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1.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1176-1183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564708

RESUMO

Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome (GM) in cardiovascular diseases has been revealed. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide; however, whether GM dysbiosis participates in the development of HF remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the specific changes in GM composition and function in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced HF in rats.The rats were divided into C (control), 4w-HF (ISO, 2.5 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, intraperitoneally), and 2w-HF (ISO, 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally) groups. The cardiac structure and function in rats were assessed, and metagenomic analyses were then performed. Compared with the healthy control group, we found that the Shannon diversity index and microbial gene count in the 4w-HF and 2w-HF groups was drastically decreased. High-throughput sequencing showed that the three groups differed in intestinal bacterial community composition. Overgrowth of bacteria, such as Prevotella, was observed in the 4w-HF group, with reduced growth of bacteria, such as Roseburia, Lactobacillus, and Butyrivibrio, associated with healthy status compared with the C group on the genus level. Concomitant with the alteration of GM composition, underrepresentation of health-linked microbial function was observed in both the 4w-HF and 2w-HF groups compared with the C group.Iso-induced HF rats showed a significant decrease in the diversity and richness of the intestinal microbiome, with a downregulation of the key intestinal bacterial groups and overgrowth of bacteria considered to be involved in inflammatory responses as well as a decrease in health-linked microbial function. Our data indicated that altered GM may be a potential player in the pathogenesis and progression of HF.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/microbiologia , Isoproterenol/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 770, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host genotype plays a crucial role in microbial composition of laying hens, which may lead to dissimilar odor gas production. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among layer breed, microbial structure and odor production. RESULTS: Thirty Hy-Line Gray and thirty Lohmann Pink laying hens were used in this study to determine the impact of cecal microbial structure on odor production of laying hens. The hens were managed under the same husbandry and dietary regimes. Results of in vivo experiments showed a lower hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production from Hy-Line hens and a lower concentration of soluble sulfide (S2-) but a higher concentration of butyrate in the cecal content of the Hy-Line hens compared to Lohmann Pink hens (P < 0.05), which was consistent with the in vitro experiments (P < 0.05). However, ammonia (NH3) production was not different between genotypes (P > 0.05). Significant microbial structural differences existed between the two breed groups. The relative abundance of some butyrate producers (including Butyricicoccus, Butyricimonas and Roseburia) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (including Mailhella and Lawsonia) were found to be significantly correlated with odor production and were shown to be different in the 16S rRNA and PCR data between two breed groups. Furthermore, some bacterial metabolism pathways associated with energy extraction and carbohydrate utilization (oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, energy metabolism, two component system and secretion system) were overrepresented in the Hy-Line hens, while several amino acid metabolism-associated pathways (amino acid related enzymes, arginine and proline metabolism, and alanine-aspartate and glutamate metabolism) were more prevalent in the Lohmann hens. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that genotype of laying hens influence cecal microbiota, which in turn modulates their odor production. Our study provides references for breeding and enteric manipulation for defined microbiota to reduce odor gas emission.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos , Feminino , Odorantes , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 889-894, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484249

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the seasonality and etiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in adults from Shanghai. Methods: Adult patients with diarrhea who had visited the enteric disease clinics in 22 hospitals that carrying on the Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance sentinel programs in Shanghai during 2014-2017, were surveyed. Stool specimens were collected according to the different intervals of sampling and detected for 12 bacteria and 5 viruses. Concentration ratio and circular distribution method were used for data analysis. Results: From 2014 to 2017, a total of 9 573 stool specimens were collected from the targeted diarrhea patients ≥18 years old (n=96 067), through the Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance program. The positive rate of detection was 46.44%. Seasonal peaks of infectious diarrhea were both seen in summer (bacteria peak, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.) and in winter (virus peak, Norovirus, etc.). Both bacterial and viral infections presented seasonal concentration (Raleigh's test P<0.001) but more obvious with bacterial infection. Viral infection accounted for 60.19% of the cause of infectious diarrhea. The top five predominant pathogens appeared as Norovirus, Rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella spp.. Conclusions: Among the adult outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, obvious seasonality was seen, with peaks in both summer and winter. Viral infection with Norovirus in particular, appeared as the predominant source of infection. Active, continuous and comprehensive diarrhea-related surveillance programs would be able to monitor the changing dynamic of pathogen spectrum, and lead to the adoption of targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/etiologia , Fezes , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10685-10693, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479251

