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1.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 1-2, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007252

RESUMO

Wang et al. (2020) show that binding of the second messenger ppGpp to inosine-guanosine kinase (Gsk) in E. coli modulates the levels of the key metabolite phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (pRpp), decreasing purine synthesis to favor amino acid synthesis during stress adaptation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Nucleotídeos , Bactérias , Guanosina Pentafosfato , Guanosina Tetrafosfato
2.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 210-219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016351

RESUMO

Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is an invasive, cool-season grass commonly dominating wetlands with high nutrient loads. Its impact on nitrogen removal via denitrification in wetlands is unknown. Most studies of denitrification in treatment wetlands have focused on the effects of physical or chemical variables and not on the effects of plant roots on the soil environment. The purpose of this study was to measure effects of plant type on denitrification rates in typical wetland soils of the midwestern United States by comparing wet prairie mix, switchgrass-dominated, and reed canary grass plant communities. Nitrate (NO3 - ) removal and other parameters were measured in miniature wetlands, or mesocosms, containing each plant community transplanted from a small agricultural treatment wetland in southern Minnesota. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to quantify the total bacteria population (measured with 16S rRNA genes) and denitrifying gene abundance (measured with nosZ genes) from the rhizosphere of each plant community. The wet prairie mix mesocosms on average removed the most NO3 - in each test (p = .01 and .08). Whereas the wet prairie mix removed the most NO3 - from the surface water (p < .01), reed canary grass removed more from the subsurface (p < .01). Ratios of denitrifying to total bacteria were higher in the wet prairie mix than in the other communities' root zones (p < .05). Results suggest that reed canary grass invasion could reduce denitrification in wetlands, especially during the spring and fall when it is growing but other plants are dormant.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Minnesota , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 27-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016358

RESUMO

The United States, particularly the southern portion, has recently suffered drastic population expansion of wild pigs causing destruction of prime farmland. An associated concern, which has been understudied, is the potential transfer of nutrients and pathogens to surface water. This study aimed to identify the abiotic and biotic impacts of captive wild pigs on water quality, including nutrients, fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance. Overall, the study demonstrated that wild pigs harbored Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens, which were found in water runoff collected directly beneath the hog paddock, often 2 log10 greater than above-paddock levels. However, the impacts to downstream water quality were limited, perhaps because of a relatively large riparian buffer between the paddock and surface water. A higher rate of ammonium concentration changes over time was detected in the runoff water below the paddock; additionally, microbial releases detected in runoff were also time dependent, possibly associated with increasing pig numbers. Antibiotic resistance was generally not associated with the wild pigs. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in upstream as well as downstream surface water, suggesting that nonpoint sources of microbial contamination were present. Interestingly, intI1 levels were greater in below-paddock runoff by nearly 2 log10 . Overall, it appears that wild pigs potentially pose a threat to water quality but only if they have direct access to the water. Pathogen, fecal indicator bacteria, and some nutrient release were significantly associated with wild pigs, but riparian buffers limited water quality impairment.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Suínos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 745-753, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016408

RESUMO

Manure is commonly used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner; however, land application of untreated manure may introduce pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) into the soil, with harmful implications for public health. Composting is a manure management practice wherein a carbon-rich bulking agent, such as corn (Zea mays L.) stalk residue, is added to manure to achieve desirable carbon/nitrogen ratios to facilitate microbial activities and generate enough heat to inactivate pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant pathogens. However, when comparing compost piles and stockpiles for ARB reduction, we noticed that bulking agents added ARB to composting piles and compromised the performance of composting in reducing ARB. We hypothesized that ARB could be prevalent in corn stalk residues, a commonly used bulking agent for composting. To test this hypothesis, corn stalk residue samples throughout Nebraska were surveyed for the presence of ARB. Of the samples tested, 54% were positive for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli or enterococci using direct plating or after enrichment. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend wherein the use of pesticides tended to result in a greater prevalence of some ARB. Results from this study suggest that bulking agents can be a source of ARB in manure composting piles and highlight the importance of screening bulking agents for effective ARB reduction in livestock manure during composting.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Esterco , Nebraska , Zea mays
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 858-868, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016490

