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1.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3865-3871, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496183

RESUMO

A Gram-reaction-positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain P1T, was isolated from water samples collected from Pasinler Hot Spring and characterized using a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain P1T was found to have chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. The strain shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity values with Bacillus thermolactis R-6488T (97.6 %) and Bacillus kokeshiiformis MO-04T (97.2 %) and formed a distinct clade with both type strains in the phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain P1T could grow optimally at 55 °C and in the presence of 2 % NaCl. The organism was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone was determined to be MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Based upon the consensus of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain P1T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus pasinlerensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P1T (=DSM 107529T=CECT 9885T=NCCB 100674T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3406-3412, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375947

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as 3 H-10T, was isolated from a yellow water sample collected from the manufacturing process of strong flavor Chinese baijiu in Yibin region of Sichuan province (PR China). Oval endospores were formed at the subtermini of cells with swollen sporangia. The isolate was able to grow at temperatures of 20-45 °C (optimum growth at 37 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum growth at pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth with 0 % NaCl). Ribose was the major cell-wall sugar, and meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) was the diagnostic amino acid. The main polar lipids of 3 H-10T included diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). MK-7 was predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 (60.7 %) was the major fatty acid. Comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that 3 H-10T was most closely related to Bacillus mesophilus SA4T (96.30 %), Bacillus ginsengihumi Gsoil 114T (96.27 %) and Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435T (96.27 %). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain 3 H-10T and the three type strains mentioned above were 69.56, 70.19 and 70.67 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.4 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain 3 H-10T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus aquiflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Bacillus aquiflavi 3 H-10T (=CICC 24755T=JCM 33703T).


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1785-1794, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382765

RESUMO

Bacillus spp. have a wide range of activities in the biocontrol potential against various phytopathogens. This study focuses on the biocontrol potential of two species belonging to the same genera, as Bacillus subtilis (SSR2I) and Bacillus flexus (AIKDL) have contrasting activity under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In this study, two medicinal plants-associated bacteria showing antagonistic activity against wilt-causing pathogens were selected and identified as B. subtilis (SSR2I) and B. flexus (AIKDL) based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Crude extracts of these bacteria showed that chloroform extracts of AIKDL, and ethyl acetate extraction of SSR2I showed effective potential inhibition of both the wilt-causing pathogens in the well-diffusion method. PCR-based detection of antimicrobial peptide genes revealed the presence of five genes in B. subtilis and none in B. flexus. On the basis of in vivo analysis, the isolate SSR2I showed reduced disease incidence and enhanced biocontrol efficiency against Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum compared with AIKDL and control plants. Further, the isolates SSR2I also enhanced the induced systemic resistance (ISR) against both the pathogens compared to the control. However, the isolate AIKDL showed enhanced ISR against F. oxysporum-treated plants, but not against R. solanacearum-treated plants. The results indicated that even though the isolates had strong antagonistic potential under in vitro conditions, their biocontrol efficiency differed in in vivo condition. On the basis of the overall performance, the isolate SSR2I could be formulated as biocontrol agents against both the wilt-causing pathogens tested in this study.


Assuntos
Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fungos/fisiologia , Interações Microbianas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas/microbiologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Bacillus/classificação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1457-1462, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155116

RESUMO

A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming Bacillus strain, 17-SMS-01T, isolated from spent mushroom substrate in the Fangshan District, Beijing, PR China, was initially identified as a Bacillus cereus group species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain 17-SMS-01T had the highest sequence similarities to Bacillus wiedmannii FSL W8-0169T (99.9 %), Bacillus albus N35-10-2T (99.9 %), Bacillus luti TD41T (99.9 %) and Bacillus proteolyticus TD42T (99.9 %). However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values between strain 17-SMS-01T and the most closely related species were less than the previously proposed cut-off values of 96 % (ANI) and 70 % (DDH) for differentiating species within the genus, suggesting that this strain represents a novel Bacillus group species. The fatty acid profile of strain 17-SMS-01T, which showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Bacillus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (100%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, an unidentified aminophospholiped and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 35.0 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain 17-SMS-01T from the most closely related recognized species. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain 17-SMS-01T represents a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus fungorum sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain of the novel species is 17-SMS-01T (=MCCC 1K03483T=KCTC 33949T).


