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1.
Zootaxa ; 5104(2): 196-208, 2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391041

RESUMO

We provide new information on Neotropical Phyllocnistis Zeller (Gracillariidae) associated with Baccharis (Asteraceae) in the Andes region. Two new species are described, P. canta Cerdea Farfn, n. sp. and P. elongata Cerdea Farfn, n. sp., from the western slopes of the Andes of Peru between 2,000 and 3,000 m elevation, both associated with Baccharis latifolia (R.P.) Pers. The type locality of P. baccharidis Hering is confirmed; immature stages were found at 1,300 m feeding on Baccharis tucumanensis Hook. Arn. in Quebrada las Higueras (Tucumn, Argentina). Four new locality records for P. furcata Vargas Cerdea are provided, extending its distribution by 450 km to the north of the type locality.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Peru
2.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335288

RESUMO

In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities of essential oil from Baccharis parvidentata Malag. (EO-Bp) and Lippia origanoides Kunth (EO-Lo) were explored. The relevant effects were observed against the parasitic protozoans Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania amazonensis (ranging 0.6 to 39.7 µg/mL) and malignant MCF-7, MCF-7/HT, 22Rv1, and A431 cell lines (ranging 6.1 to 31.5 µg/mL). In parallel, EO-Bp showed better selective indexes in comparison with EO-Lo against peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice and MRC-5 cell line. In conclusion, EO-Lo is known to show a wide range of health benefits that could be added as another potential use of this oil with the current study. In the case of EO-Bp, the wide spectrum of its activities against protozoal parasites and malignant cells, as well as its selectivity in comparison with non-malignant cells, could suggest an interesting candidate for further tests as a new therapeutic alternative.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Brasil , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 288: 114996, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038565

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Popularly known as "escoba" (broom) or "escobilla china" (Chinese brush), Baccharis conferta Kunth (Asteraceae), is a plant widely used in Mexican folk medicine for alleviating muscular and rheumatic pain. A recent study described that dichloromethane extract as well as fractions and isolated compounds, possess anti-inflammatory activity in TPA-induced acute edema. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the popular medicinal uses of B. conferta as well as previous studies on its anti-inflammatory activity, the aim of this research was to evaluate the anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects of dichloromethane extract, fractions, and compounds from B. conferta in a monoarthritis model induced with kaolin/carrageenan (K/C). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aerial parts of B. conferta were collected, dried, and macerated with dichloromethane. The dichloromethane extract (BcD) was separated by open column chromatography to obtain the BcD2 fraction where the diterpene kingidiol (KIN) was isolated and from the BcD3 fraction the flavonoid cirsimaritin (CIR), which are the most active compounds in the TPA model. In addition, the flavonoids acacetin, pectolinaringenin and 6-methoxykaempferide were identified and isolated from the BcD2 fraction. The content of the main compounds was estimated in BcD, BcD2 and BcD3. The anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects of B. conferta were investigated by evaluating ankle joint inflammation, hyperalgesia using the hot plate test, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the synovial capsule as well as histological changes in ankle joint tissue in a monoarthritis model induced with K/C in Balb/c mice. RESULTS: Oral administration of BcD2 fraction (25 mg/kg) and KIN (10 mg/kg) reduced the ankle thickness induced by K/C and decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-17, while BcD2 increased IL-10. In addition, BcD2 and KIN showed significant edema attenuation of the synovial membrane and decreased inflammatory infiltration and cartilage erosion compared to the VEH group. Finally, BcD (50 mg/kg), KIN (10 mg/kg) and CIR (5 mg/kg) decreased hyperalgesia. CONCLUSIONS: B. conferta constitutes a therapeutic or preventive candidate for osteoarthritis, because of decreased articular inflammation and pain accompanied with the modulation of cytokine concentrations, which confirms the anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of B. conferta and support its popular use.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Baccharis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Carragenina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Caulim , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(6): 1599-1603, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586545

