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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of four woody forages (Moringa oleifera Lam (MOL), fermented MOL, Folium mori (FM) and fermented FM) on biodiversity and bioactivity of aerobic culturable gut bacteria of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by a traditional culture-dependent method. A total of 133 aerobic culturable isolates were recovered and identified from the gut of tilapia, belonging to 35 species of 12 genera in three bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria). Among them, 6 bacterial isolates of Bacillus baekryungensis, Bacillus marisflavi, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus methylotrophicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas taiwanensis were isolated from all the five experimental groups. The Bray-Curtis analysis showed that the bacterial communities among the five groups displayed obvious differences. In addition, this result of bioactivity showed that approximate 43% of the aerobic culturable gut bacteria of tilapia displayed a distinct anti-bacterial activity against at least one of four fish pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. Furthermore, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Streptomyces rutgersensis displayed strong activity against all four indicator bacteria. These results contribute to our understanding of the intestinal bacterial diversity of tilapia when fed with woody forages and how certain antimicrobial bacteria flourished under such diets. This can aid in the further exploitation of new diets and probiotic sources in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aerobiose , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3865-3871, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496183

RESUMO

A Gram-reaction-positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain P1T, was isolated from water samples collected from Pasinler Hot Spring and characterized using a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain P1T was found to have chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. The strain shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity values with Bacillus thermolactis R-6488T (97.6 %) and Bacillus kokeshiiformis MO-04T (97.2 %) and formed a distinct clade with both type strains in the phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain P1T could grow optimally at 55 °C and in the presence of 2 % NaCl. The organism was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone was determined to be MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Based upon the consensus of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain P1T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus pasinlerensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P1T (=DSM 107529T=CECT 9885T=NCCB 100674T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2367-2371, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572518

RESUMO

A novel Bacillus strain, designated SYSU G01002T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from tepid spring in Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain SYSU G01002T shared the highest sequence identity with the type strain of Bacillus alkalitolerans (97.7%). Strain SYSU G01002T grew at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0), at 28-55 °C (optimum, 45 °C) and in the presence of 0-2.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum in the absence of NaCl). It contained meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the cell-wall diamino acid and MK-7 as isoprenoid quinone. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 and C16:0. The polar were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and unidentified phospholipid. The genomic DNA G + C content was 38.0 mol %. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between SYSU G01002T and closely related members of the genus Bacillus were below the cut-off level recommended for interspecies identity. Based on the above results, strain SYSU G01002T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tepidiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain, SYSU G01002T (= KCTC 43131T = CGMCC 1.17491T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Bacillus/química , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Ácido Diaminopimélico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2373-2378, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583126

RESUMO

A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium with a single flagellum, and a motile strain, designated CX253, was isolated from bioaerosols. The isolate is facultatively anaerobic, is able to grow at 25-45 â„ƒ (optimum 37 â„ƒ) and pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum 7.5), and can tolerate up to 5.0% NaCl (w/v) under aerobic conditions. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall of strain CX253T is meso-diaminopimelic acid, while major isoprenoid quinone is menaquinone 6 (MK-6) along with a smaller amount of MK-7 (20%). The polar lipid profile is composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids and glycolipids. The major cellular fatty acid is iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and genome sequence grouped strain CX253T into the genus Bacillus. The strain was most closely related to Bacillus thermotolerans CCTCC AB 2012108 T by comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence (97.2% similarity) and to Bacillus wudalianchiensis CCTCC AB 2015266 T by comparison of gyrB gene sequence (80.1% similarity). The draft genome of strain CX253T comprised 3,929,195 bp with a G + C content of 43.3 mol%. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CX253T and phylogenetically related Bacillus species were lower than 95% and 70%, respectively. Thus, the polyphasic evidence generated through phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic methods confirmed that strain CX253T (= GDMCC 1.1608 T = KACC 21318 T) was a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus aerolatus sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Bacillus/classificação , Microbiologia Ambiental , Bacillaceae/genética , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , Ácido Diaminopimélico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glicolipídeos/análise , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517236