Assuntos
Agaricales , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2696-2702, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213250

RESUMO

Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped, moderately halotolerant bacteria, designated as HMF5848T and HME7618, were isolated from salt/brine and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Growth of both yellow-coloured strains occurred in the presence of 1-9 % NaCl (w/v; optimum, 2-3 %), at 15-45 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and pH 6-9 (optimum, pH 7). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains HMF5848T and HME7618 clustered with Bacillus luteolus YIM 93174T. Strains HMF5848T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Bacillus humi LMG 22167T (96.1 %), Bacillus isabeliae CVS-8T (96.0 %) and Bacillus luteolus YIM 93174T (96.0 %). The values of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity between strains HMF5848T and B. humi DSM 16318T were 25.8 and 69.7 %, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strain HMF5848T represents a novel species, Bacillus salinus sp. nov. The type strain is HMF5848T (=KCTC 43010T=CECT 9695T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Sais , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1503-1507, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100673

RESUMO

A Gram-variable, aerobic, motile and irregular rod-shaped bacterium, designated HB172195T, was isolated from a mangrove sediment sample collected from Bamen Bay mangrove forest, China. Cells of the strain were oxidase-negative but positive for catalase and nitrate reduction. Strain HB172195T was found to grow at 15-50 °C (optimum, 25-40 °C), pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in 1.0-11.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3-6 %). Chemotaxonomic analysis indicated that the sole respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c alcohol. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 40.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was closely related to Bacillus hwajinpoensis SW-72T (96.3%), Bacillus algicola KMM 3737T (96.2 %) and Bacillus haemicentroti JSM 076093T (95.5 %). Based on polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strain HB172195T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Bacillus caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HB172195T (=CGMCC 1.16730T=JCM 33411T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
7.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098810

RESUMO

The Bacillus cereus group comprises numerous closely related species, including bioterrorism agent B. anthracis, foodborne pathogen B. cereus, and biopesticide B. thuringiensis Differentiating organisms capable of causing illness or death from those used in industry is essential for risk assessment and outbreak preparedness. However, current species definitions facilitate species-phenotype incongruences, particularly when horizontally acquired genes are responsible for a phenotype. Using all publicly available B. cereus group genomes (n = 2,231), we show that current species definitions lead to overlapping genomospecies clusters, in which 66.2% of genomes belong to multiple genomospecies at a conventional 95 average nucleotide identity (ANI) genomospecies threshold. A genomospecies threshold of ≈92.5 ANI is shown to reflect a natural gap in genome similarity for the B. cereus group, and medoid genomes identified at this threshold are shown to yield resolvable genomospecies clusters with minimal overlap (six of 2,231 genomes assigned to multiple genomospecies; 0.269%). We thus propose a nomenclatural framework for the B. cereus group which accounts for (i) genomospecies using resolvable genomospecies clusters obtained at ≈92.5 ANI, (ii) established lineages of medical importance using a formal collection of subspecies names, and (iii) heterogeneity of clinically and industrially important phenotypes using a formalized and extended collection of biovar terms. We anticipate that the proposed nomenclature will remain interpretable to clinicians, without sacrificing genomic species definitions, which can in turn aid in pathogen surveillance; early detection of emerging, high-risk genotypes; and outbreak preparedness.IMPORTANCE Historical species definitions for many prokaryotes, including pathogens, have relied on phenotypic characteristics that are inconsistent with genome evolution. This scenario forces microbiologists and clinicians to face a tradeoff between taxonomic rigor and clinical interpretability. Using the Bacillus cereus group as a model, a conceptual framework for the taxonomic delineation of prokaryotes which reconciles genomic definitions of species with clinically and industrially relevant phenotypes is presented. The nomenclatural framework outlined here serves as a model for genomics-based bacterial taxonomy that moves beyond arbitrarily set genomospecies thresholds while maintaining congruence with phenotypes and historically important species names.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/classificação , Bacillus cereus/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus anthracis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bioterrorismo , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 16, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897642

