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1.
J Microbiol ; 59(9): 827-839, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382149

RESUMO

Probiotics effectively prevent and improve metabolic diseases such as diabetes by regulating the intestinal microenvironment and gut microbiota. However, the effects of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus are not clear. Here, we showed that probiotic supplements significantly improved fasting blood glucose in a gestational diabetes mellitus rat model. To further understand the mechanisms of probiotics in gestational diabetes mellitus, the gut microbiota were analyzed via 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that compared with the normal pregnant group, the gestational diabetes mellitus rats had decreased diversity of gut microbiota. Moreover, probiotic supplementation restored the diversity of the gut microbiota in gestational diabetes mellitus rats, and the gut microbiota structure tended to be similar to that of normal pregnant rats. In particular, compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats, the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was higher after probiotic supplementation. Furthermore, activating carbohydrate metabolism and membrane transport pathways may be involved in the potential mechanisms by which probiotic supplements alleviate gestational diabetes mellitus. Overall, our results suggested that probiotic supplementation might be a novel approach to restore the gut microbiota of gestational diabetes mellitus rats and provided an experimental evidence for the use of probiotic supplements to treat gestational diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371955

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of quinoa protein as the source of antihypertensive peptides through in vitro enzymolysis, there is little evidence supporting the in vivo antihypertensive effect of intact quinoa protein. In this study, in vivo study on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was conducted by administering quinoa protein for five weeks. Gastrointestinal content identification indicated that many promising precursors of bioactive peptides were released from quinoa protein under gastrointestinal processing. Quinoa protein administration on SHRs resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure, a significant increase in alpha diversity, and microbial structure alternation towards that in non-hypertension rats. Furthermore, blood pressure was highly negatively correlated with the elevated abundance of genera in quinoa protein-treated SHRs, such as Turicibacter and Allobaculum. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota in quinoa protein-treated SHRs shared more features in the composition of genera with non-hypertension rats than that of the captopril-treated group. These results indicate that quinoa protein may serve as a potential candidate to lower blood pressure and ameliorate hypertension-related gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Chenopodium quinoa , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
3.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 59-64, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422235

RESUMO

Background: Non-susceptibility of bacteria to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparations threaten the effectiveness of prevention of surgical site infections. Data concerning susceptibility of multidrug resistant bacteria strains to antiseptic agents was limited at our setting. This study presents the susceptibility of extended spectrum ß-lactamases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (with and without biofilm formation) to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparations at zonal referral hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted through July 2020. Presumptive extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were recovered for this study. Disc combination method was used to confirm production of ESBL while tube method was used to detect biofilms formation. Then, isolates were tested for susceptibility towards 10% povidone iodine, 70% methylated spirit, 50% hydrogen peroxide (6% of industrial H2O2 diluted in equal volume with sterile distilled water) and 2% chlorhexidine. STATA software version 13.0 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 31 presumptive ESBL producers were recovered and phenotypically confirmed, whereas 54.8% (n=17) were K. pneumoniae and 45.2% (n=14) were E. coli. Five (35.7%) E. coli and seven (41.2%) K. pneumoniae had positive biofilms test results. Four (12.9%) bacteria were non-susceptible to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparations. However, none exhibited resistance towards 10% PVP-I. Conclusion: In this study we highlight the existence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparation at a zonal referral hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tanzânia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445403

