transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Biodiversidade , Ixodes , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 402, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Babesia species are intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. These pathogens are typically transmitted either by tick vectors or by direct blood-to-blood contact, and may cause life-threatening clinical disease, such as thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure, in canine hosts. While Babesia vogeli and Babesia gibsoni infections have both been reported in Oklahoma, reports of Babesia conradae infections have been limited to California. METHODS: Four separate kennels of coyote-hunting dogs were identified in Oklahoma after the kennels had consulted with Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (antemortem cases) or the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab (postmortem cases). Upon owner consent, every accessible dog from each of the four kennels was briefly examined for ectoparasites, particularly ticks, and whole blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes. Clinically ill dogs were examined by a practicing veterinarian, and clinical signs included anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, fever and anemia. DNA was extracted from each blood sample, and a nested PCR was performed using general apicomplexan primers for the partial 18S rRNA gene. PCR products were electrophoresed in agarose matrix, and appropriately sized amplicons were sequenced. Sequences were compared to reference 18S rRNA gene sequences available in GenBank, and samples with > 98% homology to B. conradae (GenBank: AF158702) were considered positive. Babesia conradae-positive dogs were then treated with atovaquone (13.5 mg/kg three times per day) and azithromycin (10 mg/kg once daily) for 10 days and retested at 30 and 60 days post-treatment by PCR. RESULTS: Of 40 dogs tested, 15 (37.5%) were positive for B. conradae with 98-99% sequence homology to B. conradae from California. All positive cases were coyote-hunting Greyhounds. Ectoparasites were not identified on any of the dogs at the time of blood collection. Treatment of clinically ill dogs with atovaquone and azithromycin resulted in complete clinical recovery in all treated dogs with negative follow-up PCR at 30 and 60 days post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this study (i) documents the occurrence of B. conradae in Oklahoma, (ii) highlights this pathogen as a differential to be considered when clinical signs are present, (iii) supports the use of atovaquone and azithromycin as effective treatment in these cases and (iv) demonstrates chronic subclinical carrier dogs serving as potential reservoirs of B. conradae infection to naïve dogs.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães Trabalhadores/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Coiotes , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
6.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101785, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274574

RESUMO

We performed a cross-sectional epidemiological study with 456 household dogs from urban and rural areas in two different regions situated at different altitudes in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The PCR technique using 18S rRNA as target revealed prevalence of 7.9% of dogs positive for piroplasmids. These samples were sequenced, and all the sequences were 99.9% to 100% similar to Babesia vogeli sequences from other countries. The spatial distribution of positive cases was analysed using kernel interpolation in the QGIS software, and the spatial correlation indicators among positive dogs, altitude, and presence of ticks were obtained by calculating the local Moran index using the GeoDa software. The spatial correlation between positive cases and altitude was clear based on both visual and statistical observations. Logistic regression applying the Wald method with a cutoff point of 0.1 revealed that dogs from a region with altitude <600 m had a 2.29-fold chance of B. vogeli infection (OR = 2.29; p-value = 0.04; CI: 1.03-5.07), while the rainy season was 2.45 times more associated with B. vogeli infection (OR = 2.45; p-value = 0.01; CI: 1.20-5.01), and dogs infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato had a 2.47 times higher chance of being infected (OR = 2.47; p-value = 0.02; CI: 1.13-5.38). Entropy analysis of the alignment between B. vogeli 18S rRNA (> 1.600 bp) sequences revealed that the most variable region corresponds to the hypervariable V4 region. Genetic homogeneity was observed among the B. vogeli 18S rRNA sequences, with distance values ranging from 0 to 0.007 and a mean value of 0.001. The evolutionary distance (0.003) was greater between the sequences from the municipalities of Barra do Pirai (low altitude) and Teresopolis (high altitude). This study expands the molecular epidemiologic knowledge of B. vogeli and shows points of variability in the B. vogeli 18S rRNA. The results indicate the potential use of spatial analysis tools to improve screening for positive cases, enabling more in-depth studies to strengthen understanding of tick infection prevention in dogs.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Altitude , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Análise Espacial
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 348, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common vector-borne disease in Europe. Monitoring changes in the prevalence of different Borrelia species in ticks may be an important indicator of risk assessment and of differences in pathogenicity in humans. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence, co-infection and distribution of Borrelia and Babesia species in ticks removed from humans in a large sample collected during a study period of 4 years. METHODS: The ticks were collected throughout Poland from March to November over 4-year period from 2016 to 2019. All ticks (n = 1953) were morphologically identified in terms of species and developmental stage. Molecular screening for Borrelia and Babesia by amplification of the flagellin gene (flaB) or 18S rRNA marker was performed. Pathogen identity was confirmed by Sanger sequencing or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: The ticks removed from humans in Poland during this study belonged to two species: Ixodes ricinus (97%) and Dermacentor reticulatus (3%). High Borrelia prevalence (25.3%), including B. miyamotoi (8.4%), was confirmed in Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans, as was the change in frequency of occurrence of Borrelia species during the 4-year study. Despite Babesia prevalence being relatively low (1.3%), the majority of tested isolates are considered to be pathogenic to humans. Babesia infection was observed more frequently among Borrelia-positive ticks (2.7%) than among ticks uninfected with Borrelia (0.8%). The most frequent dual co-infections were between Borrelia afzelii and Babesia microti. The presence of Borrelia was also confirmed in D. reticulatus (12.7%); however the role of these ticks in spirochete transmission to susceptible hosts is still unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall risk of developing LB after a tick bite is low in Europe, knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia and Babesia species in ticks might be an important indicator of the risk of both these tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Borrelia/genética , Coinfecção , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/patogenicidade , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
8.
Acta Trop ; 221: 105993, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097910