RESUMO

The use of bacterial strains as agents in bioremediation processes could reduce the harmfulness of potential toxic elements (PTEs) from water and soil with low or even no impact on the natural ecosystems. In this study, two new metal resistant-bacterial strains (Q3 and Q5) of Bacillus sp. were isolated from a sulfurous spring and their potential (as pure cultures or mixed) to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) from an aqueous matrix was evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions for Cd(II) removal from all tested strains combinations were observed at an initial pH 5, a temperature of 38 °C, and an initial Cd(II) concentration of 50 mg L-1, while the performance of bacterial strains on Pb(II) removal was strongly correlated to initial pH and temperature conditions. Moreover, the efficiency of bacterial strains in removing both PTEs, Pb(II) and Cd(II), from an aqueous matrix was considerably higher when they were used as a mixed culture rather than pure. According to field emission SEM (FESEM) and EDS analysis, the two bacterial strains showed different mechanisms in removing Cd(II): Bacillus sp. Q5 bio-accumulated Cd(II) in its periplasmic space, whereas Bacillus sp. Q3 bio-accumulated Cd(II) on its cell surface. On the other hand, Pb(II) is removed by chemical precipitation (lead sulfide) induced by both Bacillus sp. Q3 and Q5. This study discloses new aspects of Pb(II) and Cd(II) bioremediation mechanisms in Bacillus species that can be extremely useful for designing and operating novel PTEs bioremediation processes.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Desintoxicação por Sorção , Bacillus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Desintoxicação por Sorção/métodos
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2169-2179, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519022

RESUMO

Bacillus methylotrophicus has been demonstrated to promote growth of various plants, whereas the promoting effect of B. methylotrophicus on rice growth has been rarely reported. In this study, B. methylotrophicus DD-1, capable of efficiently promoting the growth of rice, was isolated from the root soil of rice plants. The isolate exhibited potassium-solubilizing (1.18 mg/L), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (87.26 mg/L), Gibberellic acid (GA) (25.91 mg/L) and Siderophore production activity (52.32%). As indicated from the result, plant growth parameters (e.g., dry weight, tiller number, root and shoot length) of rice seedlings treated with the isolate DD-1 were more effective than those of the control group in pot and soilless culture experiments. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of rice roots which were soaked in the bacterial suspension of isolate increased with the increase in concentration and absorption time. In sterilized and unsterilized soil, conformation of root colonization activity by bacterial isolate established by its nearer existence to the rice root. Thus, the B. methylotrophicus DD-1 enhances plant growth promotion by multifarious growth promoting and root colonization traits, thereby augmenting potassium level in soil. Henceforth, the potential bacterium could be exploited for the development of biological fertilizer, leading towards sustainable agronomy.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sideróforos/metabolismo
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(5): 467-477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378550

RESUMO

Esterases catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in fatty acid esters with short-chain acyl groups. In the present study, thirty-seven bacterial isolates were isolated from soil contaminated with waste cooking oil, dairy waste etc. from Shimla and Solan district of H.P. Out of 37 isolates, the isolate RL-1, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Bacillus licheniformis MH061919. The optimization of various production parameters resulted in maximum activity at inoculum age of 24 h and inoculum size of 1.5% (v/v). Esterase gave considerable activity in production medium containing sodium chloride (0.5 % w/v), galactose (1%, w/v), coconut oil (2.0%, v/v) and beef extract (0.3%, w/v) at a temperature of 45℃ and pH 8.5.The enzyme production was enhanced by 3-fold after optimization of production parameters. Further, on optimizing reaction conditions, enzyme gave maximum activity at a temperature of 45℃ and pH 8.5. The para-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) was found to be optimum substrate and metal ions and detergents have inhibitory effect on esterase activity.