RESUMO

Earthworms are used as an alternative protein source in aquaculture. These organisms serve as an ideal and favorable site for bacterial growth and activity. Hence, in our present study, we isolated and screened potential probiotic bacteria from African nightcrawler (Eudrilus eugeniae). Among 45 bacterial isolates, four (ANSCI9, BFAR9, RM3, and RM10) were selected based on their hydrophobicity, hydrolytic enzyme production, pH and fish bile tolerance, aggregation, and antimicrobial properties. The selected isolates showed good hydrophobicity (≥ 30%) and enzyme production (≥ 10 mm clearing zones), tolerance to pH and fish bile, and inhibitory properties against pathogenic microorganisms. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. RM3 (MH919306), Bacillus sp. RM10 (MH919308), Bacillus sp. ANSCI9 (MH919310) and Bacillus sp. BFAR9 (MH919302). These isolates were individually incorporated in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings for 14 days to assess their biosafety. The results showed that the survival rates in all treated groups (98.75 ± 2.5 to 100.00 ± 0.0%) were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control group (commercial diet) (96.25 ± 2.5%), suggesting that isolates have no adverse effect on the host. This study revealed the presence of potential probiotic microorganisms in E. eugeniae that are beneficial to the aquaculture industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bile/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Filogenia , Probióticos/farmacologia
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1843-1849, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951191

RESUMO

A novel bacterial strain, designated AK13T (=KACC 21401T=DSM 109981T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of Miscanthus sacchariflorus. Strain AK13T was found to be an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium. It formed yellow circular colonies with smooth convex surfaces. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain AK13T was estimated to be 40 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that this strain was most closely related to Bacillus lehensis MLB2T (99.4 %), Bacillus oshimensis K11T (98.8 %) and Bacillus patagoniensis PAT 05T (96.6 %). The average nucleotide identity values between strain AK13T and B. lehensis MLB2T, B. oshimensis K11T and B. patagoniensis PAT 05T were 90.93, 91.05 and 71.87 %, respectively, with the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of 42.7, 42.6 and 18.8 %, respectively. Cells grew at 5-40 °C (optimum, 28-35 °C), pH 6.5-13 (optimum, pH 8-9) and in the presence of 0-13.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1 %). The cell wall of strain AK13T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Results of fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that iso-C15 : 0 was the predominant cellular fatty acid. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography analysis indicated that the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and glycolipid. The genotypic and phenotypic characteristics suggested that strain AK13T represented a novel species of the genus Bacillus, and thus the name Bacillus miscanthi sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111786, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982671

RESUMO

Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing research trend because it has numerous applications in pharmaceutics and biomedicine. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Bacillus sp. KFU36, a marine strain, and to assess its anticancer activity. The supernatant of Bacillus sp. KFU36 was supplemented with silver nitrate and the nanoparticles obtained were characterized spectrophotometrically and microscopically. A band of surface plasmon resonance was appeared at 430 nm, as revealed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction spectrum and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy confirmed the crystalline and metallic structure of the AgNPs, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the shape of the synthesized AgNPs were spherical and the size extended between 5 and 15 nm. The AgNPs were investigated for their potential anticancer effects on the cell viability, migration and apoptosis using MTT and wound-healing assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles were evidenced by the decreasing the cell viability (as 15% at 50 µg/ml), cell density, adhesion capacity and losing the normal shape and size, and inducing the apoptosis on MCF-7 by 61% at 50 µg/ml. These findings confirm that the synthesized AgNPs exhibited superior anticancer activities and therefore could be exploited as a promising, cost-effective, and environmentally benign strategy in treating this disease in future.


Assuntos
Bacillus/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Neoplasias da Mama , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Química Verde , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Filogenia
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 406-438, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617837

RESUMO

The genus Bacillus, harbouring 293 species/subspecies, constitutes a phylogenetically incoherent group. In the absence of reliable means for grouping known Bacillus species into distinct clades, restricting the placement of new species into this genus has proven difficult. To clarify the evolutionary relationships among Bacillus species, 352 available genome sequences from the family Bacillaceae were used to perform comprehensive phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses. Four phylogenetic trees were reconstructed based on multiple datasets of proteins including 1172 core Bacillaceae proteins, 87 proteins conserved within the phylum Firmicutes, GyrA-GyrB-RpoB-RpoC proteins, and UvrD-PolA proteins. All trees exhibited nearly identical branching of Bacillus species and consistently displayed six novel monophyletic clades encompassing 5-23 Bacillus species (denoted as the Simplex, Firmus, Jeotgali, Niacini, Fastidiosus and Alcalophilus clades), interspersed with other Bacillaceae species. Species from these clades also generally grouped together in 16S rRNA gene trees. In parallel, our comparative genomic analyses of Bacillus species led to the identification of 36 molecular markers comprising conserved signature indels in protein sequences that are specifically shared by the species from these six observed clades, thus reliably demarcating these clades based on multiple molecular synapomorphies. Based on the strong evidence from multiple lines of investigations supporting the existence of these six distinct 'Bacillus' clades, we propose the transfer of species from these clades into six novel Bacillaceae genera viz. Peribacillus gen. nov., Cytobacillus gen. nov., Mesobacillus gen. nov., Neobacillus gen. nov., Metabacillus gen. nov. and Alkalihalobacillus gen. nov. These results represent an important step towards clarifying the phylogeny/taxonomy of the genus Bacillus.