RESUMO

Theileria equi and Babesia caballi are protozoan agents causing equine piroplasmosis, endemic in countries all over the world. The aim of this study was to detect antibodies to T. equi and B. caballi in horses in the Czech Republic and to investigate the origin of the infection. Blood sera from 711 horses were examined with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; positive samples were verified with indirect fluorescence immunoassay. Antibodies to T. equi and B. caballi were detected in eight (1.1%) and three (0.4%) horses, respectively. Infection with T. equi was confirmed by PCR and sequencing in the blood of five serologically positive horses. An autochthonous origin of T. equi infection could not be excluded in two (0.3%) horses. Intensive movement of horses across European countries and the expanding occurrence of competent tick vector Dermacentor reticulatus in the Czech Republic create an increasing risk of establishing active foci of equine piroplasmosis in the country.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Cavalos , Theileria , Theileriose , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 219, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed at establishing the prevalence, epidemiology and molecular characterization of major haemoprotozoons (Babesia and Theileria) and rickettsia (Anaplasma) of cattle in Jammu region (North India) using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Hematology, microscopy and PCR based prevalence studies were undertaken with 278 whole blood samples from cattle. Molecular prevalence studies were followed by genetic characterization of the isolates of Babesia, Anaplasma and Theileria spp. based on 18S rRNA, 16S rRNA and Tams1 gene, respectively. The data related to metrology and epidemiological variables like temperature, rainfall, season, age and type of livestock rearing was analyzed and correlated with occurrence of disease by statistical methods. RESULTS: The prevalence based on microscopy was 12.9% (36/278) whereas PCR recorded 30.22% (84/278) animals positive for haemoparasitic infections. All the samples found positive by microscopy were also recorded positive by PCR. Thus the study revealed prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata to be 9.7, 16.5 and 0.7% respectively. The metrological and epidemiological variables made inroads for the propagation of vector ticks and occurrence of infection. Haematological alterations predominantly related to decrease in haemoglobin, red blood cell count and packed cell volume were evident in diseased animals and collaterally affected the productivity. Further the genetic characterization of Babesia bigemina. (MN566925.1, MN567603, MN566924.1), Anaplasma marginale. (MH733242.1, MN567602.1) and Theileria annulata (MT113479) provided a representative data of the isolates circulating in the region and their proximity with available sequences across the world. CONCLUSIONS: Despite holding much significance to the animal sector, comprehensive disease mapping has yet not been undertaken in several parts of India. The present study provides a blue print of disease mapping, epidemiological correlations and genomic diversity of Babesia bigemina, Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata circulating in the region.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Anaplasma marginale/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Theileria annulata/isolamento & purificação
10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101756, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134062

