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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 881-887, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371431

RESUMO

While chemical methods are often used to convert graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO), chemical reduction is often environmentally unfriendly due to the high toxicity of many chemical reducing agents. To address this limitation, Bacillus sphaericus was used here for the green reduction of GO to RGO. Successful reduction was confirmed by various advanced characterization techniques including Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). With a new peak attributable to RGO at 261 nm appearing in UV-vis and XRD spectra of the reduced product also developed a new peak at 2θ = 24.6° characteristic of RGO. Successful reduction was also supported by Raman spectroscopy which showed that the ratio of the intensity band (D band: G band) increased from 0.99 to 1.17. FTIR and XPS both confirmed that specific OH (3399 cm-1), CO (1734 cm-1) and COC (287 eV) bonds were reduced. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the produced RGO exhibited good conductivity (changed from 0.8 to 1.1 mW·cm-2). This work developed a green and easy operated method of synthesizing RGO using microorganisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Grafite , Bacillaceae , Óxidos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113848, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597950

RESUMO

Biodegradation could be a potential alternative solution to polyethylene (PE) pollution. However, its hydrophobic surface and long carbon chains make extremely low biodegradation efficiency. In this study, we screened a novel potential bacterial strain C5 (CGMCC number: 1.18715) for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) biodegrading from landfills. The strain was identified as Bacillus velezensis according to its 16S rRNA sequence. The contact angle analysis indicated that C5 could rapidly form biofilm on untreated LDPE which resulted in contact angles decreasing from 100° to 54° over 7 d. After the LDPE film incubated with C5 for 90 d, the thickness and weight of LDPE film decreased by 26% and 8.01%, respectively. Besides, the biotreated PE film was found with increases in weight-averaged molecular weight by 29.8%, suggesting low molar mass chains were consumed. C24-C29 n-alkanes were detected in the biodegradation products, which proved the depolymerization of LDPE. Combined with the genome mining results, a possible biofilm-aided degrading mechanism was proposed and might involve key enzymes, such as laccase, cytochrome P450 and propionyl-CoA carboxylase, which could constitute a multienzyme system for the co-catalytic degradation of LDPE waste.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Polietileno , Bacillus/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118306, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634401

RESUMO

Slaughter wastewater is an important and wide range of environmental issues, and even threaten human health through meat production. A high efficiency and stability microsphere-immobilized Bacillus velezensis strain was designed to remove organic matter and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria in process of slaughter wastewater. Bacillus velezensis was immobilized on the surface of sodium alginate (SA)/Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Nano Zinc Oxide (Nano-ZnO) microsphere with the adhesion to bio-carrier through direct physical adsorption. Results indicated that SA/PVA/ZnO and SA/ZnO microspheres could inhibit E.coli growth with adding 0.15 g/L nano-ZnO and not affect Bacillus velezensis strain, and the removal the chemical oxygen demand (COD) rates of SA/PVA/ZnO microsphere immobilized cells are 16.99%, followed by SA/ZnO (13.69%) and free bacteria (7.61%) from 50% concentration slaughter wastewater within 24 h at 37 °C, pH 7.0, and 120 rpm, a significant difference was found between the microsphere and control group. Moreover, when the processing time reaches 36 h, COD degradation of SA/PVA/ZnO microsphere is obviously higher than other groups (SA/PVA/ZnO:SA/ZnO:control vs 18.535 : 15.446: 10.812). Similar results were obtained from 30% concentration slaughter wastewater. Moreover, protein degradation assay was detected, and there are no significant difference (SA/PVA/ZnO:SA/ZnO:control vs 35.4 : 34.4: 36.0). The design of this strategy could greatly enhance the degradation efficiency, inhibit the growth of other bacteria and no effect on the activity of protease in slaughter wastewater. These findings suggested that the nano-ZnO hydrogel immobilization Bacillus velezensis system wastewater treatment is a valuable alternative method for the remediation of pollutants from slaughter wastewater with a novel and eco-friendly with low-cost investment as an advantage.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco , Bacillus , Humanos , Microesferas , Álcool de Polivinil , Águas Residuárias
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131795, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371360