RESUMO

Theanine is the most abundant non-protein amino acid in Camellia sinensis, but it is not known how a tea plant accumulates such high levels of theanine. The endophyte isolated from in vitro grown plantlets of C. sinensis cultivars was identified as Luteibacter spp., showing strong biocatalytic activity for converting both glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Theanine was secreted outside of the bacteria. The endophyte isolated from in vitro plantlets of Camellia oleifera cultivar was identified as Bacillus safensis and did not convert glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Enzymatic assays in vitro indicated that γ-glutamyltranspeptidases rCsEGGTs from the endophyte Luteibacter strains converted glutamine and ethylamine to theanine at higher rates than rCsGGTs from C. sinensis. This is the first report on theanine biosynthesis by an endophyte from C. sinensis, which provides a new pathway to explore the mechanism of theanine biosynthesis in C. sinensis and the interactions between an endophyte and tea plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Etilaminas/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
8.
Orv Hetil ; 160(39): 1533-1541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544493

RESUMO

Our health is highly determined by the diverse microbial community living within our body and upon our skin. Balance among the members of the commensal microbiota is essential for the preservation of health. New generation sequencing is a rapid, sensitive method for determining the whole microbiome without prior hypothesis and also gives information on the resistance and virulence status. Application of this method can help to identify the pathogens contributing to different diseases, and also the protective bacteria inhibiting their growth. Detecting the changes of the microbiome helps to identify new therapeutic targets and establish targeted antibiotic therapy. Broad-spectrum antibiotics also act against the beneficial members of the microbial flora, which may lead to the development of recurrent or chronic disease. Ear, nose and throat infections are the most common infective diseases in humans and the leading cause for antibiotic prescription worldwide. In recent years, many studies using molecular biology methods were performed examining the microbiome of healthy humans and in otorhinolaryngologic diseases. In the present work, the authors review the changes of the microbiological communities in the healthy state and in various pathologic states in the anatomic regions of the ear, nose and throat. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(39): 1533-1541.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Orelha/microbiologia , Microbiota , Nariz/microbiologia , Otolaringologia , Otorrinolaringopatias/microbiologia , Faringe/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos , Otolaringologia/tendências , Otorrinolaringopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Otorrinolaringopatias/terapia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
9.
Orv Hetil ; 160(36): 1437-1442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492084

RESUMO

Introduction: Due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics (AB), more pathogens become multiresistant. One of the most severe sources of sepsis is cholangitis. To avoid fatal outcome, an effective AB policy plays a key role. Aim: To investigate the AB resistance of bacteria causing cholangitis and the efficacy of AB treatment. Patients and method: Microbiological tests of bile samples collected during cholangitis-indicated endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies were analysed at the First Department of Medicine, University of Szeged, in 2006 and in 2016. Results: 29 and 111 patients had bile sample collection in 2006 and in 2016, respectively. Of that, 22 (75%) and 106 (95%) were positive. Mean age: 61 ± 14 vs. 71 ± 14 years, no difference between men/women ratio. In 2006, 10 cases empirical AB (ciprofloxacine with metronidazole or imipenem) were used. In 9 cases (90%), the AB was adequate based on the microbiological results. In 2016, in 88 cases empirical AB was applied (ciprofloxacine and metronidazole, ceftriaxone with metronidazole or imipenem with metronidazole). In 29 cases, the empirical AB was ineffective. The efficacy of ciprofloxacine decreased to 64% in 2016. The profile of the most frequent cholangitis-causing pathogens (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) was the same, but their resistency against ciprofloxacine increased. The rates of polymicrobal infections were 73% and 63%, respectively. Conclusion: The rates of positive bile samples were significantly higher in 2016. The profile of the most frequent pathogens was the same. The efficacy of the first-choice empirical AB ciprofloxacine decreased in 2016. The types of the most frequent cholangitis-causing bacteria are in line with the ones included in the Tokyo Guideline. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(36): 1437-1442.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bile/microbiologia , Colangite/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangite/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9820-9830, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411471

RESUMO

Brain aging is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but the ameliorative effect of krill oil and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the components of krill oil were measured, and the antiaging effects of krill oil were investigated in mice with d-galactose (d-gal)-induced brain aging via proteomics and gut microbiota analysis. Krill oil treatment decreased the expression of truncated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins and proteins involved in the calcium signaling pathway. In addition, the concentrations of dopamine were increased in the serum (p < 0.05) and brain (p > 0.05) due to the enhanced expressions of tyrosine-3-monooxygenase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Moreover, krill oil alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis, decreased the abundance of bacteria that consume the precursor tyrosine, and increased the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and short-chain fatty acid producers. This study revealed the beneficial effect of krill oil against d-gal-induced brain aging and clarified the underlying mechanism through proteomics and gut microbiota analysis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Euphausiacea/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1471-1478, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418671