Assuntos
Bacillus/enzimologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Esterases/metabolismo , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Óleo de Coco , Galactose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrofenóis/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha , Cloreto de Sódio , Temperatura , Extratos de Tecidos
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3406-3412, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375947

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as 3 H-10T, was isolated from a yellow water sample collected from the manufacturing process of strong flavor Chinese baijiu in Yibin region of Sichuan province (PR China). Oval endospores were formed at the subtermini of cells with swollen sporangia. The isolate was able to grow at temperatures of 20-45 °C (optimum growth at 37 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum growth at pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth with 0 % NaCl). Ribose was the major cell-wall sugar, and meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) was the diagnostic amino acid. The main polar lipids of 3 H-10T included diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). MK-7 was predominant menaquinone and iso-C15 : 0 (60.7 %) was the major fatty acid. Comparisons of 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that 3 H-10T was most closely related to Bacillus mesophilus SA4T (96.30 %), Bacillus ginsengihumi Gsoil 114T (96.27 %) and Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435T (96.27 %). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain 3 H-10T and the three type strains mentioned above were 69.56, 70.19 and 70.67 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.4 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain 3 H-10T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus aquiflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Bacillus aquiflavi 3 H-10T (=CICC 24755T=JCM 33703T).


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água
9.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1817-1829, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440759

RESUMO

Today, industrial activities lead to the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, water, and air due to mine deposits and operations, fertilizers, and drugs used in agriculture, and urban wastes. Using microorganism bioremediation of metals is an important technique in solving these problems. Herein, a rhizoid bacterium isolated from orchids that grow in Ovit plateau was defined as Bacillus sp. 5O5Y11 by conventional and molecular methods and the bioremediation properties of strain were investigated. It was capable of growth at high salt (10-15%) concentration, wide temperature (10-45 °C) and pH range (pH 4.5-8.0), and was observed to have strong lecithinase, gelatinase activity, and nitrate reduction. When the plant growth-promoting properties of this strain were examined, strong siderophore and ammonium production were observed in in vitro conditions. Bacillus sp. 5O5Y11 was found to have high tolerance to a group of heavy metals [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), silver (Ag), zinc (Zn)]. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of copper metal on Bacillus sp. 5O5Y11 were determined as 12.5 mM and 50 mM, respectively. The effectiveness of this bacterium on the germination and growth of maize plant in the presence and absence of copper were investigated. These results suggest that Bacillus sp. 5O5Y11 is a microorganism, which has potential in metal bioremediation and plant growth promotion.


Assuntos
Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobre/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/microbiologia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 4991-5002, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307173

RESUMO

This study aims to characterize Bacillus subtilis complex group from raw, pasteurized, and packaged extended shelf-life (ESL) milk samples, to determine their biofilm potential and source-track the microbial contaminants to control their presence during processing. Isolates were characterized using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with 7 housekeeping genes. The primers used were designed from the coding regions with the highest number of polymorphic sites. The heat resistance profile indicated that all 12 isolates are psychrotolerant as well as thermophilic, with temperature ranges of 6°C to 55°C (B43, B44, B52, B54, B55, B56, B57), 6°C to 60°C (B46, B47, B48), and 15°C to 60°C (B49, B50). A general linear model 2-way repeated-measure ANOVA of the biofilm-forming potential of the isolates shows a statistically significant difference across the time of incubation (6, 12, 18, and 24 h). All isolates except 2 formed moderate to strong biofilms, with B44 having the most robust biofilm formation (3.14 ± 0.60). Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images reveal the strain specificity of the biofilm structure. The MLST analysis identified all isolates as belonging to either B. subtilis or Bacillus velezensis. All the isolates were novel sequence types (ST) when compared with the PubMLST database (https://pubmlst.org/) but showed relatedness to isolates in the raw milk that was processed. The closest ST are 96 for B. velezensis and 128 for B. subtilis, mostly isolated from soil. This study presents the significance of biofilms of thermophilic B. subtilis and B. velezensis and their possible perpetuation in the dairy processing plant. The information provided is a call for an innovative food contact surface or any other intervention that can minimize or prevent microbial adhesion in the processing plant, to prevent negative effects in ESL milk.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes , Indústria de Laticínios , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pasteurização , Esporos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 323: 108573, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203753