RESUMO

Natural products have been largely explored as treatments for leishmaniasis, neglected diseases with few toxic therapeutic options, as scaffolds for the development of new drugs. Herein, derivatives from the aerial parts of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (extract and its fractions) were evaluated against Leishmania amazonensis and macrophage cells. The ethyl acetate extract was fractionated by solid-phase extraction, resulting in eight fractions (F1-F8). Fractions F3-4 were further separated into 149 subfractions; subfraction 148 (IC50-PRO = 1.56 ± 0.1 µg mL-1) was selected for purification and constituent(s) characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The flavonoid eupatorin (3',5-dihydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavone) was identified. This compound was 3.7 times more effective against intracellular amastigotes (IC50-AMA = 1.6 ± 0.1 µM) than amphotericin B and presented low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 µM), being almost 62 times more selective for the parasite, showing great potential in drug development for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Baccharis , Leishmania mexicana , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Flavonoides/análise , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(3): 849-852, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757630

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum Schw. is associated with diseases in seeds and seedlings, mainly in maize, and causes damage to crops and food production. We determined the chemical compositions of essential oils from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., and evaluated their antioxidant and antifungal activity against F. graminearum. The oils were applied to the fungus using disc diffusion technique at concentrations of 8.0, 4.0, 2.0 and 1.0 µL mL-1. Fungistatic effects of P. cablin oil were detectable at 8.0 µL mL-1, with 80.0% inhibition of fungal growth. This oil contains mono and sesquiterpenes that may be toxic to fungal cell structures. P. cablin oil also had antioxidant activity in free radical sequestration experiments, where as oil from B. dracunculifolia had limited effects. We conclude that essential oil from P. cablin has greater anti-phytopathogenic and antioxidant activity than that from B. dracunculifolia.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Fusarium , Óleos Voláteis , Pogostemon , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06961, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356551

RESUMO

Baccharis vulneraria Backer is a sub-shrub frequently found in southern Brazil, which leads to gastrointestinal tract intoxication. The objective of this study is to describe epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of two cases of B. vulneraria poisoning in cattle. Two bovines from two different municipalities in the Itajaí Valley, Santa Catarina, Brazil were necropsied and performed the histopathological evaluation and botanical classification of the plant found in the pasture. Bovine 1 had dehydration, ruminal atony, diarrhea, congested mucous membranes and hypothermia for 20 hours, and died during clinical care. At necropsy, there was moderate multifocal detachment and reddening of the forestomachs mucosa. Bovine 2 presented anorexia, dry feces, ruminal atony, vocalization and muscle tremors for ten days, unresponsive to treatments, evolving to death. At necropsy were seen loosening of the mucosa with marked diffuse reddening and transmural edema. The microscopic exam revealed degeneration, necrosis, vesiculation, and detachment of the forestomachs' mucosa, associated with moderate multifocal neutrophilic infiltrate (Bovine 1); marked diffuse transmural necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and marked fibrinous exudation (Bovine 2). A large amount of B. vulneraria was found in the pastures, with signs of consumption. In this report, a case of subacute evolution of B. vulneraria poisoning was observed, since the poisoning by this plant is usually acute. More knowledge about poisoning by this plant is necessary for the prevention and control, avoiding new mortality cases.(AU)


Baccharis vulneraria Backer é um subarbusto frequentemente encontrado no sul do Brasil, que leva a um quadro de intoxicação nocivo ao trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de dois casos de intoxicação por B. vulneraria em bovinos. Foram necropsiados dois bovinos de dois municípios do Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com avaliação histopatológica dos órgãos e classificação botânica dos exemplares da planta localizada nos piquetes. No exame clínico do Bovino 1 foram constatados desidratação, atonia ruminal, diarreia, mucosas congestas e hipotermia durante 20 horas, com morte durante atendimento clínico. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento e avermelhamento multifocais moderados na mucosa dos proventrículos. Já o Bovino 2 teve manifestações clínicas de anorexia, fezes secas, atonia ruminal, vocalização e tremores musculares por 10 dias, não responsivas a tratamento, evoluindo para óbito. Na necropsia, havia desprendimento da mucosa dos proventrículos, com avermelhamento e edema transmural difusos acentuados. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose da mucosa proventricular, vacuolização e desprendimento do epitélio, infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal moderado (Bovino 1), e necrose transmural difusa acentuada, edema, hemorragia e exsudação fibrinosa acentuados (Bovino 2). Grande quantidade de B. vulneraria foi encontrada nas pastagens dos bovinos, com sinais de consumo. É relatado um caso de evolução subaguda de intoxicação por B. vulneraria, visto que a intoxicação por essa planta geralmente tem curso agudo. Conhecimentos acerca desta planta são necessários para prevenção e controle da intoxicação, evitando novos casos de mortalidade.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Baccharis/envenenamento , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Plantas Tóxicas , Evolução Fatal
7.
Zootaxa ; 5047(3): 300-320, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810845