RESUMO

Biofilm formation ability of bacteria makes them potential in the field of tannery effluent treatment. However, the hazardous nature of effluent and environmental conditions may disturb the biofilm formation ability of bacteria which ultimately affects their effluent treatment efficiency. Accordingly, we isolated and characterized biofilm-forming bacteria Bacillus vallismortis (MT027009), Bacillus haynesii (MT027008), and Alcaligenes aquatilis (MT027005) from tannery sludge and examined them for biofilm formation under variable environmental conditions. Biofilm formation in tryptic soy broth (TSB) at different incubation times (24-120 h) revealed that the biofilm formation activity of the strain B. haynesii was not affected by incubation time, whereas the increase in biofilm formation was observed in the case of B. vallismortis (28 %) and A. aquatilis (52 %) after 48 h. The medium pH (pH 5.0-9.0) had a limited effect on biofilm formation except in the case of A. aquatilis at pH 5.0 (94 %) and pH 9.0 (80 %). Furthermore, compared to the controls (only TSB), the strains B. vallismortis, B. haynesii, and A. aquatilis showed enhanced biofilm formation in undiluted tannery effluent (28, 33, and 21 %) and 25 mg L-1 Cr(VI) (23 %, 48 % 32 %). The biofilm structure was influenced by Cr(VI) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The results of Cr(VI) bioreduction studies suggest that bacterial biofilm (60-99 %) has a greater potential to remove Cr(VI) than planktonic cells (43-94 %). The results of the study provide important data on biofilm formation by indigenous bacteria in effluent environment conditions, making them potential isolates for tannery effluent treatment.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alcaligenes , Bacillus , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Cromo/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131723, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426131

RESUMO

Screening endophyte is the most important but also difficult to achieve a successful application in endophyte assisted phytoremediation process. Traditional screening procedure faced certain limitations including long time, difficulty in ascertaining the optimum strain and insignificant promotion efficiency of the selected strain in application. In this study, a novel endophyte screening method was established using microfluidic technology, realizing the real time observation of plant root phenotyping and allowing simultaneous incubation of different endophyte-plant systems. Using this method within two weeks, showed that endophyte Bacillus paramycoides (PE1), which possessed the best capability to improve phytoremediation efficiency from hyperaccumulator P. acinosa was successfully screened by evaluating root growth rate and effluent heavy metal (HM) concentration. PE1 increased root growth rate by 54.31 % and reduced the Cd concentration of chip effluent by 46.33 %. The results were verified by pot experiment, which showed that with PE1 inoculation, the biomass of P. acinosa promoted 42.50 % and Cd removal efficiency increased 55.49 %. Besides, significant and positive correlations were observed among the phytoremediation indicators obtained from microfluidic and traditional method, indicating the feasibility of microfluidic method. Our research provided a new and efficient method for endophyte screening, which could give a better understanding of endophyte assisted phytoremediation technology of HM contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bacillus , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Endófitos , Metais Pesados/análise , Microfluídica , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126092, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634465

RESUMO

In the downstream process, the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass can be improved by applying a biological pretreatment procedure using microorganisms to produce hydrolytic enzymes to modify the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose. In this study, various Bacillus strains (B. subtilis B.01162 and B.01212, B. coagulans B.01123 and B.01139, B. cereus B.00076 and B.01718, B. licheniformis B.01223 and B.01231) were evaluated for the degrading capacity of wheat bran in the submerged medium using enzymatic activities, reducing sugars and weight loss as indicators. The obtained results revealed that the B. subtilis B.01162, B. coagulans B.01123 and B. cereus B.00076 could be promising degraders for the wheat bran pretreatment. Besides, the application of their consortium (the combination of 2-3 Bacillus species) showed the positive effects on cellulose bioconversion compared with monocultures. Among them, the mixture of B. subtilis B.01162 and B. coagulans B.01123 increased significantly the cellulase, endo-glucanase, and xylanase enzyme activity resulting in accelerating the lignocellulose degradation. Our results served a very good base for the development of microbial consortium for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic raw materials.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Celulase , Biomassa , Fibras na Dieta , Hidrólise , Lignina
7.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118343, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662593