RESUMO

Spoilage microorganisms can occur at many points throughout food production systems. Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. are important aerobic spoilage bacteria in various sectors of the food industry. In this study, we developed a rapid detection and quantification technique for Bacillus group-specific and the genus Paenibacillus by using multiplex quantitative PCR (mqPCR). The 1st was the Bacillus cereus group containing B. cereus and B. weihenstephanensis; the 2nd was the B. subtilis group containing B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. safensis, and B. pumilus; the 3rd was the B. simplex group containing B. megaterium and B. simplex; and the 4th was the genus Paenibacillus. Depending on the assays, the detection limit was 10 copy numbers. In addition, mqPCR assays were validated by spiking potato salad and milk samples with four strains; B. weihenstephanensis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, and P. lautus. The detection dynamic range for potato salad was 105 CFU/mL-101 CFU/mL with B. weihenstephanensis and B. licheniformis, and 105 CFU/mL-102 CFU/mL with B. megaterium and P. lautus, while, for milk, all strains were 105 CFU/mL-102 CFU/mL. We also stored these food matrices spiked with four bacterial suspensions (approximately 103 CFU/mL) at various temperatures. Results showed that B. weihenstephanensis and B. licheniformis were able to grow in potato salad, whereas, the populations of B. weihenstephanensis, B. licheniformis, and P. lautus increased in milk. Consequently, the mqPCR assays developed here in facilitated the differentiation, quantification, and confirmation of the presence of the psychrophilic and psychrotolerant Bacillus group and Paenibacillus spp.


Assuntos
Bacillus/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Paenibacillus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Animais , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Leite/microbiologia , Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Saladas/microbiologia
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2696-2702, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213250

RESUMO

Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped, moderately halotolerant bacteria, designated as HMF5848T and HME7618, were isolated from salt/brine and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Growth of both yellow-coloured strains occurred in the presence of 1-9 % NaCl (w/v; optimum, 2-3 %), at 15-45 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and pH 6-9 (optimum, pH 7). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains HMF5848T and HME7618 clustered with Bacillus luteolus YIM 93174T. Strains HMF5848T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Bacillus humi LMG 22167T (96.1 %), Bacillus isabeliae CVS-8T (96.0 %) and Bacillus luteolus YIM 93174T (96.0 %). The values of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity between strains HMF5848T and B. humi DSM 16318T were 25.8 and 69.7 %, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strain HMF5848T represents a novel species, Bacillus salinus sp. nov. The type strain is HMF5848T (=KCTC 43010T=CECT 9695T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Sais , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(10)2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198175

RESUMO

Deep-subsurface hot brines in northwest Poland, extracted through boreholes reaching 1.6 and 2.6 km below the ground surface, were microbiologically investigated using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed a very low diversity of bacterial communities, which were dominated by phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes Bacterial genera potentially involved in sulfur oxidation and nitrate reduction (Halothiobacillus and Methylobacterium) prevailed in both waters over the sulfate reducers ("Candidatus Desulforudis" and Desulfotomaculum). Only one archaeal taxon, affiliated with the order Thermoplasmatales, was detected in analyzed samples. Bacterial isolates obtained from these deep hot brines were closely related to Bacillus paralicheniformis based on the 16S rRNA sequence similarity. However, genomic and physiological analyses made for one of the isolates, Bacillus paralicheniformis strain TS6, revealed the existence of more diverse metabolic pathways than those of its moderate-temperature counterpart. These specific traits may be associated with the ecological adaptations to the extreme habitat, which suggest that some lineages of B. paralicheniformis are halothermophilic.IMPORTANCE Deep-subsurface aquifers, buried thousands of meters down the Earth's crust, belong to the most underexplored microbial habitats. Although a few studies revealed the existence of microbial life at the depths, the knowledge about the microbial life in the deep hydrosphere is still scarce due to the limited access to such environments. Studying the subsurface microbiome provides unique information on microbial diversity, community structure, and geomicrobiological processes occurring under extreme conditions of the deep subsurface. Our study shows that low-diversity microbial assemblages in subsurface hot brines were dominated by the bacteria involved in biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and nitrogen. Based on genomic and physiological analyses, we found that the Bacillus paralicheniformis isolate obtained from the brine under study differed from the mesophilic species in the presence of specific adaptations to harsh environmental conditions. We indicate that some lineages of B. paralicheniformis are halothermophilic, which was not previously reported.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/fisiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Filogenia , Polônia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Sais , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Microbiologia da Água
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1457-1462, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155116