RESUMO

Four new species of trumpet leaf-miner moths (Tischeriidae) are described from the Neotropics: Coptotriche serjaniphaga Remeikis Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Serjania Mill. (Sapindaceae), Astrotischeria mystica Dikus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Verbesina L. (Asteraceae), A. yungasi Dikus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Oyedaea DC. (Asteraceae), and A. parapallens Dikus Stonis, sp. nov., feeding on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Records on Sapindaceae-feeding Tischeriidae are very rare and Serjania is a novel host-plant genus for Tischeriidae. It is hypothesized that Serjania, a diverse genus in the tropical and subtropical Americas, may be a host for many undiscovered species of specialized stenophagous Tischeriidae. The new species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and, if available, female genitalia, and the leaf mines. We briefly discuss the importance of new species descriptions as a part of biodiversity assessment.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Sapindaceae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Genitália
8.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153748, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present work the bioactivity-guided fractionation of n-hexane extract from aerial parts of Baccharis sphenophylla (Asteraceae) against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was performed. PURPOSE: To evaluate the antitrypanosomal potential of diterpenes ent­kaurenoic (1), grandifloric (2). and 15ß-tiglinoyloxy­ent-kaurenoic (3) acids, isolated from n-hexane extract from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla, and elucidate their mechanism of action against T. cruzi. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: n-Hexane and MeOH extracts from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla were prepared and caused, respectively, 100% and 50% of death of trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. Based on these results, the n-hexane extract was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation procedures to afford three related ent­kaurane diterpenoids (1-3). Based on spectrofluorometric assays and flow cytometry analysis, the mechanism of action of compounds 1 and 3 was investigated. RESULTS: Compounds 1 and 3, isolated from n-hexane extract from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla, showed potent activity against parasites with EC50 values of 10.6 µM (SI > 18.8) and 2.4 µM (SI = 34.8), respectively. On the other hand, compound 2 was inactive against trypomastigotes. In mechanism of action studies using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green, the plasma membrane permeability was unaltered after treatment with compounds 1 and 3, but compound 1 induced a depolarization of the plasma membrane electric potential (ΔΨp). No substantial alterations were observed in the mitochondria after treatment with compound 3, but a transient hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by compound 1. Despite the increased ATP levels induced by compounds 1 and 3, no alterations of ROS and Ca2+ levels were registered. However, both compounds promoted a time-dependent alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes, probably contributing to an osmotic imbalance of the cell. In silico physicochemical studies of compounds 1-3 suggested that lipophilicity and molecular complexity may play an important role in the antitrypanosomal activity. Moreover, no pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) alerts were detected for compounds 1-3. CONCLUSION: Obtained data indicated that the isolated ent­kaurane diterpenes from n-hexane extract from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla, especially compound 3, could be considered interesting prototypes for further modifications aiming the discovery of new hits against T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Trypanosoma cruzi , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Hexanos
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 188, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are compounds of interest in the search for new anti-cancer therapies. We have previously isolated the methoxyflavones 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7,8,3'-tetramethoxyflavone (8-methoxycirsilineol), 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (xanthomicrol), and 5,4,'3'-trihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (sideritoflavone) from Baccharis densiflora. Herein, we investigate the toxicity of these methoxyflavones in human breast-derived cell line. Our main aim was to focus on the cancer stem cell (CSC) sub-population of JIMT-1 breast cancer cells. METHODS: Initially, dose response experiments yielding inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were performed using MCF-7, HCC1937, and JIMT-1 breast cancer, and the MCF-10A normal-like breast cell lines to get an understanding of toxic ranges. Due to a clear difference in the toxicity of the flavones, only sideritoflavone was selected for further studies using the JIMT-1 cell line. Effects on the CSC sub-population was investigated using flow cytometry-based methods. A wound healing assay and digital holographic microscopy were used to investigate effects on cell movement. A reporter assay was used to study effects on signal transduction pathways and Western blot for protein expression. RESULTS: The dose response data showed that 8-methoxycirsilineol was non-toxic at concentrations below 100 µM, that the IC50 of xanthomicrol was between 50 and 100 µM, while sideritoflavone was highly toxic with a single digit µM IC50 in all cell lines. Treatment of the JIMT-1 cells with 2 µM sideritoflavone did not selectively effect the CSC sub-population. Instead, sideritoflavone treatment inhibited the proliferation of both the non-CSC and the CSC sub-populations to the same extent. The inhibition of cell proliferation resulted in an accumulation of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle and the treated cells showed an increased level of γ-H2A histone family member X indicating DNA double strand breaks. Analysis of the effect of sideritoflavone treatment on signal transduction pathways showed activation of the Wnt, Myc/Max, and transforming growth factor-ß pathways. The level of p65/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated Β cells was increased in sideritoflavone-treated cells. Cell movement was decreased by sideritoflavone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether our data show that the methoxyflavone sideritoflavone has favourable anti-cancer effects that may be exploited for development to be used in combination with CSC specific compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Baccharis , Flavonas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(10): e2100466, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263530