RESUMO

The biodegradation of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbons has recently received a lot of attention because of its many possible applications. Bacillus marsiflavi strain was isolated from oil contaminated soil of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Initial sequencing was done by 16s rRNA sequencing technique. Bac 144 had shown 78% emulsification index and 72% hydrophobicity content. Further, the strain displayed production of 15.5 mg/L phosphate sloubilization and 30.25 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) in vitro assay. The strain showed 65% biodegradation of crude oil within 5 days by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Whole Genome analysis of Bac 144 was performed by PacBio sequencing and results indicated that Bacillus marsiflavi Bac144 strain consisted of size of 4,417,505bp with closest neighbor Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The number of the coding sequence was 4662 and number of RNAs was 141. The GC content comprised 48.1%. Various genes were detected in genome responsible for hydrocarbon degradation and plant defense mechanism. The toxic effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and its mitigation with Bac 144 was tested by soil experiment with three levels of oil contamination (5%, 10% and 15%). Soil enzymatic activity such as dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) increased up to 49% and 40% with inoculation of Bac 144, which was considered to be correlated with hydrocarbon degradation recorded as 46%. An increase of 20%, 14% and 9% in shoot length of plant at 5%, 10% and 15% level of oil was recorded treated with Bac 144 as compared to untreated plants. A percent increase of 14.89%, 16.85%, and 13.87% in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and proline content of plant was observed by inoculation with Bac 144 under oil stress. Significant reduction of 14% and 18%, 21% was recorded in the malondialdehyde content of plant due to inoculation of Bac 144. A considerable increase of 21.33%, 19.5%, and 24.5% in super oxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase dismutase activity was also observed in plants inoculated with strain Bac 144. These findings suggested that Bac-144 can be considered as efficient candidate for bioremediation of hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Bacillus/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Petróleo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149841, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455282

RESUMO

Biocalcification is a natural biochemical process, which has been regarded as a promising method for sequestering heavy metals or carbon dioxide in the environment, healing cracks in concrete structures, and stabilizing soil. One of the key factors in this process is calcium carbonate-producing bacteria. The purpose of this study was to maximize the production of calcium carbonate by alkaliphilic Bacillus psychrodurans LC40 isolated from a limestone cave, by manipulating the medium composition for fast and non-detrimental crack healing, and to investigate the mechanism of its production. Strain LC40 could grow well in the strongly alkaline region (pH 9.5-11), indicating its alkaliphilic nature. The optimal medium for calcium carbonate production contained 2% tryptone, 1.5% urea, 0.15% NaHCO3, and 150 mM calcium formate (pH 6). Using this medium, the yield of calcium carbonate at 72 h was approximately 8.6-fold higher than that obtained through Urea-CaCl2 medium. In this culture, the urease and carbonic anhydrase activities were observed simultaneously, and the pH of the medium was found to have increased to 9.4, leading to maximum calcium carbonate production. This suggests that this pH value is achieved by the synergistic action of the two enzymes, resulting in a high calcium carbonate yield. The crystals were characterized by FESEM, EDS and XRD, which confirmed the production of rhombohedral and spherical calcium carbonate crystals containing vaterite and calcite. Strain LC40 completely healed a 0.75 mm wide crack in a very short time of 3 days using the optimized medium as a cementation solution. Our findings indicate that B. psychrodurans LC40 could be a promising candidate for the development of eco-friendly biosealant applicable to environmentally stressed concrete structures.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae , Bacillus , Carbonato de Cálcio , Materiais de Construção , Urease
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762578