RESUMO

Natural smectites have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of diarrhea. The present study evaluated the prophylactic effect of a diosmectite (FI5pp) on the clinical course, colon damage, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and the composition of the gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Diosmectite was administered daily to Balb/c mice from day 1 to 7 by oral gavage, followed by induction of acute DSS-colitis from day 8 to 14 ("Control", n = 6; "DSS", n = 10; "FI5pp + DSS", n = 11). Mice were sacrificed on day 21. Clinical symptoms (body weight, stool consistency and occult blood) were checked daily after colitis induction. Colon tissue was collected for histological damage scoring and quantification of tight junction protein expression. Stool samples were collected for microbiome analysis. Our study revealed prophylactic diosmectite treatment attenuated the severity of DSS colitis, which was apparent by significantly reduced weight loss (p = 0.022 vs. DSS), disease activity index (p = 0.0025 vs. DSS) and histological damage score (p = 0.023 vs. DSS). No significant effects were obtained for the expression of TJ proteins (claudin-2 and claudin-3) after diosmectite treatment. Characterization of the microbial composition by 16S amplicon NGS showed that diosmectite treatment modified the DSS-associated dysbiosis. Thus, diosmectites are promising candidates for therapeutic approaches to target intestinal inflammation and to identify possible underlying mechanisms of diosmectites in further studies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicatos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Silicatos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiome plays a central role in overall health status, especially in early life stages. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing is used to profile its taxonomic composition; however, multiomic approaches have been proposed as the most accurate methods for study of the complexity of the gut microbiota. In this study, we propose an optimized method for bacterial diversity analysis that we validated and complemented with metabolomics by analyzing fecal samples. METHODS: Forty-eight different analytical combinations regarding (1) 16S rRNA variable region sequencing, (2) a feature selection approach, and (3) taxonomy assignment methods were tested. A total of 18 infant fecal samples grouped depending on the type of feeding were analyzed by the proposed 16S rRNA workflow and by metabolomic analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the sole use of V4 region sequencing with ASV identification and VSEARCH for taxonomy assignment produced the most accurate results. The application of this workflow showed clear differences between fecal samples according to the type of feeding, which correlated with changes in the fecal metabolic profile. CONCLUSION: A multiomic approach using real fecal samples from 18 infants with different types of feeding demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed 16S rRNA-amplicon sequencing workflow.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
6.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 82: 102223, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343925

RESUMO

Human skin hosts a variety of microbes that can be transferred to surfaces ("touch microbiome"). These microorganisms can be considered as forensic markers similarly to "touch DNA". With this pilot study, we wanted to evaluate the transferability and persistence of the "touch microbiome" on a surface after the deposition of a fingerprint and its exposure for 30 days at room temperature. Eleven volunteers were enrolled in the study. Skin microbiome samples were collected by swabbing the palm of their hands; additionally, donors were asked to touch a glass microscope slide to deposit their fingerprints, that were then swabbed. Both human and microbial DNA was isolated and quantified. Amelogenin locus and 16 human STRs were amplified, whereas the V4 region of 16 S rRNA gene was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. STR profiles were successfully typed for 5 out of 22 "touch DNA" samples, while a microbiome profile was obtained for 20 out of 22 "touch microbiome" samples. Six skin core microbiome taxa were identified, as well as unique donor characterizing taxa. These unique taxa may have relevance for personal identification studies and may be useful to provide forensic intelligence information also when "touch DNA" fails. Additional future studies including greater datasets, additional time points and a greater number of surfaces may clarify the applicability of "touch microbiome" studies to real forensic contexts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Pele/microbiologia , Tato , Adulto , Idoso , Amelogenina/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Sequência de RNA
7.
mBio ; 12(4): e0177721, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399607