RESUMO

Golf courses require extensive use of inputs to meet the needs of playability and aesthetics. The impact of these inputs on soil biological health is largely unknown. Two field trials were conducted at a golf course in Georgia to evaluate short-term effects of wetting agents (Cascade Plus and Duplex [C+D], Revolution [Rev]), plant growth regulators (PrimoMaxx [PM] and Cutless [CL]), and a product called PlantHelper (PH) on soil biological health by measuring microbial abundance and function. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure microbial abundance, which included total bacteria, total fungi, and ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes. Soil respiration and enzyme assays were used as additional indicators of soil health. In bentgrass putting green, total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased in abundance in response to the wetting agents and PH, indicating their sensitivity to the products. Whereas C+D stimulated urease activity, Rev and PH caused a short-lived but immediate increase in respiration, indicating that they acted as labile carbon sources. In a bermudagrass fairway, PM was the only product that caused an increase in total bacteria abundance. PrimoMaxx and CL caused a delayed increase in respiration, suggesting that they may have affected the microorganisms indirectly through their impact on root growth and exudate production later. Although CL caused a decrease in urease activity, none of the products significantly affected phosphatase activity. Overall, the products did not seem to have a lasting impact on soil biological health, although long-term studies are needed to confirm these observations.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Amônia , Archaea , Bactérias
6.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 14): 367, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential genes are those genes that are critical for the survival of an organism. The prediction of essential genes in bacteria can provide targets for the design of novel antibiotic compounds or antimicrobial strategies. RESULTS: We propose a deep neural network for predicting essential genes in microbes. Our architecture called DEEPLYESSENTIAL makes minimal assumptions about the input data (i.e., it only uses gene primary sequence and the corresponding protein sequence) to carry out the prediction thus maximizing its practical application compared to existing predictors that require structural or topological features which might not be readily available. We also expose and study a hidden performance bias that effected previous classifiers. Extensive results show that DEEPLYESSENTIAL outperform existing classifiers that either employ down-sampling to balance the training set or use clustering to exclude multiple copies of orthologous genes. CONCLUSION: Deep neural network architectures can efficiently predict whether a microbial gene is essential (or not) using only its sequence information.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Genes Essenciais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Área Sob a Curva , Análise por Conglomerados , Códon , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/genética , Curva ROC
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140462, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886961

RESUMO

Community variation (i.e., beta diversity) along geographical gradients is a well-known ecological pattern, but the corresponding variation in beta diversity components (e.g., species turnover and nestedness) and underlying drivers remain poorly understood. Based on two alternative approaches (that is, the beta diversity partitioning proposed by Baselga and the Local Contributions to Beta Diversity (LCBD) partitioning proposed by Legendre), we examined the patterns of beta diversity components of lacustrine benthos, from bacteria to diatoms and chironomids, in the surface sediments along a 100-m water-depth gradient in Lugu Lake. We further quantified the relative importance of spatial, environmental and biotic variables in explaining water-depth patterns in beta diversity. Based on the Baselga's framework, there was a taxonomic dependency for the patterns of beta diversity components with water-depth, showing a significant species turnover pattern for bacteria, while diatoms and chironomids showed significant nestedness. This dependency was also evident in the patterns of community uniqueness with water-depth because based on Legendre's framework, the LCBD decreased with water depth for bacteria whereas increased with depth for diatoms. The total beta diversity and species turnover of bacteria could be explained by the pure effects of spatial, environmental and biotic variables. A total of 26.8% and 23.6% of the nestedness component of diatoms and chironomids was explained by environmental variables, respectively, while species turnover was mostly related to spatial variables. Bacteria total LCBD and species replacement were driven only by environmental variables. For diatoms and chironomids, however, most of the total LCBD and its two components were explained by spatial variables, and biotic variables were most important for the diatom replacement component. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for community organizations along water-depth gradients from the perspective of beta diversity components.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Diatomáceas , Animais , Bactérias , Biodiversidade , Água
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140513, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887002