RESUMO

Herein we review the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), their impact on livestock health and on the economy, control and associated challenges in Uganda. Ticks are leading vectors of economically important pathogens and are widespread in Uganda due to suitable climatic conditions. Besides the physical injury inflicted on the animal host, ticks transmit a number of pathogens that can cause morbidity and mortality of livestock if untreated, resulting in economic losses. Uganda suffers an aggregated annual loss (direct and indirect) of over USD 1.1 billion in the TTBDs complex. East Coast fever (ECF) caused by a protozoan haemoparasite, Theileria parva, is the most prevalent and economically important tick-borne disease (TBD) in Uganda and its vector, the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) widely distributed. Other prevalent TBDs in Uganda include anaplasmosis, babesiosis and heartwater. We highlight the role of agro-ecological zones (AEZs) and livestock management system in the distribution of TTBDs, citing warm and humid lowlands as being ideal habitats for ticks and endemic for TBDs. Control of TTBDs is a matter of great importance as far as animal health is concerned in Uganda. Indigenous cattle, which make up over 90% of the national herd are known to be more tolerant to TTBDs and most farms rely on endemic stability to TBDs for control. However, exotic cattle breeds are more capital intensive than indigenous breeds, but the increasing adoption of tick-susceptible exotic cattle breeds (especially dairy) in western and central Uganda demands intensive use of acaricides for tick control and prevention of TBDs. Such acaricide pressure has unfortunately led to selection of acaricide-resistant tick populations and the consequent acaricide resistance observed in the field. Vaccination against ECF, selective breeding for tick resistance and integrated tick control approaches that limit tick exposure, could be adopted to interrupt spread of acaricide resistance. We recommend increasing monitoring and surveillance for TTBDs and for emerging acaricide resistance, improved extension services and sensitization of farmers on tick control measures, appropriate acaricide use and the development and implementation of vaccines for the control of TTBDs as more sustainable and effective interventions. A tick control policy should be developed, taking into account variations of agro-ecological zones, farm circumstances and indigenous technical knowledge, and this should be incorporated into the overall animal health program.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Fazendeiros , Vacinas Protozoárias , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Theileria parva/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101708, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175736

RESUMO

Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus have been eradicated from the United States and inspectors from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) monitor the quarantine zone along the Texas border to prevent the introduction of livestock carrying cattle fever ticks from Mexico. Stray livestock apprehended by CFTEP in the zone are checked for ticks and tested for infectious disease-causing pathogens but are not evaluated for evidence of infection with tick-borne pathogens. We tested blood samples collected from stray cattle by CFTEP inspectors for evidence of infection with tick-borne pathogens. As a comparison group representing U.S. resident cattle, we tested blood samples that had been sent to the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) for unrelated testing. Both sets of blood samples were evaluated using the same specific and broad-spectrum PCR assays. For the border cattle the overall prevalence of infection with one or more tick-borne pathogen was 58.5 % (79/135) with many co-infections, including 30 cattle positive for Babesia bovis and/or Babesia bigemina (22.2 %) and 77 cattle positive for Anaplasma marginale (57 %), three of these animals were also positive for Borrelia theileri. No resident cattle represented by the TVMDL samples were infected with either of the Babesia spp., or with Borrelia theileri, but three were positive for Theileria orientalis and 7.3 % (7/96) were positive for A. marginale. These data show that cattle originating in Mexico have a higher prevalence of infection with tick-borne pathogens relative to resident U.S. cattle and specifically, a proportion are infected with bovine Babesia, which is absent from U.S. cattle populations. Consequently, these stray cattle may be a reservoir of tick-borne pathogens and if populations of Boophilus ticks become reestablished in areas where they had previously been eradicated, could pose a significant risk to the U.S. Cattle industry.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma marginale/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , México , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Texas , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2681-2687, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110503

RESUMO

Babesial parasites are some of the most ubiquitous blood pathogens and consequently have considerable worldwide veterinary impact. Dogs living in the tropics are highly exposed to babesial parasites, particularly to Babesia vogeli. Limited data on the seroprevalence and molecular prevalence of Babesia spp. in dogs are available in Latin America. We conducted a cross-sectional study combining serological and molecular tests to estimate the seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of Babesia spp. infections in dogs in two hyperendemic foci in Brazil. A total of 630 privately owned dogs (417 from Goiana municipality, Pernambuco state, north-eastern Brazil, and 213 from São Joaquim de Bicas municipality, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil) were sampled and molecularly and serologically tested for Babesia spp. Overall, 519 dogs (82.4%) presented detectable IgG antibodies against Babesia spp., and seropositivity was significantly higher in dogs older than 1 year. Molecularly, 34 dogs (5.4%) were positive for a ~ 200 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. and 88 (14.0%) for a longer fragment (~ 450 bp) of the same gene of Babesia spp. and other protozoa. The 18S rRNA gene sequences generated herein corresponded to B. vogeli (n = 52) or Hepatozoon canis (n = 20). This study confirms a high level of exposure to B. vogeli in two areas of Brazil and highlights that most of the dogs living in these areas are infected during the course of their life, reflected by increased seroprevalence in older dogs. Increased awareness and prevention of tick-borne protozoa infections in dogs from Brazil and Latin America are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Babesia/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
13.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101729, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984595