RESUMO

Viral infection of the respiratory tract can be associated with propagating effects on the airway microbiome, and microbiome dysbiosis may influence viral disease. Here, we investigated the respiratory tract microbiome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its relationship to disease severity, systemic immunologic features, and outcomes. We examined 507 oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and endotracheal samples from 83 hospitalized COVID-19 patients as well as non-COVID patients and healthy controls. Bacterial communities were interrogated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the commensal DNA viruses Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae were quantified by qPCR. We found that COVID-19 patients had upper respiratory microbiome dysbiosis and greater change over time than critically ill patients without COVID-19. Oropharyngeal microbiome diversity at the first time point correlated inversely with disease severity during hospitalization. Microbiome composition was also associated with systemic immune parameters in blood, as measured by lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios and immune profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Intubated patients showed patient-specific lung microbiome communities that were frequently highly dynamic, with prominence of Staphylococcus. Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae showed more frequent colonization and higher titers in severe disease. Machine learning analysis demonstrated that integrated features of the microbiome at early sampling points had high power to discriminate ultimate level of COVID-19 severity. Thus, the respiratory tract microbiome and commensal viruses are disturbed in COVID-19 and correlate with systemic immune parameters, and early microbiome features discriminate disease severity. Future studies should address clinical consequences of airway dysbiosis in COVID-19, its possible use as biomarkers, and the role of bacterial and viral taxa identified here in COVID-19 pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of the respiratory tract, results in highly variable outcomes ranging from minimal illness to death, but the reasons for this are not well understood. We investigated the respiratory tract bacterial microbiome and small commensal DNA viruses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and found that each was markedly abnormal compared to that in healthy people and differed from that in critically ill patients without COVID-19. Early airway samples tracked with the level of COVID-19 illness reached during hospitalization, and the airway microbiome also correlated with immune parameters in blood. These findings raise questions about the mechanisms linking SARS-CoV-2 infection and other microbial inhabitants of the airway, including whether the microbiome might regulate severity of COVID-19 disease and/or whether early microbiome features might serve as biomarkers to discriminate disease severity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anelloviridae/classificação , Anelloviridae/genética , Anelloviridae/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408158

RESUMO

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cell Rep ; 36(9): 109637, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433082

RESUMO

Research conducted on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) generally focuses on the systemic host response, especially that generated by severely ill patients, with few studies investigating the impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 at the site of infection. We show that the nasal microbiome of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (CoV+, n = 68) at the time of diagnosis is unique when compared to CoV- healthcare workers (n = 45) and CoV- outpatients (n = 21). This shift is marked by an increased abundance of bacterial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is also positively associated with viral RNA load. Additionally, we observe a robust host transcriptional response in the nasal epithelia of CoV+ patients, indicative of an antiviral innate immune response and neuronal damage. These data suggest that the inflammatory response caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased abundance of bacterial pathogens in the nasal cavity that could contribute to increased incidence of secondary bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(9): 1118-1128, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446927

RESUMO

Environmental bacteria, such as Streptomyces spp., produce specialized metabolites that are potent antibiotics and therapeutics. Selected specialized antimicrobials are co-produced and function together synergistically. Co-produced antimicrobials comprise multiple chemical classes and are produced by a wide variety of bacteria in different environmental niches, suggesting that their combined functions are ecologically important. Here, we highlight the exquisite mechanisms that underlie the simultaneous production and functional synergy of 16 sets of co-produced antimicrobials. To date, antibiotic and antifungal discovery has focused mainly on single molecules, but we propose that methods to target co-produced antimicrobials could widen the scope and applications of discovery programs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Microbiologia Ambiental
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360572

RESUMO

The skin is a barrier between the body and the environment that protects the integrity of the body and houses a vast microbiota. By interacting with the host immune system, the microbiota improves wound healing in mammals. However, in fish, the evidence of the role of microbiota and the type of species on wound healing is scarce. We aimed to examine the wound healing rate in various fish species and evaluate the effect of antibiotics on the wound healing process. The wound healing rate was much faster in two of the seven fish species selected based on habitat and skin types. We also demonstrated that the composition of the microbiome plays a role in the wound healing rate. After antibiotic treatment, the wound healing rate improved in one species. Through 16S rRNA sequencing, we identified microbiome correlates of varying responses on wound healing after antibiotic treatment. These findings indicate that not only the species difference but also the microbiota play a significant role in wound healing in fish.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/fisiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peixes/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360657