RESUMO

The dynamics of microbial necromass of municipal solid waste over long-term landfill remain unknown. This study presents the first investigation on the dynamics of bacterial and fungal necromass of municipal sludge in non-aeration versus alternating aeration landfill bioreactors by using amino sugar biomarkers. Results showed that under non-aeration treatment, the decomposition rate of muramic acid derived from bacteria is higher than that of fungal-derived glucosamine. The relative change in glucosamine and muramic acid in the early period of landfills under the alternating aeration treatment is consistent with that under non-aeration treatment. However, with the increase in alternating aeration cycles, bacterial necromass muramic acid exerts a lower decomposition rate than fungal necromass glucosamine. Throughout the entire landfill period, galactosamine is the amino sugar with the slowest decomposition rate under non-aeration mode but the amino sugar with the fastest decomposition rate under alternating aeration mode. The present work fills the knowledge gap of microbial necromass dynamics of municipal solid waste in landfills.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Esgotos , Amino Açúcares , Bactérias , Biomarcadores , Reatores Biológicos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3726-3739, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893565

RESUMO

This study is to explore the effect of Qingfei Paidu Decoction(QPD) on the host metabolism and gut microbiome of rats with metabolomics and 16 S rDNA sequencing. Based on 16 S rDNA sequencing of gut microbiome and metabolomics(GC-MS and LC-MS/MS), we systematically studied the serum metabolites profile and gut microbiota composition of rats treated with QPD for continued 5 days by oral gavage. A total of 23 and 43 differential metabolites were identified based on QPD with GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The involved metabolic pathways of these differential metabolites included glycerophospholipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, TCA cycle and pyruvate metabolism. Meanwhile, we found that QPD significantly regulated the composition of gut microbiota in rats, such as enriched Romboutsia, Turicibacter, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and decreased norank_f_Lachnospiraceae. Our current study indicated that short-term intervention of QPD could significantly regulate the host metabolism and gut microbiota composition of rats dose-dependently, suggesting that the clinical efficacy of QPD may be related with the regulation on host metabolism and gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Metabolômica , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105050, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907742

RESUMO

Carbon capture and storage sites in Barents Sea shelf are currently in progress as part of climate change mitigation activities. However environmental impacts of a possible CO2 seepage on bacterial community are lacking knowledge. This work addressed potential consequences on bacterial communities from Snøvit region in Barents Sea sediments. Long-term experiment (92 days) was carried out mimicking realistic conditions of pressure (∼30 bars) using the unique hyperbaric chamber (Karl Erik TiTank). The experiment was divided in three stages: i) 21 days of no CO2, ii) 50 days of simulation of carbon dioxide leakage (depletion of pH to 7.0) and iii) 14 days emulating a leakage cessation. Results suggested that bacterial communities can adapt to a CO2 leakage in short term. However, bacteria showed negative effects in terms of activity, community structure, and number of cells after long term CO2 exposure. After CO2 leakage cessation, bacterial communities did not show a significant recovery. These findings highlighted that, even though marine bacteria showed adaptation to the new conditions (acidified environment), in case of a small but continuous CO2 leakage marine bacteria might not be recovered upon pre-exposure status.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Dióxido de Carbono , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oceanos e Mares
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140099, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927572

RESUMO

Microalgae usually co-exist with bacteria, which may influence the microalgal growth, in aquatic environment. In this study, thirteen strains that can promote microalgal growth were isolated from Scenedesmus sp. LX1 culture. Additional results showed that these strains could secrete gibberellin (GA), which is a phytohormones, promoting the growth and metabolism of the Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Low concentration (0.1 mg L-1) of GA can increase the microalgae biomass by 51% after 4 days. GA could enhance the photosynthetic activity by increasing the photosynthetic pigment content, such as culture after 2 h with low GA concentration (0.1 mg L-1), chlorophyll a and ß-carotene increased from 0.59 µg per 106 cells to 0.72 µg per 106 cells and from 0.20 µg per 106 cells to 0.38 µg per 106 cells, respectively. In addition, GA could also stimulate the dehydrogenase activity, ATP accumulation, and carbonic anhydrase activity to increase the metabolic activity of the microalgae. Interestingly, the microalgae can selectively enhance the bacterial GA secretion in turn, indicating that there was a specific feedback regulation mechanism between the microalgae and the bacteria. The results of this study show a new mechanism of symbiotic-bacteria that enhances microalgal growth. It's a great significance to understand the microalgal growth and water bloom in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Bactérias , Biomassa , Clorofila A , Giberelinas
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4365, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868761