RESUMO

A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming Bacillus strain, 17-SMS-01T, isolated from spent mushroom substrate in the Fangshan District, Beijing, PR China, was initially identified as a Bacillus cereus group species based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain 17-SMS-01T had the highest sequence similarities to Bacillus wiedmannii FSL W8-0169T (99.9 %), Bacillus albus N35-10-2T (99.9 %), Bacillus luti TD41T (99.9 %) and Bacillus proteolyticus TD42T (99.9 %). However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) values between strain 17-SMS-01T and the most closely related species were less than the previously proposed cut-off values of 96 % (ANI) and 70 % (DDH) for differentiating species within the genus, suggesting that this strain represents a novel Bacillus group species. The fatty acid profile of strain 17-SMS-01T, which showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Bacillus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (100%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, an unidentified aminophospholiped and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 35.0 mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain 17-SMS-01T from the most closely related recognized species. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain 17-SMS-01T represents a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus fungorum sp. nov. is proposed. Type strain of the novel species is 17-SMS-01T (=MCCC 1K03483T=KCTC 33949T).


Assuntos
Agaricales , Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084150

RESUMO

A total of fifteen potential methyl t-butyl ether (MtBE)-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil. They have been identified as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Kocuria, Janibacter, Starkeya, Bosea, Mycolicibacterium, and Rhodovarius. Bacillus aryabhattai R1B, S. novella R8b, and M. mucogenicum R8i were able to grow using MtBE as carbon source, exhibiting different growth behavior and contaminant degradation ability. Their biocontrol ability was tested against various fungal pathogens. Both S. novella R8b and B. aryabhattai were effective in reducing the development of necrotic areas on leaves within 48 hours from Botritys cinerea and Alternaria alternata inoculation. Whereas, M. mucogenicum effectively controlled B. cinerea after 72 hours. Similar results were achieved using Pythium ultimum, in which the application of isolated bacteria increased seed germination. Only M. mucogenicum elicited tomato plants resistance against B. cinerea. This is the first report describing the occurrence of bioremediation and biocontrol activities in M. mucogenicum, B. aryabhattai and S. novella species. The production of maculosin and its antibiotic activity against Rhizoctonia solani has been reported for first time from S. novella. Our results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to achieve a consistent selection of bacterial strains useful for plant protection and bioremediation purposes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Éteres Metílicos/toxicidade , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Alphaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Éteres Metílicos/química , Mycobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1503-1507, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100673

RESUMO

A Gram-variable, aerobic, motile and irregular rod-shaped bacterium, designated HB172195T, was isolated from a mangrove sediment sample collected from Bamen Bay mangrove forest, China. Cells of the strain were oxidase-negative but positive for catalase and nitrate reduction. Strain HB172195T was found to grow at 15-50 °C (optimum, 25-40 °C), pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in 1.0-11.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3-6 %). Chemotaxonomic analysis indicated that the sole respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c alcohol. The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. The genomic DNA G+C content was 40.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was closely related to Bacillus hwajinpoensis SW-72T (96.3%), Bacillus algicola KMM 3737T (96.2 %) and Bacillus haemicentroti JSM 076093T (95.5 %). Based on polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strain HB172195T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Bacillus caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HB172195T (=CGMCC 1.16730T=JCM 33411T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 16, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897642