RESUMO

Although some metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used in the food processing plants as nanomaterials for food packaging, or as coatings on the food handling equipment, little is known about antimicrobial properties of palladium (PdNPs) and platinum (PtNPs) nanoparticles and their potential use in the food industry. In this study, common food-borne pathogens Salmonella enterica Infantis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. Both NPs reduced viable cells with the log10 CFU reduction of 0.3-2.4 (PdNPs) and 0.8-2.0 (PtNPs), average inhibitory rates of 55.2-99% for PdNPs and of 83.8-99% for PtNPs. However, both NPs seemed to be less effective for biofilm formation and its reduction. The most effective concentrations were evaluated to be 22.25-44.5 mg/L for PdNPs and 50.5-101 mg/L for PtNPs. Furthermore, the interactions of tested NPs with bacterial cell were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM visualization confirmed that NPs entered bacteria and caused direct damage of the cell walls, which resulted in bacterial disruption. The in vitro cytotoxicity of individual NPs was determined in primary human renal tubular epithelial cells (HRTECs), human keratinocytes (HaCat), human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), human epithelial kidney cells (HEK 293), and primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Due to their antimicrobial properties on bacterial cells and no acute cytotoxicity, both types of NPs could potentially fight food-borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Paládio/química , Platina/química , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199466

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with an incompletely understood pathogenesis. Long-standing colitis is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. Despite the availability of various anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs, many patients fail to respond to pharmacologic therapy and some experience drug-induced adverse events. Dietary supplements, particularly saffron (Crocus sativus), have recently gained an appreciable attention in alleviating some symptoms of digestive diseases. In our study, we investigated whether saffron may have a prophylactic effect in a murine colitis model. Saffron pre-treatment improved the gross and histopathological characteristics of the colonic mucosa in murine experimental colitis. Treatment with saffron showed a significant amelioration of colitis when compared to the vehicle-treated mice group. Saffron treatment significantly decreased secretion of serotonin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6, in the colon tissues by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The gut microbiome analysis revealed distinct clusters in the saffron-treated and untreated mice in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis by visualization of the Bray-Curtis diversity by principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). Furthermore, we observed that, at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, Cyanobacteria were depleted, while short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as isobutyric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid, were increased in saffron-treated mice. Our data suggest that pre-treatment with saffron inhibits DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, modulates gut microbiota composition, prevents the depletion of SCFAs, and reduces the susceptibility to colitis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Crocus/química , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Filogenia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Serotonina/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1515-1518, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269641

RESUMO

We show a shift in the prevalence of respiratory viral pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our data support the efficiency of non-pharmaceutical interventions on virus circulation except for rhinoviruses. The consequences of an altered circulation on subsequent winter seasons remain unclear and support the importance of systematic virological surveillance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
15.
OMICS ; 25(8): 484-494, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255557

RESUMO

Pandemics and environmental crises evident from the first two decades of the 21st century call for methods innovation in biosurveillance and early detection of risk signals in planetary ecosystems. In crises conditions, conventional methods in public health, biosecurity, and environmental surveillance do not work well. In addition, the standard laboratory amenities and procedures may become unavailable, irrelevant, or simply not feasible, for example, owing to disruptions in logistics and process supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a wakeup call in this sense to reintroduce point-of-need diagnostics with an eye to limited resource settings and biosurveillance solutions. We report here a methodology innovation, a fast, scalable, and alkaline DNA extraction pipeline for emergency microbiomics biosurveillance. We believe that the presented methodology is well poised for effective, resilient, and anticipatory responses to future pandemics and ecological crises while contributing to microbiome science and point-of-need diagnostics in nonelective emergency contexts. The alkaline DNA extraction pipeline can usefully expand the throughput in emergencies by deployment or to allow backup in case of instrumentation failure in vital facilities. The need for distributed public health genomics surveillance is increasingly evident in the 21st century. This study makes a contribution to these ends broadly, and for future pandemic preparedness in particular. We call for innovation in biosurveillance methods that remain important existentially on a planet under pressure from unchecked human growth and breach of the boundaries between human and nonhuman animal habitats.