RESUMO

Two aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacterial strains, designated FJAT-54423T and FJAT-54424, were isolated from hyperthermophilic compost sampled in Shanxi Province, PR China. Growth was observed at 30-60 °C (optimum, 50 °C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0), with up to 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 % NaCl). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between FJAT-54423T and FJAT-54424 was 99.9%, and the maximum similarity to a valid taxon was observed with Brevibacillus borstelensis (98.3%). Further, in phylogenetic and phylogenomic trees, strains FJAT-54423T and FJAT-54424 branched with members of the genus Brevibacillus. The menaquinone was MK-7, and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids included phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strains FJAT-54423T and FJAT-54424 were 54.3 and 54.4 mol%, respectively. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values of strain FJAT-54423T and its most closely related reference strain B. borstelensis DSM 6347T were 77.7 and 21.5 %, respectively, which were lower than the recommended species delineation thresholds of ANI (95%) and dDDH (70%). Based on the observed physiological properties, chemotaxonomic characteristics and ANI and dDDH values, FJAT-54423T and FJAT-54424 belong to a novel species of the genus Brevibacillus, for which the name Brevibacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-54423T (=GDMCC 1.2054T=KCTC 43273T).


Assuntos
Bacillus , Brevibacillus , Compostagem , Bacillus/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Brevibacillus/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 4): e20201820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730619

RESUMO

Bacteria of the genus Bacillus sp. present the potential for inhibiting various pathogens, making them a promising starting point in the search for new antimicrobial substances. In this study, bacteria were isolated from sediment samples from humid areas of a Natural Conservation Unit in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The isolate Bacillus sp. sed 1.4 was selected for production of antimicrobial activity, and was characterized by MALDI-TOF and 16S rDNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus sed 1.4 was closely related to Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus pumilus. The cell-free supernatant was partially purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-200) and an ultrafiltration membrane. Partial purification resulted in specific activity of 769.23 AU/mg, with a molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa. This antimicrobial substance showed stability at 100°C for 5 min, and was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes. An antimicrobial effect against Listeria species was observed. Considering the importance of the Listeria genus in the area of food safety, this antimicrobial activity should be further explored, specifically in the field of dairy products and with a focus on food biopreservation studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bacillus , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas
11.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3539-3546, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739805

RESUMO

We have developed a simple, robust environment-friendly and efficient method for ZnO nanoparticles biosynthesis using Dalbergia sissoo fresh leaf extract. Before using these nanoparticles for antimicrobial assay, a detailed characterization was performed using techniques like Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Particle size analysis (PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM),Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) etc. The average size of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles was around 30 nm and they were pure and crystalline by nature. The effectiveness of these biosynthesized nanoparticles were checked against both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes. A total of eight bacterial strains-Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus entericus, Bacillus cereus, Pantoea cypripedii and three fungal strains-Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger and Aspergilus flavus were studied to have a clear view of the spectrum of ZnO nanoparticles anti-microbial activity. The effectiveness of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles against the microbes was found to be better than the standard reference antibiotics used (streptomycin, chloramphenicol and rifampicin). The results seem to be very promising and can be used for some practical applications of ZnO nanoparticles in nearfuture.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pantoea/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5247-5252, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738426

RESUMO

In this study, the rhizobacteria and actinomycetes of Polygonum multiflorum were screened for the strains with indole acetic acid(IAA)-producing capacity by Salkowski method, the siderophore-producing strains by Chrome Azurol S(CAS) assay, and the strains with inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing capacity by PKO inorganic phosphorus medium. The strains were identified by morphological identification, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16 S rDNA sequences. Furthermore, the effect of growth-promoting strains on the seed germination and development of P. multiflorum was tested. The results showed that among 196 strains, two strains F17 and F42 were found to be capable of producing IAA and siderophore and solubilizing inorganic phosphorus simulta-neously. For F17 and F42, the results are listed below: 38.65 and 33.64 mg·L~(-1) for IAA production, 0.85 and 0.49 for siderophore-producing capacities(A_s/A_r), and 1.35 and 1.70 for inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing capacities(D/d), respectively. Comprehensive analysis revealed that strains F17 and F42 were identified as Pseudochrobactrum asacharolyticum and Bacillus aryabhattai, respectively, and both could significantly promote the seed germination of P. multiflorum.