RESUMO

The hexane extract from aerial parts Baccharis sphenophylla Dusén ex Malme (Asteraceae) displayed activity against amastigote forms of Trypanossoma cruzi and was subjected to chromatographic steps to afford one unreported - 7α-hydroxy-ent-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12ß-olide (1) and three known diterpenes - ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, (2), grandifloric acid (3), and 15ß-tiglinoyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (4), two sesquiterpenes - spathulenol (5) and oplopanone (6) - as well as hexacosyl p-coumarate (7). Isolated compounds were characterized by NMR and ESI-HR-MS spectra and were evaluated in vitro for activity against amastigote forms of the parasite T. cruzi - the relevant clinical form in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. In addition, the activity of compounds 1-7 against NCTC cells was evaluated. Compounds 1 and 7 showed effectiveness with EC50 values of 21.3 and 16.9 µM, respectively. Both compounds also exhibited reduced toxicity against NCTC cells (CC50 >200 µM) with SI values higher than 9.4 and 11.9. Obtained results suggest that the new ent-abietane diterpene 1 and alkyl coumarate 7 could be used as prototypes for the development of novel and selective semisynthetic derivatives against intracellular forms of T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 278: 114255, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062248

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Green propolis is produced by Apis mellifera honeybees using Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) as substrate. This Southern Brazilian native plant and green propolis have been used in traditional medicine to treat gastric diseases, inflammation and liver disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigate the effects of baccharin (Bac) or p-coumaric acid (pCA) isolated from B. dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) over the inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inflammation was induced by LPS injection into air-pouches in mice, which were subsequently treated with Bac or pCA. Lavage fluid was collected from air pouches for the quantification of cellular influx via microscopy, and quantification of inflammatory mediators via colorimetric methods, ELISA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: LPS-induced inflammation increased cellular influx and increased the levels of parameters related to vascular permeability and edema formation, such as nitric oxide (NO) and protein extravasation. Moreover, LPS increased the levels of cytokines and eicosanoids in the air-pouches. Importantly, both Bac and pCA suppressed the infiltration of neutrophils, production of NO and protein extravasation. Notably, the compounds promote differential regulation of cytokine and eicosanoid production. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Bac from green propolis directly affects inflammation by inhibiting the production of cytokines and eicosanoids, while pCA may exert direct, but also indirect effects on inflammation by stimulating the production of regulatory effectors such as interkeukin-10 in vivo.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Própole/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Abelhas , Brasil , Ácidos Cumáricos/isolamento & purificação , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tricotecenos/isolamento & purificação
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20200899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161513