Assuntos
Biovigilância/métodos , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Genéticas/economia , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/economia , Plantas/microbiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4522, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312399

RESUMO

Loss of oxygen in the global ocean is accelerating due to climate change and eutrophication, but how acute deoxygenation events affect tropical marine ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we integrate analyses of coral reef benthic communities with microbial community sequencing to show how a deoxygenation event rapidly altered benthic community composition and microbial assemblages in a shallow tropical reef ecosystem. Conditions associated with the event precipitated coral bleaching and mass mortality, causing a 50% loss of live coral and a shift in the benthic community that persisted a year later. Conversely, the unique taxonomic and functional profile of hypoxia-associated microbes rapidly reverted to a normoxic assemblage one month after the event. The decoupling of ecological trajectories among these major functional groups following an acute event emphasizes the need to incorporate deoxygenation as an emerging stressor into coral reef research and management plans to combat escalating threats to reef persistence.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Região do Caribe , Mudança Climática , Peixes/fisiologia , Geografia , Metagenômica/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Panamá , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203983

RESUMO

Arabinoxylan (AX) is a structural polysaccharide found in wheat, rice and other cereal grains. Diets high in AX-containing fiber may promote gut health in obesity through prebiotic function. Thus, the impact of soluble AX isolated from rice bran fiber on human gut microbiota phylogenetic composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production patterns from normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects was investigated through in vitro fecal fermentation. Results showed that rice bran arabinoxylan modified the microbiota in fecal samples from both weight classes compared to control, significantly increasing Collinsella, Blautia and Bifidobacterium, and decreasing Sutterella, Bilophila and Parabacteroides. Rice bran AX also significantly increased total and individual SCFA contents (p < 0.05). This study suggests that rice bran AX may beneficially impact gut health in obesity through prebiotic activities.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Obesidade/microbiologia , Oryza/química , Xilanos/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Filogenia , Prebióticos , Triticum , Xilanos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
19.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105153, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328851

RESUMO

A series of novel substituted phenyl 1, 3-thiazolidin-4-one sulfonyl derivatives 5 (a-t) were synthesized and screened for their in-vitro anti-microbial and anti-viral activity. The result of the anti-microbial assay demonstrated compounds 5d, 5f, 5g, 5h, 5i, 5j showed prominent inhibitory activity against all the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, while compounds 5g, 5j, 5o, 5p, 5q showed significant activity against the entire set of fungal strains as compared to standard drug Ampicillin and Clotrimazole, respectively. The antimicrobial study revealed that compounds having electron-withdrawing groups showed significant antimicrobial potency. The most active antibacterial compound 5j showed potent inhibition of S. aureus DNA Gyrase enzyme as a possible mechanism of action for antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the antiviral testing of selected compounds showed considerable activity against Herpes simplex virus-1(KOS), Herpes simplex virus-2 (G), Herpes simplex virus-1(TK- KOS ACVr), Vaccinia virus, Human Coronavirus (229E), Reovirus-1, Sindbis virus, Coxsackie virus B4, Yellow Fever virus and Influenza A, B virus. Compounds 5h exhibited low anti-viral activity against HIV-1(strain IIIB) and HIV-2 (strain ROD). The study clearly outlined that synthesized compounds endowed with good antimicrobial property together with considerable antiviral activity.


Assuntos
Fenóis/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tolueno/síntese química , Tolueno/química , Tolueno/farmacologia , Células Vero , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(7): 852-864, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194036

RESUMO

The plant microbiota consists of a multitude of microorganisms that can affect plant health and fitness. However, it is currently unclear how the plant shapes its leaf microbiota and what role the plant immune system plays in this process. Here, we evaluated Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with defects in different parts of the immune system for an altered bacterial community assembly using a gnotobiotic system. While higher-order mutants in receptors that recognize microbial features and in defence hormone signalling showed substantial microbial community alterations, the absence of the plant NADPH oxidase RBOHD caused the most pronounced change in the composition of the leaf microbiota. The rbohD knockout resulted in an enrichment of specific bacteria. Among these, we identified Xanthomonas strains as opportunistic pathogens that colonized wild-type plants asymptomatically but caused disease in rbohD knockout plants. Strain dropout experiments revealed that the lack of RBOHD unlocks the pathogenicity of individual microbiota members driving dysbiosis in rbohD knockout plants. For full protection, healthy plants require both a functional immune system and a microbial community. Our results show that the NADPH oxidase RBOHD is essential for microbiota homeostasis and emphasizes the importance of the plant immune system in controlling the leaf microbiota.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Homeostase , Microbiota , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Genótipo , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Fenótipo , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
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