Assuntos
Fallopia multiflora , Germinação , Bacillus , Sementes , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 117-128, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617517

RESUMO

Quorum sensing (QS) is a type of cell to cell communication in bacteria that can also regulate the virulence potential in pathogenic strains. Hence, QS disruption, i.e. the quorum quenching (QQ) mechanism, is presently being explored as a novel bio-control strategy to counter bacterial infections. In the present study, we characterized the QQ ability of Bacillus spp. strains to reduce the expression of some virulence factors of a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. We screened a total of 118 spore-forming bacterial isolates from aquaculture ponds and mangrove soil for their ability to degrade the synthetic N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, and C10-HSL. We then selected the top 17 isolates with high AHL-degradation ability for further study. Among them, B. subtilis MFB10, B. lentus MFB2, and B. firmus MFB7 had the highest ability for degradation. These 3 isolates suppressed the expression of virulence genes encoding protease, lipase, phospholipase, caseinase, chitinase, and gelatinase, and potentially inhibited the biofilm formation of V. harveyi MFB32. The reduction in expression of virulence genes like those coding for metalloprotease, serine protease, and haemolysin were confirmed by real-time PCR analysis. Moreover, in an in vivo challenge experiment, these Bacillus spp. protected Penaeus monodon post-larvae against V. harveyi MFB3 infection. Our results demonstrate the potential application of AHL-degrading Bacillus spp. as an alternative to antibiotics in shrimp hatcheries to control luminescent vibriosis. This novel bio-therapeutic method is a promising approach towards disease control in shrimp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Vibrioses , Animais , Aquicultura , Percepção de Quorum , Vibrio , Vibrioses/veterinária
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112840, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619473

RESUMO

Within the framework of biocontrol development, several natural lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis show well-documented anti-microbial properties, especially in orchards. However, the number of studies on their putative insecticidal effects remain low despite the growing interest to develop new strategies of orchards pests' control. The rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea is the major aphid pest causing great leaf damage to apple trees. In this study, we submitted young adult aphids to topical application of three different families of lipopeptides, Plipastatin (Fengycin), Mycosubtilin (Iturin), and Surfactin, either separately or as a ternary mixture. Their aphicidal effects were investigated at 1, 2.5 and 5 g/L, both at 1 h and 24 h after exposure, and their effects on aphid behavior were studied at the 2.5 g/L concentration at 24 h after exposure. When delivered alone, lipopeptides displayed contrasted effects varying from no aphicidal activity for Mycosubtilin to a mortality induced even at low concentrations by Surfactin. Surprisingly, locomotor activity of the surviving aphids was only affected by the two least lethal treatments, Mycosubtilin and the ternary mix. Their feeding behavior was only impacted by Surfactin, the most lethal treatment, that unexpectedly increased phloem sap ingestion. The results are discussed in the context of lipopeptides applicability for integrated pest management.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Bacillus , Inseticidas , Animais , Bacillus subtilis , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia
15.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 151: 109917, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649688

RESUMO

Lignin is a major byproduct of pulp and paper industries, which is resistant to depolymerization due to its heterogeneous structure. The enzymes peroxidases can be utilized as potent bio-catalysts to degrade lignin. In the current study, an Efeb gene of 1251bp encoding DyP-type peroxidase from Bacillus sp. strain BL5 (DyPBL5) was amplified, cloned into a pET-28a (+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. A 46 kDa protein of DyPBL5 was purified through ion-exchange chromatography. Purified DyPBL5 was active at wide temperature (25-50 °C) and pH (3.0-8.0) range with optimum activity at 35 °C and pH 5.0. Effects of different chemicals on DyPBL5 were determined. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by SDS, DDT and ß-mercaptoethanol, whereas stimulated in the presence of organic solvents such as methanol and ethanol. The kinetic parameters were determined and Km, Vmax and Kcat values were 1.06 mM, 519.75 µmol/min/mg and 395 S̶ 1, respectively. Docking of DyPBL5 with ABTS revealed that, Asn 244, Arg 339, Asp 383 and Thr 389 are putative amino acids, taking part in the oxidation of ABTS. The recombinant DyPBL5 resulted in the reduction of lignin contents up to 26.04 %. The SEM and FT-IR analysis of test samples gave some indications about degradation of lignin by DyPBL5. Various low molecular weight lignin degradation products were detected by analyzing the samples through gas chromatography mass spectrometry. High catalytic efficiency and lignin degradation rate make DyPBL5 an ideal bio-catalyst for remediation of lignin-contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Lignina , Bacillus/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Peroxidases/genética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 752477, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660349