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Genômica , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Sequência de Bases , DNA Girase/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Mutação INDEL , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 481-486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613744

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain M5HDSG1-1T, was originally isolated from a surface-sterilized root of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. in Guizhou, PR China. This bacterium was tested by a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. A 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that M5HDSG1-1T had the greatest similarity to the type strain of Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T (99.1 %). The average nucleotide identity values between M5HDSG1-1T and Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T and Bacillus circulans NBRC 13626T were 73.3 and 72.8 %, respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between M5HDSG1-1T and Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T and Bacillus circulans NBRC 13626T were 20.1 and 20.6 %, respectively, which were below the recommended thresholds. M5HDSG1-1T grew at a pH range of 6.0-12.0 (optimum, 7.0-8.0), at temperatures between 10 and 45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1 %). Neither substrate nor aerial mycelia was formed, and no diffusible pigments were observed on the media tested. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, and iso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 37.5 mol%. According to the phylogeneic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, M5HDSG1-1T was clearly distinguishable from other species with validly published names in the genus Bacillus and should therefore be classified as representing a novel species, and we suggest the name Bacillus taxi sp. nov. The type strain is M5HDSG1-1T (=JCM 33117T=CGMCC 1.13668T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Taxus/microbiologia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 562-568, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613745

RESUMO

An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, heterotrophic, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium (M30T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a soda lake (Lake Magadi, Tanzania). Strain M30T was strictly aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile. Growth occurred at 12-43 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 8.0-12 (optimum, pH 9.5-10) and at salinities of 0.5-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5 %). It utilized various sugars and organic acids as sole carbon sources and was positive for amylase, cellulase, gelatinase, protease and xylanase activities. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified lipid and one unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 48.9 mol%. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids (>10 %) comprised anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, and anteiso-C17 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence affiliated M30T to the genus Bacillus and showed the highest similarities to Bacillus populi FJAT-45347T (96.4 %) and Bacillus aurantiacus K1-5T (96.2 %). Based on the data from the current polyphasic study, M30T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus natronophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M30T (=JCM 32118T=CGMCC 1.16739T=MCC 3010T).


Assuntos
Álcalis , Bacillus/classificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lagos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Salinidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tanzânia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 85-92, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485709

RESUMO

SYJ15 is a highly pathogenic Gram-positive Bacillus sp. with top bud spore newly isolated from dying soft shell turtle. 16SrDNA sequencing showed that it is highly homologous to B. cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis. Biochemical examinations showed that it belongs to B. cereus. To further study the new pathogen, we conducted whole-genome sequencing based on single-molecular sequencing technology from PacBio. Genome assembly analysis showed that the strain has a 5,296,886 bp chromosome, a 218,649 bp plasmid and a 5221 bp plasmid with GC content of 35.51%, 31.91% and 29.75%, respectively. The genome contains 5736 coding sequences and 6 CRISPR systems located in the chromosome as well as 11 genomic islands in the chromosome and the large plasmid. Genome function analyses were annotated by nr database, SwissProt, KEGG, COG, GO, PHI, VFDB, ARDB, Secretory_Protein and T3SS. In addition, 13 gene clusters of secondary metabolism were predicted by antiSMASH. Comparison of SYJ15 with B. subtilis, B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis identified 1031 core genes of the five strains and 816 genes specific to SYJ15. In addition, SYJ15 had the most common core genes with B. thuringiensis, and the least with B. subtilis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SYJ15 is between B. thuringiensis and B. cereus, suggesting that SYJ15 belongs to Bacillus cereus group. We designed a specific primer pair to distinguish SYJ15 from B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, B.subtilis, B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. In conclusion, information of SYJ15 genome will help to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis of SYJ15 and find effective treatment.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/classificação , Bacillus cereus/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Animais , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 71-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622233