RESUMO

Canine vector-borne pathogens can act as zoonotic agents in humans; however, it poorly understood whether dogs play a role as reservoirs of vector-borne parasites in livestock animals. Here, we report the unexpected detection of 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences of five ruminant Theileria species from the peripheral blood of dogs in Myanmar, in addition to those of two canine Babesia species. Using novel BTH primers capable of amplifying the 18S rDNA of Babesia, Theileria, and Hepatozoon spp., approximately 1,500 bp nested PCR products were detected in 19% (17/91) of local or imported dog breeds in different regions of Myanmar. Among the sequences of the 17 PCR products, ten were determined as Theileria 18S rDNA, including three as Theileria orientalis, three as Theileria buffeli, two as Theileria cf. velifera, one as Theileria luwenshuni, and one as Theileria sp. Most of these sequences showed higher identities with Theileria sequences determined in previous studies of cattle, water buffaloes, and goats in Myanmar. Six PCR products were identified as Babesia vogeli and one sample was determined as Babesia gibsoni. Furthermore, we obtained approximately 900 bp thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) gene fragments from three dog blood DNA samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the TRAP gene showed that B. gibsoni parasites in Myanmar were considerably related to isolates from China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, but clearly separated from those from Bangladesh and India. These results provide new insights into a possible role of dogs in maintaining and spreading tick-borne pathogens among livestock and canine populations in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Búfalos , Bovinos , Cães , Cabras , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Theileriose/parasitologia
14.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101733, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975003

RESUMO

Babesiosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, and heartwater are tick-borne diseases that threaten livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso and Benin. For over a decade, these two bordering countries have been facing an invasion of the livestock by the tick Rhipicephalus microplus, a major vector for babesiosis, accidentally introduced in Benin in 2004. The molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in this border area is of particular interest due to animals seasonal migration between the two countries. In this survey, epidemiological features of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in cattle were investigated to compare the eastern Burkina Faso, corresponding to a seasonal migration departure zone, and the northern Benin, which represents a seasonal migration arrival zone. Ticks and peripheral blood were collected from a total of 946 cattle in the two areas. Ticks were morphologically identified and the DNA samples from bovine blood and ticks were analysed by Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization process. A total of 2856 ticks were collected on 490 cattle in Burkina Faso, eight tick species were identified, while 3583 ticks were collected on 456 cattle in North Benin with nine tick species identified. The invasive tick, R. microplus was not found in eastern Burkina Faso, but its spread farthest north in Benin is reported. Six tick-borne pathogen species were found in cattle blood both in eastern Burkina Faso and in northern Benin. Ranked in decreasing order of overall prevalences, they are: Theileria mutans (91.1%), Theileria velifera (77.8%), Babesia bigemina (10.9%), Anaplasma marginale (4.2%), Babesia bovis (3.3%), and Theileria annulata (1.8%). To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first report of T. velifera and T. annulata in the region. Overall, the TBP prevalences were significantly higher in northern Benin than in eastern Burkina Faso, indicating a higher parasitological risk in this area.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Animal , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus/fisiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Benin/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 338, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031761