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide and have several risk factors, including dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension. Studies have evaluated isolated risk factors in experimental models of cardiovascular disease, but few preclinical studies have assessed associations between multiple risk factors. In the present study, hypertensive Wistar rats (Goldblatt 2K1C model) received a 0.5% cholesterol diet and were exposed to tobacco smoke for 8 weeks. During the last 4 weeks, the animals were treated with vehicle, an ethanol-soluble fraction of B. trimera (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg), or simvastatin + enalapril. A group of normotensive, non-dyslipidemic, and non-smoking rats was treated with vehicle. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, creatinine, and hepatic and fecal lipids, blood pressure, and mesenteric arterial bed reactivity were evaluated. Cardiac, hepatic, and renal histopathology and tecidual redox state were also investigated. Untreated animals exhibited significant changes in blood pressure, lipid profile, and biomarkers of heart, liver, and kidney damage. Treatment with B. trimera reversed these changes, with effects that were similar to simvastatin + enalapril. These findings suggest that B. trimera may be promising for the treatment of cardiovascular and hepatic disorders, especially disorders that are associated with multiple risk factors.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Animais , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Risco
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2100064, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950577

RESUMO

Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. and Baccharis microdonta DC. (Asteraceae) are woody species morphologically similar growing in Uruguay, where not taxonomists people often confuse them in field conditions. As the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia ('vassoura' oil) is highly prized by the flavor and fragrance industry, the correct differentiation of the two species is a key factor in exploiting them profitably and reasonably. To differentiate both Baccharis species, in this work their volatile expression profiles were studied as an alternative tool to determine authenticity and quality. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monthly extracted during an entire year from aerial parts of wild populations by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS; identification) and conventional gas chromatography (GC-FID; component abundances determination). Enantioselective gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Es-GC/MS) was applied in the search of parameters able to ensure genuineness of each species extract. Qualitative VOCs profiles were found to be similar for both species, being ß-pinene, limonene, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide, and viridiflorol the main components. However, the abundance of those VOCs were two to ten times higher in B. dracunculifolia than in B. microdonta during the year of study. These Baccharis spp. showed species-specific patterns of VOCs expression according to the seasonality, and interestingly, oxygenated compounds (trans-pinocarveol and myrtenal) increased their abundances at full-flowering stages. The enantiomeric distribution of selected monoterpenes (α- and ß-pinenes, limonene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol) presented differential values for both Baccharis spp., meaning that Es-GC might be a useful tool for differentiating chemically both species in Uruguay for genuineness determination purposes.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10448, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001948

RESUMO

Plants must deal with harsh environmental conditions when colonizing abandoned copper mine tailings. We hypothesized that the presence of a native microbial community can improve the colonization of the pioneer plant, Baccharis linearis, in soils from copper mining tailings. Plant growth and microbial community compositions and dynamics were determined in cultivation pots containing material from two abandoned copper mining tailings (Huana and Tambillos) and compared with pots containing fresh tailings or surrounding agricultural soil. Controls without plants or using irradiated microbe-free substrates, were also performed. Results indicated that bacteria (Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes groups) and fungi (Glomus genus) are associated with B. linearis and may support plant acclimation, since growth parameters decreased in both irradiated (transiently without microbial community) and fresh tailing substrates (with a significantly different microbial community). Consistently, the composition of the bacterial community from abandoned copper mining tailings was more impacted by plant establishment than by differences in the physicochemical properties of the substrates. Bacteria located at B. linearis rhizoplane were clearly the most distinct bacterial community compared with those of fresh tailings, surrounding soil and non-rhizosphere abandoned tailings substrates. Beta diversity analyses showed that the rhizoplane bacterial community changed mainly through species replacement (turnover) than species loss (nestedness). In contrast, location/geographical conditions were more relevant than interaction with the plants, to explain fungal community differences.


Assuntos
Baccharis/microbiologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Microbiota/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Baccharis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Chile , Fungos , Geografia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Mineração , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 3077-3087, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787988

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal potential of the essential oil of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. against Candida strains. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was assessed by the microdilution method using the essential oil at a concentration range of 8192 to 8 µg/mL. The minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) was determined by subculture in solid medium. The ability of the essential oil to modulate the activity of antifungals was determined in wells treated simultaneously with the oil at a subinhibitory concentration (MFC/16) and fluconazole (FCZ). The fungal morphology was analyzed by microscopy. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the chemical composition. The essential oil presented an CI50 of 11.24 and 1.45 µg/mL, which was found to potentiate the effect of FCZ against Candida albicans. On the other hand, this combined treatment resulted in antagonism against Candida tropicalis and no evident modulation against Candida krusei was observed. The essential oil significantly inhibited hyphae growth. However, with a MFC ≥ 16,384 µg/mL, it is assumed that it has a fungistatic action. The antifungal properties demonstrated in this study might be related to the presence of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, and the interaction between them. In conclusion, Baccharis trimera showed promising anti-Candida effects, in addition to potentiating the activity of FCZ against Candida albicans, affecting its morphological transition. Therefore, this species constitutes a source of chemical compounds with the potential to be used in the combat of fungal infections.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Candida , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pichia/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 23(11): 1169-1174, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594916