RESUMO

Two Gram-stain-positive, motile, endospore-forming, aerobic strains, designated V44-8T and V47-23aT, were isolated from environmental air sampling at the vehicle assembly building at Cape Canaveral, Florida, where the Viking spacecraft were assembled. Growth was observed at pH 7-9 (optimum, pH 9) for strain V44-8T, and pH 5-10 (pH 9) for strain V47-23aT. Both strains displayed growth in 0-5 % NaCl with an optimum at 1 % for strain V44-8T; 0 % for strain V47-23aT. Strains V44-8T and V47-23aT grew optimally at 32 °C, (15-32 °C) and 25 °C (20-45 °C), respectively. The cell wall of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Both strains contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. Strain V47.23aT shared its highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity with Bacillus cavernae DSM-105484T at 96.9%, and V44.8T with Bacillus zeae DSM-103964T at 96.6 %. Based on their phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as being a members of the genus Bacillus that forms a separate clade when compared to close relatives. Average nucleotide identity and average amino acid identity values between strains V44-8T and DSM-103964T were 72.1% and 67.5 %; V47-23aT and DSM-105484T were 62.4% and 69.1%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, genomic and biochemical data, strains V44-8T and V47-23aT represent two novel species in the genus Bacillus for which the names Bacillus glennii sp. nov. [type strain, V44-8T (=ATCC BAA-2860T =DSM 105192T)], and Bacillus saganii sp. nov. [V47-23aT (=ATCC BAA-2861T=DSM 105190T)] are proposed.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Astronave , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ambiente Controlado , Ácidos Graxos/química , Florida , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(2): 116-122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526107

RESUMO

In recent years, there have been many studies on producing acetoin by microbial fermentation, while only a few studies have focused on chiral acetoin biosynthesis. The weight assignment method was first applied to balance the chiral purity (expressed as the enantiomeric excess value) and the titer of acetoin. Bacillus sp. H-18W, a thermophile, was selected from seven Bacillus strains for chiral acetoin production. To lower the cost of the fermentation medium, soybean meal was used as a feedstock. Four kinds of frequently used commercial proteinases with different active sites were tested for the hydrolyzation of the soybean meal, and the combination of the acidic proteinase and the neutral proteinase showed the best results. In a fermentation medium containing 100 g L-1 glucose and 200 g L-1 hydrolysate, Bacillus sp. H-18W produced 21.84 g L-1 acetoin with an ee value of 96.25% at 60 h. This is the first report of using a thermophilic strain to produce chiral acetoin by microbial fermentation. Thermophilic fermentation can reduce the risk of bacterial contamination and can save cooling water. Using soybean meal hydrolysate and glucose as feedstocks, this work provides an economical and alternative method for the production of chiral pure acetoin.


Assuntos
Acetoína/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Fermentação , Bacillus/classificação , Cinética , Filogenia , Soja/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
17.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(12): 1185-1194, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617605

RESUMO

Pectinases are a group of enzymes, which catalyze the breakdown of pectin with numerous applications in various industries. Microbes are the predominant pectinase producers. In the present study, bacterial species were isolated from the soil of a vegetable and fruit dump yard area in a market. The species screened and isolated were identified as Bacillus tequilensis SALBT, and the media and culture conditions were optimized for enhanced production of total pectinases. Maximum pectinolytic activity was observed with 1.5% (w/v) pectin concentration with a combination of yeast extract as nitrogen source and MgSO4 as a metal ion source. Carbon/nitrogen in 2:1 ratio (w/v) yielded the maximum pectinase production with pH and temperature of the medium of 7.5°C and 40°C, respectively. Pectinase activity was determined by the dinitrosalicylic acid method. The pectinase production was relatively stable in the presence of various surfactants like Tween (20, 40, 60, and 80) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), whereas Triton X-100 showed an inhibitory effect. Mass production of the enzyme in optimized media and partial purification was performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by dialysis. The approximate molecular weight of the partially purified pectinase was found to be 35 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Application studies such as demucilaging coffee beans and juice clarification were also performed. The findings revealed that B. tequilensis SALBT with pectinase activity has the ability to remove the mucilage layer of pulped coffee seeds, and the partially purified pectinases found to be effective in clarifying juice.