RESUMO

Current approaches explore bacterial genes that change transcriptionally upon stress exposure as diagnostics to predict antibiotic sensitivity. However, transcriptional changes are often specific to a species or antibiotic, limiting implementation to known settings only. While a generalizable approach, predicting bacterial fitness independent of strain, species or type of stress, would eliminate such limitations, it is unclear whether a stress-response can be universally captured. By generating a multi-stress and species RNA-Seq and experimental evolution dataset, we highlight the strengths and limitations of existing gene-panel based methods. Subsequently, we build a generalizable method around the observation that global transcriptional disorder seems to be a common, low-fitness, stress response. We quantify this disorder using entropy, which is a specific measure of randomness, and find that in low fitness cases increasing entropy and transcriptional disorder results from a loss of regulatory gene-dependencies. Using entropy as a single feature, we show that fitness and quantitative antibiotic sensitivity predictions can be made that generalize well beyond training data. Furthermore, we validate entropy-based predictions in 7 species under antibiotic and non-antibiotic conditions. By demonstrating the feasibility of universal predictions of bacterial fitness, this work establishes the fundamentals for potentially new approaches in infectious disease diagnostics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Entropia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3651-3658, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893554

RESUMO

As an important substitute for agarwood, mountain-agarwood, belonging to the family Oleaceae, comes from the root, stem and thick branch of Syringa pinnatifolia, which has a wide range of application in Inner Mongolia, China. It has good clinical efficacy in the use of cardiovascular diseases. However, the formation speed of mountain-agarwood is extremely slow, and its cultivated seedlings have low resin content. Therefore, how to speed up the formation of mountain-agarwood and increase the resin content is a hot research topic in this field. In this work, 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing method was used to systematically analyze the bacterial communities of different samples of mountain-agarwood. Our data revealed that the samples of mountain-agarwood had more obvious species diversity than the ones of non-mountain-agarwood, especially the wild mountain-agarwood samples. By analysis of bacterial community composition and species abundance, Sphingomonas, Modestobacter and unidentified Cyanobacteria genus were three dominant bacterial genera in all samples. In addition, there are two identified genera of dominant bacteria, namely Actinoplanes and Microbacterium in both wild and cultivated mountain-agarwood, by bacterial community composition and species richness analysis. Meanwhile, Roseomonas was the dominant bacterial genus in both wild and cultivated non-mountain-agarwood samples. Our work could provides basic data for exploring the mechanism of the mountain-agarwood formation, and help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria reasonably.


Assuntos
Thymelaeaceae , Bactérias/genética , China , DNA Ribossômico , Resinas Vegetais
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 1-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894474

RESUMO

I review recent techniques to measure the mechanical properties of bacterial cells and their subcellular components, and then discuss what these techniques have revealed about the constitutive mechanical properties of whole bacterial cells and subcellular material, as well as the molecular basis for these properties.


Assuntos
Bactérias/citologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 15-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894475

RESUMO

Diffusion within bacteria is often thought of as a "simple" random process by which molecules collide and interact with each other. New research however shows that this is far from the truth. Here we shed light on the complexity and importance of diffusion in bacteria, illustrating the similarities and differences of diffusive behaviors of molecules within different compartments of bacterial cells. We first describe common methodologies used to probe diffusion and the associated models and analyses. We then discuss distinct diffusive behaviors of molecules within different bacterial cellular compartments, highlighting the influence of metabolism, size, crowding, charge, binding, and more. We also explicitly discuss where further research and a united understanding of what dictates diffusive behaviors across the different compartments of the cell are required, pointing out new research avenues to pursue.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Difusão
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 81-100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894478