RESUMO

Interest in Baccharis linearis has increased as an alternative for assisted phytostabilization due to its spontaneous colonization of tailings dumps. The search for a novel fast-vegetative propagation technique to accelerate its coverage on mine tailings is a promising research area for sustainable mine closure plans. In this study, we determined the optimal proportion of compost and tailings as growing media to promote fast B. linearis propagation through a compound layering technique. The assessed growing substrates were: 100% tailings, 70% tailings + 30% compost, and 50% tailings + 50% compost. After 84 days of growth, the change in number and height of layering branches, root and shoot dry mass, percentage of ground coverage, and substrate chemical properties were assessed. The main results showed that compound layering of B. linearis is possible with compost addition. The growth of new roots and layering branches was significantly improved by either 30% or 50% compost addition into tailings, due to chemical improvements of substrate (higher nutrients and pH and decreased copper bioavailability). The study confirms that the compound layering of B. linearis may be an effective and novel technique for speeding the reclamation of post-operative mine tailings, which is improved by the incorporation of compost.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobre , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3944, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597617

RESUMO

The diverse flora of the Atlantic Forest is fertile ground for discovering new chemical structures with insecticidal activity. The presence of species belonging to the genus Baccharis is of particular interest, as these species have shown promise in pest management applications. The objective of this study is to chemically identify the constituents expressed in the leaves of seven species of Baccharis (B. anomala DC., B. calvescens DC., B. mesoneura DC., B. milleflora DC., B. oblongifolia Pers., B. trimera (Less) DC. and B. uncinella DC.) and to evaluate the toxicological and morphological effects caused by essential oils (EOs) on the larvae and adults of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated that limonene was the main common constituent in all Baccharis species. This constituent in isolation, as well as the EOs of B. calvescens, B. mesoneura, and B. oblongifolia, caused mortality in over 80% of adults of D. suzukii at a discriminatory concentration of 80 mg L-1 in bioassays of ingestion and topical application. These results are similar to the effect of spinosyn-based synthetic insecticides (spinetoram 75 mg L-1) 120 h after exposure. Limonene and EOs from all species had the lowest LC50 and LC90 values relative to spinosyn and azadirachtin (12 g L-1) in both bioassays. However, they showed the same time toxicity over time as spinetoram when applied to adults of D. suzukii (LT50 ranging from 4.6 to 8.7 h) in a topical application bioassay. In olfactometry tests, 92% of D. suzukii females showed repellent behavior when exposed to the EOs and limonene. Likewise, the EOs of B. calvescens, B. mesoneura, and B. oblongifolia significantly reduced the number of eggs in artificial fruits (≅ 7.6 eggs fruit-1), differing from the control treatment with water (17.2 eggs fruit-1) and acetone (17.6 eggs fruit-1). According to histological analyses, the L3 larvae of D. suzukii had morphological and physiological alterations and deformations after exposure to treatments containing EOs and limonene, which resulted in high larval, pupal, and adult mortality. In view of the results, Baccharis EOs and their isolated constituent, limonene, proved to be promising alternatives for developing bioinsecticides to manage of D. suzukii.


Assuntos
Baccharis/metabolismo , Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila/fisiologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 271: 113832, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460758