RESUMO

The prevalence of bacterial diseases and the application of probiotics to prevent them is a common practice in shrimp aquaculture. A wide range of bacterial species/strains is utilized in probiotic formulations, with proven beneficial effects. However, knowledge of their role in inhibiting the growth of a specific pathogen is restricted. In this study, we employed constraint-based genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to screen and identify the beneficial bacteria capable of limiting the growth of V. harveyi, a common pathogen in shrimp culture. Genome-scale models were built for 194 species (including strains from the genera Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Lactococcus and the pathogenic strain V. harveyi) to explore the metabolic potential of these strains under different nutrient conditions in a consortium. In silico-based phenotypic analysis on 193 paired models predicted six candidate strains with growth enhancement and pathogen suppression. Growth simulations reveal that mannitol and glucoronate environments mediate parasitic interactions in a pairwise community. Furthermore, in a mannitol environment, the shortlisted six strains were purely metabolite consumers without donating metabolites to V. harveyi. The production of acetate by the screened species in a paired community suggests the natural metabolic end product's role in limiting pathogen survival. Our study employing in silico approach successfully predicted three novel candidate strains for probiotic applications, namely, Bacillus sp 1 (identified as B. licheniformis in this study), Bacillus weihaiensis Alg07, and Lactobacillus lindneri TMW 1.1993. The study is the first to apply genomic-scale metabolic models for aquaculture applications to detect bacterial species limiting Vibrio harveyi growth.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Probióticos , Vibrio , Animais , Aquicultura , Bacillus , Simulação por Computador , Lactobacillus , Vibrio/genética
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20210373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644724

RESUMO

Simazine was one of the most commonly used herbicides and was widely used to control broadleaf weeds in agriculture and forestry. Its widespread use had caused wide public concern for its high ecological toxicity. In order to remove simazine residues, 2 strains capable of effectively degrading simazine were isolated from the soil and named SIMA-N5 and SIMA-N9. SIMA-N5 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16SrRNA sequence analysis, and SIMA-N9 was Bacillus altitudinis. According to the degradation ratio of simazine in a certain period of time, the degradation ability of different strains was evaluated. The degradation efficiency of simazine (5 mg/L) by SIMA-N9 could reach about 98% in 5d, and the strain SIMA-N5 could reach 94% under the same conditions. In addition, the addition of Pennisetum rhizosphere soil during the process of degrading simazine by strain SIMA-N9 could effectively improve the degradation efficiency. The strain SIMA-N9 has been developed as a microbial agent for the bioremediation of simazine contamination in soil. The new microbial agent developed by using SIMA-N9 has achieved satisfactory application effects. Based on the research results already obtained in this study, it was considered that strain SIMA-N9 and its live bacterial agent could play an important role in bioremediation of simazine pollution. This study could not only provide a set of solutions to the simazine pollution, but also provide a reference for the treatment of other pesticide pollution.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Simazina , Bacillus , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Simazina/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3097-3106, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658194