Assuntos
Bacillus/enzimologia , Coffea/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poligalacturonase/química , Poligalacturonase/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sementes/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Temperatura
18.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(10): 2818-2823, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580420

RESUMO

In this study, the full genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis strain UFLA258, a biological control agent of plant pathogens was obtained, assembled, and annotated. With a comparative genomics approach, in silico analyses of all complete genomes of B. velezensis and closely related species available in the database were performed. The genome of B. velezensis UFLA258 consisted of a single circular chromosome of 3.95 Mb in length, with a mean GC content of 46.69%. It contained 3,949 genes encoding proteins and 27 RNA genes. Analyses based on Average Nucleotide Identity and Digital DNA-DNA Hybridization and a phylogeny with complete sequences of the rpoB gene confirmed that 19 strains deposited in the database as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were in fact B. velezensis. In total, 115 genomes were analyzed and taxonomically classified as follows: 105 were B. velezensis, 9 were B. amyloliquefaciens, and 1 was Bacillus siamensis. Although these species are phylogenetically close, the combined analyses of several genomic characteristics, such as the presence of biosynthetic genes encoding secondary metabolites, CRISPr/Cas arrays, Average Nucleotide Identity and Digital DNA-DNA Hybridization, and other information on the strains, including isolation source, allowed their unequivocal classification. This genomic analysis expands our knowledge about the closely related species, B. velezensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. siamensis, with emphasis on their taxonomical status.


Assuntos
Bacillus/genética , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Genoma Bacteriano , Bacillus/classificação , Genômica , Filogenia
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596388

RESUMO

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTases) are important enzymes in the biotechnology field because they catalyze starch conversion into cyclodextrins and linear oligosaccharides, which are used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The CGTases are classified according to their product specificity in α-, ß-, α/ß- and γ-CGTases. As molecular markers are the preferred tool for bacterial identification, we employed six molecular markers (16S rRNA, dnaK, gyrB, recA, rpoB and tufA) to test the identification of a CGTase-producing bacterial strain (DF 9R) in a phylogenetic context. In addition, we assessed the phylogenetic relationship of CGTases along bacterial evolution. The results obtained here allowed us to identify the strain DF 9R as Paenibacillus barengoltzii, and to unveil a complex origin for CGTase types during archaeal and bacterial evolution. We postulate that the α-CGTase activity represents the ancestral type, and that the γ-activity may have derived from ß-CGTases.


Assuntos
Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Filogenia , Bacillus/classificação , Genes Essenciais , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma Bacteriano , Glucosiltransferases/classificação , Glucosiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência
20.
Extremophiles ; 23(6): 759-764, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538256

RESUMO

Two alkaliphilic strains, designated FJAT-45086T and FJAT-45122T, were isolated from alkali soli in Nima County, Tibet, China. Both strains were Gram-positive, rod-shaped and shared low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the members of the genus Bacillus. They contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the cell-wall diamino acid and MK-7 as the menaquinone. The major fatty acids (>5%) of strain FJAT-45086T were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, iso-C15:0, C16:1ω11c and anteiso-C17:0, whereas strain FJAT-45122T consisted of iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:1ω10c, iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0, C16:0 and C16:1ω11c. The genome G + C content of strains FJAT-45086T and FJAT-45122T was 37.8 and 38.2 mol%, respectively. The polar lipids of strain FJAT-45086T were diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG), phosphatidyl glycerol (PG), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidyl choline (PC), whereas strain FJAT-45122T consisted of DPG, PG, phosphatidyl methyl ethanolamine (PME) and an unidentified aminophospholipids (UAPL). The average nucleotide identity values of strains FJAT-45086T and FJAT-45122T were below the cut-off level (95-96%) for species delineation. Based on the results, strains FJAT-45086T and FJAT-45122T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus alkalisoli sp. nov., and Bacillus solitudinis sp. nov., are proposed. The type strain, FJAT-45122T (=DSM 104631T = CCTCC AB 2016254T), FJAT-45086T (=DSM 104056T = CCTCC AB 2016232T).


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microbiologia do Solo , Álcalis , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/metabolismo
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