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC known as "carqueja" in Brazil has been acknowledged as a medicinal plant in folk medicine for the treatment of stomach aches and gastrointestinal disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of essential oil from B. trimera (EOBT) against gastric ulcer lesions caused by absolute ethanol and acetic acid, respectively, and to identify the mechanism of action of this essential oil in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plant material used to obtain EOBT was collected in the southern region of Brazil and was analyzed by chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) demonstrate its characteristic chemical composition, with carquejyl acetate as its main component. Different doses of EOBT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally in male Wistar rats as an acute treatment against absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The gastric healing effect of EOBT (100 mg/kg) was evaluated once a day after 7, 10, and 14 days of treatment. After treatment, the stomachs of rats from all groups were collected to measure the lesion area (mm2), the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the relative expression of caspases -3, -8, -9, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The zymography method was used to elucidate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) in the healing action of EOBT. We also analyzed toxicological parameters (body weight evolution and biochemical parameters) that could result after treatment with this essential oil for 14 days. RESULTS: Pretreatment with EOBT (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the severity of gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol and decreased MPO activity in gastric tissue. After 10 and 14 days of treatment with EOBT (100 mg/kg) once a day, the lesion area was significantly reduced by 61% and 65.5%, respectively, compared to the negative control group. The gastric healing effect of EOBT was followed by a decrease in the expression of COX-1 compared to that in the negative control group. Notably, treatment with EOBT for 14 days increased the expression of VEGF compared to that using an anti-ulcer drug (lansoprazole). Additionally, analyses of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the gastric mucosa confirmed the accelerated gastric healing effect of EOBT, with a significant decrease in the activity of pro-MMP-2. No sign of toxicity was observed after treatment with EOBT for 14 consecutive days. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that EOBT was effective in preventing and accelerating ulcer healing by decreasing MPO activity, increasing VEGF expression, and decreasing MMP-2 activity. These actions collectively contribute to the rapid recovery of gastric mucosa following treatment with EOBT, without any observed toxicity.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Animais , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Antiulcerosos/toxicidade , Brasil , Caspases/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/toxicidade , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lansoprazol/farmacologia , Lansoprazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
19.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(1): 49-57, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780226

RESUMO

The p-coumaric acid is a phenolic compound present in large quantities in the extract of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, a Brazilian medicinal plant used to treat gastric ulcer. Given the necessity for finding new chemical components capable of accelerating gastric healing, in this study, the effects of the p-coumaric acid were evaluated in the acetic acid-induced ulcer model in rats, where histological, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters were analyzed. The healing property was also evaluated in the scratch assay on fibroblast cells (L929) and the cytotoxicity of p-coumaric acid was assessed in both L929 and human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells by MTT assay. The treatment with p-coumaric acid (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days, twice a day, decreased by 44.6% the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer compared with the vehicle-treated group. The vehicle control-treated group showed a larger extension of the ulcer base and an extensive damage into the mucosa and submucosa layers, which were mitigated by the treatment with p-coumaric acid. This beneficial effect was also associated with increased levels of mucin and reduced glutathione, decreased amount of lipid hydroperoxides, and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities without interfering with the activity of myeloperoxidase in the gastric tissue. The compound promoted the restructuring of the cell monolayer in the scratch test and did not show toxicity in the L929 cell line, while reduced the viability of the AGS, a lineage of human gastric adenocarcinoma. Thus, p-coumaric acid may be considered a natural source for the treatment of gastric ulcers, by reinforcing protective factors of gastric mucosa and by accelerating gastric healing.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Cumáricos/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético , Animais , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Baccharis/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cumáricos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200816, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285566

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungitoxic effect of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis trimera on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum 89 race, as well as its effect on the accumulation of phaseolin in hypocotyls of different cultivars and common bean varieties. It was obtained 20% aqueous extract from plants collected in municipalities of the Western Region of Paraná. Blocks containing C. lindemuthianum mycelium were transferred to Petri dishes containing medium with the different extracts and incubated at 25 °C. The colonies diameter was measured until the 12th day. Effects of aqueous extracts on phaseolin production was evaluated in hypocotyls of Carioca, Cnpf 8104, Soberana, Tibatã, Uirapurú cultivars, as well as Rosinha and Vermelho varieties. Each one cultivar and variety hypocotyl was transferred separately to test tubes containing 500 μL of 20% aqueous extracts. Sterile water, Bion®, and UV was used as controls. The phaseolin production was measured in spectrophotometer [280 nm]. Results of the evaluation of the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of Baccharis sp. specimens collected indicate that approximately 50% of the samples presented capacity to reduce between 74 and 92% of C. lindemuthianum growth. Cultivar Tibatã and Vermelho variety showed greater sensitivity over the applied treatments. Results of fungal filtrates and vegetal aqueous extracts presented a low capacity to induce the production of phaseolin in hypocotyls.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus , Baccharis/microbiologia , Brasil
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