RESUMO

To investigate the interaction between Pinus tabuliformis and root microorganisms and its effects on the stability of P. tabuliformis forests, we collected rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil from natural and planted P. tabuliformis forests in Huanglong County of Shaanxi Province. The non-rhizosphere soil was used to analyze chemical properties, while the rhizosphere soil was used to isolate and purify phosphorus-solubilizing (organic and inorganic phosphorus) bacteria. We mea-sured the phosphate-solubilizing ability and identified those bacteria using DNA genes sequencing. The results showed that soil total carbon concentration (TC), total nitrogen concentration (TN), carbon:nitrogen (C/N), and nitrogen:phosphorus (N/P) were significantly higher in natural forest than those in the plantation. A total of 20 genera and 65 species of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were identified in those two forests, with Bacillus, Streptomyces and Pseudomonas as the dominant group. The diversity, richness, and evenness of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the natural forest were higher than that in the planted forest, but dominance was lower. Streptomyces was positively correlated with soil TC, TN, C/N and N/P ratios, while Bacillus and Pseudomonas were positively correlated with soil nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), available phosphorus (AP), and total phosphorus (TP). The solubilizing ability of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria was different between two forest types, indicating that Pseudomonas sp.34-5 shared in two forests had the strongest phosphate-solubilizing ability for calcium phosphate with 11.40 µg·mL-1 and Bacillus mycoides BF1-5 exclusive to natural forest had the strongest phosphate-solubilizing ability for lecithin with 4.58 µg·mL-1. The composition and structure of phosphorus-solubilizing bacterial community were different in two forest types, with higher diversity, richness and phosphate-solubilizing ability in natural forest than that in plantation.


Assuntos
Pinus , Rizosfera , Bacillus , Bactérias/genética , China , Florestas , Fosfatos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638782

RESUMO

Walnut anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a deleterious disease that severely affects the production of walnut (Juglans regia L.). The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal and growth promotion activities of Bacillus velezensis CE 100 as an alternative to chemical use in walnut production. The crude enzyme from B. velezensis CE 100 exhibited chitinase, protease, and ß-l,3-glucanase activity and degraded the cell wall of C. gloeosporioides, causing the inhibition of spore germination and mycelial growth by 99.3% and 33.6% at 100 µL/mL, respectively. The field application of B. velezensis CE 100 culture broth resulted in a 1.3-fold and 6.9-fold decrease in anthracnose disease severity compared to the conventional and control groups, respectively. Moreover, B. velezensis CE 100 produced indole-3-acetic acid (up to 1.4 µg/mL) and exhibited the potential for ammonium production and phosphate solubilization to enhance the availability of essential nutrients. Thus, field inoculation of B. velezensis CE 100 improved walnut root development, increased nutrient uptake, enhanced chlorophyll content, and consequently improved total biomass by 1.5-fold and 2.0-fold compared to the conventional and control groups, respectively. These results demonstrate that B. velezensis CE 100 is an effective biocontrol agent against anthracnose disease and a potential plant growth-promoting bacteria in walnut tree production.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Bacillus/química , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Misturas Complexas , Juglans , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Misturas Complexas/química , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Juglans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Juglans/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(42): 12541-12553, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636545

RESUMO

Trehalose, α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1↔1)-α-d-glucopyranoside, is a disaccharide with multiple effects on the human body. Synthesis of new trehalose derivatives was investigated through transgalactosylation reactions using ß-galactosidase from four different species. ß-galactosidases from Bacillus circulans (B. circulans) and Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) were observed to be the best biocatalysts, using lactose as the donor and trehalose as the acceptor. Galactosyl derivatives of trehalose were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Trisaccharides were the most abundant oligosaccharides obtained followed by the tetrasaccharide fraction (19.5% vs 8.2% carbohydrates). Interestingly, the pentasaccharide [ß-Galp-(1→4)]3-trehalose was characterized for the first time. Greater oligosaccharide production was observed using ß-galactosidase from B. circulans than that obtained from A. oryzae, where the main structures were based on galactose monomers linked by ß-(1→6) and ß-(1→4) bonds with trehalose in the ending. These results indicate the feasibility of commercially available ß-galactosidases for the synthesis of trehalose-derived oligosaccharides, which might have functional properties, excluding the adverse effects of the single trehalose.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Trealose , Galactose , Humanos , Lactose , Oligossacarídeos , beta-Galactosidase
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