RESUMO

The protozoan parasites Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, transmitted by ticks, cause equine piroplasmosis, the most prevalent tick-borne disease in equids. Trichinellosis is a worldwide food-borne zoonosis caused by helminth Trichinella spp. that can lead to serious disease in humans, with fatal outcome. Although the infection is rare in horses, it deserves attention due to the increasing use of horse meat as a source of protein for humans. Horse trichinellosis is caused by several Trichinella species, most commonly by T. spiralis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. equi, B. caballi and Trichinella spp. in equids from three states of Northern Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from 139 clinically healthy animals, comprising 115 horses and 24 donkeys. Antibodies to T. equi and B. caballi were detected in serum by competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and antibodies to Trichinella spp. by ELISA. Antibodies to T. equi were detected in 34% of equids (41% horses and 0% donkeys), antibodies to B. caballi in 9% of equids (8% horses and 13% donkeys), and antibodies to Trichinella spp. in 4% of equids (4% horses and 0% donkeys). There was co-infection of T. equi and B. caballi in 1% of horses and co-infection of T. equi and Trichinella spp. in 2.6% of horses. This is the first report on seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. in equids from Northern Nigeria.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Theileria , Theileriose , Trichinella , Triquinelose , África Ocidental , Animais , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 267, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significance of tick-borne diseases has increased considerably in recent years. Because of the unique distribution of the tick species Dermacentor reticulatus in Poland, comprising two expanding populations, Eastern and Western that are separated by a Dermacentor-free zone, it is important to conduct studies on the process of tick expansion and emergence of canine babesiosis. The main aim of the current study was to monitor the expansion of D. reticulatus populations from spring 2016 to autumn 2018 to determine (1) the actual geographical range of this tick species, and (2) and the seasonal/annual shift in range limits and changes in distance between Western and Eastern populations of ticks (the size of the non-endemic area). METHODS: Ticks were collected in spring/autumn during a 3-year study. From each season and year at least three pairs of sites from the Western and Eastern populations were selected. Then the mean distance between paired sites was calculated for each season and year. We collected and analyzed data from veterinary clinics on the number of canine babesiosis cases treated in the clinic during a whole year (2018). RESULTS: Accordingly, further expansion of the two D. reticulatus populations was recorded, mainly along river basins. Marked colonization of the gap zone was observed, with a mean annual shift in the range of 2.5-10 km and a steadily decreasing distance between the two tick populations. The occurrence of babesiosis in different regions revealed low numbers of cases in Western Poland (19 cases/year) and the gap area (only 7 cases/year) and high incidence (up to 250 cases/1000 dogs) and fatality (total 3.65%) in Central and Eastern Poland. Strong associations were found geographically between tick and babesiosis occurrence and temporally in the seasonal patterns of occurrence of ticks and outbreaks of babesiosis. CONCLUSIONS: We documented the shift in range limits and continued process of colonization of the gap zone accompanied by the emergence of canine babesiosis in the Eastern expansion zone. Updated maps of the distribution of ticks and occurrence of babesiosis in different regions of Poland have allowed us to predict of the emergence of pathogens vectored by D. reticulatus. Incidence (per 1000 dogs) of canine babesiosis in veterinary clinics by current range of D. reticulatus.


Assuntos
Babesiose/transmissão , Dermacentor/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/fisiologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101710, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827036

RESUMO

Babesia species (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmorida) are tick-borne protozoan hemoparasites, which pose a significant threat to domestic animals, wildlife and humans. This study aimed to determine and characterize Babesia species in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Asian badgers (Meles leucurus) and their ticks. Blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, large intestine and small intestine were collected from 19 wild carnivores (12 red foxes and 7 Asian badgers). All ticks were removed from these animals and identified according to morphological and molecular characteristics. The samples were tested for the presence of Babesia species using the 18S rRNA gene. Molecular analyses showed that the DNA of Babesia vogeli and Babesia vulpes was present in red fox organs/tissues and blood samples. A total of 54 hard ticks (38 Ixodes canisuga, 6 Haemaphysalis erinacei, 9 Ixodes kaiseri and 1 Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from red foxes and 12 (I. kaiseri) from Asian badgers. All ticks were adults. Among them, one I. kaiseri parasiting a red fox contained the DNA of B. vulpes while one I. canisuga was positive for Babesia sp. belonging to the clade "Babesia sensu stricto". Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of a novel genotype, Babesia sp. "badger China". Babesia sp. badger type A and type B from Asian badgers were different from those in European badgers. Co-infection with three Babesia genotypes was found in one Asian badger. This study provides the first data on Babesia infection in red foxes, Asian badgers and their ticks in China. Babesia vogeli was detected for the first time in red foxes in Asia. Co-infection and genetic diversity of Babesia genotypes in Asian badgers were also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Raposas , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Mustelidae , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA de Protozoário/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise
18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2157-2164, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855619