RESUMO

Many bacteria are able to actively propel themselves through their complex environment, in search of resources and suitable niches. The source of this propulsion is the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM), a molecular complex embedded in the bacterial membrane which rotates a flagellum. In this chapter we review the known physical mechanisms at work in the motor. The BFM shows a highly dynamic behavior in its power output, its structure, and in the stoichiometry of its components. Changes in speed, rotation direction, constituent protein conformations, and the number of constituent subunits are dynamically controlled in accordance to external chemical and mechanical cues. The mechano-sensitivity of the motor is likely related to the surface-sensing ability of bacteria, relevant in the initial stage of biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Flagelos/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Conformação Proteica , Rotação
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 101-115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894479

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria colonize or disseminate into cells and tissues by inducing large-scale remodeling of host membranes. The physical phenomena underpinning these massive membrane extension and deformation are poorly understood. Invasive strategies of pathogens have been recently enriched by the description of a spectacular mode of opening of large transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels correlated to the dissemination of EDIN-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus via a hematogenous route or to the induction of gelatinous edema triggered by the edema toxin from Bacillus anthracis. Remarkably, these highly dynamic tunnels close rapidly after they reach a maximal size. Opening and closure of TEMs in cells lasts for hours without inducing endothelial cell death. Multidisciplinary studies have started to provide a broader perspective of both the molecular determinants controlling cytoskeleton organization at newly curved membranes generated by the opening of TEMs and the physical processes controlling the dynamics of these tunnels. Here we discuss the analogy between the opening of TEM tunnels and the physical principles of dewetting, stemming from a parallel between membrane tension and surface tension. This analogy provides a broad framework to investigate biophysical constraints in cell membrane dynamics and their diversion by certain invasive microbial agents.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Membrana Celular/microbiologia , Membrana Celular/patologia , Células Endoteliais/microbiologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Molhabilidade , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/microbiologia , Edema/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Tensão Superficial
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1267: 117-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894480

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a global epidemic, becoming increasingly pressing due to its rapid spread. There is thus a critical need to develop new therapeutic approaches. In addition to searching for new antibiotics, looking into existing mechanisms of natural host defense may enable researchers to improve existing defense mechanisms, and to develop effective, synthetic drugs guided by natural principles. Histones, primarily known for their role in condensing mammalian DNA, are antimicrobial and share biochemical similarities with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs); however, the mechanism by which histones kill bacteria is largely unknown. Both AMPs and histones are similar in size, cationic, contain a high proportion of hydrophobic amino acids, and possess the ability to form alpha helices. AMPs, which mostly kill bacteria through permeabilization or disruption of the biological membrane, have recently garnered significant attention for playing a key role in host defenses. This chapter outlines the structure and function of histone proteins as they compare to AMPs and provides an overview of their role in innate immune responses, especially regarding the action of specific histones against microorganisms and their potential mechanism of action against microbial pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/imunologia , Bactérias/imunologia , Histonas/química , Histonas/imunologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/farmacologia , Imunidade Inata
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4708, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948758

RESUMO

While the field of microbiology has adapted to the study of complex microbiomes via modern meta-omics techniques, we have not updated our basic knowledge regarding the quantitative levels of DNA, RNA and protein molecules within a microbial cell, which ultimately control cellular function. Here we report the temporal measurements of absolute RNA and protein levels per gene within a mixed bacterial-archaeal consortium. Our analysis of this data reveals an absolute protein-to-RNA ratio of 102-104 for bacterial populations and 103-105 for an archaeon, which is more comparable to Eukaryotic representatives' humans and yeast. Furthermore, we use the linearity between the metaproteome and metatranscriptome over time to identify core functional guilds, hence using a fundamental biological feature (i.e., RNA/protein levels) to highlight phenotypical complementarity. Our findings show that upgrading multi-omic toolkits with traditional absolute measurements unlocks the scaling of core biological questions to dynamic and complex microbiomes, creating a deeper insight into inter-organismal relationships that drive the greater community function.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Microbiano , Humanos , Metabolômica , Fenótipo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Transcriptoma , Leveduras
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