RESUMO

Earthworms are used as an alternative protein source in aquaculture. These organisms serve as an ideal and favorable site for bacterial growth and activity. Hence, in our present study, we isolated and screened potential probiotic bacteria from African nightcrawler (Eudrilus eugeniae). Among 45 bacterial isolates, four (ANSCI9, BFAR9, RM3, and RM10) were selected based on their hydrophobicity, hydrolytic enzyme production, pH and fish bile tolerance, aggregation, and antimicrobial properties. The selected isolates showed good hydrophobicity (≥ 30%) and enzyme production (≥ 10 mm clearing zones), tolerance to pH and fish bile, and inhibitory properties against pathogenic microorganisms. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. RM3 (MH919306), Bacillus sp. RM10 (MH919308), Bacillus sp. ANSCI9 (MH919310) and Bacillus sp. BFAR9 (MH919302). These isolates were individually incorporated in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings for 14 days to assess their biosafety. The results showed that the survival rates in all treated groups (98.75 ± 2.5 to 100.00 ± 0.0%) were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control group (commercial diet) (96.25 ± 2.5%), suggesting that isolates have no adverse effect on the host. This study revealed the presence of potential probiotic microorganisms in E. eugeniae that are beneficial to the aquaculture industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bile/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Filogenia , Probióticos/farmacologia
18.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1843-1849, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951191

RESUMO

A novel bacterial strain, designated AK13T (=KACC 21401T=DSM 109981T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of Miscanthus sacchariflorus. Strain AK13T was found to be an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium. It formed yellow circular colonies with smooth convex surfaces. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain AK13T was estimated to be 40 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that this strain was most closely related to Bacillus lehensis MLB2T (99.4 %), Bacillus oshimensis K11T (98.8 %) and Bacillus patagoniensis PAT 05T (96.6 %). The average nucleotide identity values between strain AK13T and B. lehensis MLB2T, B. oshimensis K11T and B. patagoniensis PAT 05T were 90.93, 91.05 and 71.87 %, respectively, with the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of 42.7, 42.6 and 18.8 %, respectively. Cells grew at 5-40 °C (optimum, 28-35 °C), pH 6.5-13 (optimum, pH 8-9) and in the presence of 0-13.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1 %). The cell wall of strain AK13T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Results of fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that iso-C15 : 0 was the predominant cellular fatty acid. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography analysis indicated that the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and glycolipid. The genotypic and phenotypic characteristics suggested that strain AK13T represented a novel species of the genus Bacillus, and thus the name Bacillus miscanthi sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 481-486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613744

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain M5HDSG1-1T, was originally isolated from a surface-sterilized root of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. in Guizhou, PR China. This bacterium was tested by a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. A 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that M5HDSG1-1T had the greatest similarity to the type strain of Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T (99.1 %). The average nucleotide identity values between M5HDSG1-1T and Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T and Bacillus circulans NBRC 13626T were 73.3 and 72.8 %, respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between M5HDSG1-1T and Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T and Bacillus circulans NBRC 13626T were 20.1 and 20.6 %, respectively, which were below the recommended thresholds. M5HDSG1-1T grew at a pH range of 6.0-12.0 (optimum, 7.0-8.0), at temperatures between 10 and 45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1 %). Neither substrate nor aerial mycelia was formed, and no diffusible pigments were observed on the media tested. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, and iso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 37.5 mol%. According to the phylogeneic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, M5HDSG1-1T was clearly distinguishable from other species with validly published names in the genus Bacillus and should therefore be classified as representing a novel species, and we suggest the name Bacillus taxi sp. nov. The type strain is M5HDSG1-1T (=JCM 33117T=CGMCC 1.13668T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Taxus/microbiologia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 562-568, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613745

RESUMO

An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, heterotrophic, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium (M30T) was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a soda lake (Lake Magadi, Tanzania). Strain M30T was strictly aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile. Growth occurred at 12-43 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 8.0-12 (optimum, pH 9.5-10) and at salinities of 0.5-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5 %). It utilized various sugars and organic acids as sole carbon sources and was positive for amylase, cellulase, gelatinase, protease and xylanase activities. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified lipid and one unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 48.9 mol%. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids (>10 %) comprised anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, and anteiso-C17 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence affiliated M30T to the genus Bacillus and showed the highest similarities to Bacillus populi FJAT-45347T (96.4 %) and Bacillus aurantiacus K1-5T (96.2 %). Based on the data from the current polyphasic study, M30T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus natronophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M30T (=JCM 32118T=CGMCC 1.16739T=MCC 3010T).


Assuntos
Álcalis , Bacillus/classificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lagos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Salinidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tanzânia , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
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