RESUMO

Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equids caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, members of the order Piroplasmida, transmitted by several species of ticks. As the disease is endemic in many countries, a clinical examination or a serological test are required prior to movement of horses to prove freedom from infection and to avoid the introduction of EP with its sanitary and economic impact, especially in areas where it is absent. Currently, numerous diagnostic PCR protocols are available, some of which are recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). In order to adopt this diagnostic method, the Italian National Reference Centre for Equine Diseases (NRC-ED) conducted a preliminary comparison between an end-point PCR, nested PCR, real-time PCR, and commercial real-time PCR, for the detection of T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. One hundred and three field samples, collected during spring-summer 2013 in Latium and Tuscany regions, were employed for the study, and results discordant between detection assays were confirmed by sequencing. The reference assay was defined as that showing the highest sensitivity, and the relative sensitivity (rSe) and specificity (rSp) of the other methods were estimated referring to this assay. Agreement between methods was estimated by calculating the concordance between each pair of methods. Although no statistical differences were detected among PCR-based methods, the non-commercial real-time PCR assays seemed to be the most suitable for detection of T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. An important advantage of direct PCR detection of the pathogen, in comparison to indirect detection using serological methods, is that it allows specific treatment against the causative pathogen species responsible of the infection as well as for the definition of the infectious status of an animal for international movement.


Assuntos
Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Itália/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 294: 109433, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930692

RESUMO

This review is intended to provide an overview of the occurrence and diversity of Babesia spp. in European deer. Babesiosis is an emerging vector-borne disease with negative implications on animal and public health. Cervidae are important hosts for Ixodidae ticks, playing a critical role in the epidemiology of the parasite. Deer are susceptible to different Babesia spp., some of them with zoonotic potential. The infection is usually asymptomatic with high prevalence rates, although some fatal cases due to B. capreoli and B. venatorum have been reported. In Europe, 3 main Babesia spp. have been described in deer: Babesia divergens/B. divergens-like, B. capreoli and B. venatorum. Additionally, close relatives of B. odocoilei, the Babesia species of the American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), have been isolated in several European countries. The occurrence of B. divergens/B. divergens-like generated concerns about the role of cervidae in the life cycle of the parasite, and the potential threat for public health. Few human cases have been attributed to B. venatorum so far, including hunters. Although this species is strictly related to the presence of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), it has been occasionally reported in moose (Alces alces) and captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Over recent years, vector-borne diseases received increased attention from International Organizations. However, technical difficulties persist, affecting surveillance efficiency. Given the veterinary and zoonotic importance of babesiosis, the author advocates the need for an effective monitoring at wildlife-domestic animals-humans interface and the implementation of management plans to reduce the risk of Babesia spp. infection for both humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Babesia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Babesiose/parasitologia , Cervos/parasitologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Rena/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Risco , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 264, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864531

RESUMO

To conduct comparative epidemiology of parasitologically positive (patent) and polymerase chain reaction positive (latent) cases of bovine babesiosis in Bet Region (low-lying areas adjoining Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, and Ghaggar rivers of Punjab) of diverse agroclimatic zones of Punjab state in relation to haematobiochemical parameters as patho-physiological markers, blood samples from 783 dairy animals (487 buffaloes and 296 cattle) were analysed parasitologically by Giemsa-stained blood smears (GSBS) and by molecular-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting SpeI-AvaI restriction fragment of Babesia bigemina. We ruled out the endemicity of the disease with 2.17% patent and 3.96% latent cases of B. bigemina with significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.01) in cattle than buffaloes. The spatial distribution for a guideline to local veterinary practitioners and policy-makers indicated highest number of patent and latent cases in western zone and undulating plain zone, respectively. District wise highest prevalence of patent as well as latent infection observed in SBS Nagar of undulating plain zone showed substantial agreement (Kappa value: 0.70) between the two techniques. Haematology revealed marked microcytic hyperchromic anaemia in patent animals of group I (GSBS positive; n = 17) and latent animals of group II (PCR positive; n = 14) as compared to disease-free controls (group III; n = 10). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in group I in comparison to group II and group III indicated comparative pathogenic effect of babesiosis in patent cases. Though patent cases showed higher pathogenicity of babesiosis, diagnosis of latent infection is significant as it may act as source of infection for spread to other highly prone bovines.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário , Índia/epidemiologia
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