RESUMO

Purpose. To identify potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for bladder cancer we characterized and analysed the composition of the urinary microbiota from bladder cancer and non-cancer patients.Methodology. In this study, we collected urine samples from 29 bladder cancer patients and 26 non-cancer patients. To avoid contamination and the impact of antibiotics, urine specimens were collected in a clean manner prior to antibiotic administration. Using the amplicon-based next-generation sequencing approach, the potential determinant bacteria were estimated in a between-group comparison. The results illustrated the differences in microbiota abundance among cancer and non-cancer patients and the overall number of cases carrying these bacteria.Results. We found that the urine samples contained a conserved microbiota with four phyla (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), which accounted for 94.4 % of bacteria in all cases. Comparing the microbiota between the bladder cancer and control group, five genera of bacteria (Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Actinomyces) existed in all samples, but with significant intergroup differences (P<0.05). The bladder cancer patients presented with a higher abundance of Actinomyces, while the other strains were enriched in the control group. A higher abundance of Actinomyces europaeus was also observed in the bladder cancer group compared to the control group.Conclusion. The samples collected from the bladder cancer patients displayed a significantly different pattern relative to those from the control group. The higher abundance of A. europaeus observed in bladder cancer patient samples also suggests that the strain may be indicative of bladder cancer. The urinary microbiota may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/microbiologia , Bexiga Urinária/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urina/microbiologia
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1391-1407, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424382

RESUMO

Tools that predict the risk of colorectal cancer are important for early diagnosis, given the high mortality rate for this cancer. The composition of the intestinal microbiota is now considered to be a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. This discovery has motivated a growing number of studies to identify the micro-organisms responsible for the onset and/or progression of colorectal cancer. With this in mind, this review discusses the relationship between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer risk. Prospective and case-control studies indicate that the intestinal microbiota of individuals with colorectal cancer usually contains a greater proportion of bacteria responsible for gastrointestinal tract inflammatory diseases, as well as bacteria that produce toxins and carcinogenic metabolites. In contrast, there tends to be a reduced presence of butyric acid-producing bacteria, probiotic bacteria and potentially probiotic bacteria. Despite these differences, the onset and development of colorectal cancer cannot be attributed to a specific micro-organism. Thus, studies focused on the formation of the intestinal microbiota and factors that modulate its composition are important for the development of approaches for colorectal cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microambiente Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Humanos
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1544-1551, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436523

RESUMO

Introduction. Breakthrough bloodstream infections (BSIs) are rare among non-neutropenic patients.Aim. Our goal was to determine the risk factors associated with development of breakthrough BSIs among critically ill non-neutropenic patients and its role in mortality.Methodology. During a 24-month period (August 2016 to July 2018), all BSIs among non-neutropenic patients hospitalized at the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, were included. Antimicrobial resistance of isolates was interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines. BSIs were considered as breakthrough when blood cultures yielded a pathogen in a patient who, for at least the previous 72 h, had been receiving at least one antibiotic to which the isolated microorganism was susceptible.Results. Among 217 episodes of BSI, 118 (54.4 %) developed a breakthrough infection. Primary BSIs predominated (101; 46.5 %), followed by catheter-related BSIs (56; 25.8 %). Gram-negative bacteria represented the most common pathogens isolated (157; 72.4 %), followed by Gram-positive bacteria (36; 16.6 %) and fungi (36; 16.6 %). Factors independently associated with the development of breakthrough BSIs were immunosuppressive therapy, obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m- 2), infection by Gram-positive bacteria, noradrenaline dose during 24 h from BSI onset, prior use of colistin and antifungal treatment. Overall 14-day mortality was 23.0 % (50 patients). Multivariate analysis revealed noradrenaline dose during 24 h from BSI onset as an independent predictor of mortality, while appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment and breakthrough BSI were identified as predictors of good prognosis.Conclusion. Breakthrough BSIs were common among critically ill non-neutropenic patients and these patients were associated with better survival because they were de facto receiving appropriate antibiotics.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Fungemia/epidemiologia , Fungemia/mortalidade , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1507-1516, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460858

RESUMO

Introduction. Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are challenging to treat therapeutically because the infectious agents often are resistant to antibiotics and capable of abundant growth in surface-attached biofilms. Though infection rates are low, ca. 1-2 %, the overall increase in the sheer number of joint replacement surgeries results in an increase in patients at risk.Aims. This study investigates the consensus of microbial species comprising PJI ecology, which is currently lacking.Methodology. In this study, PJI populations from seven patients were analysed using combined culturing and whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGSS) to establish population profiles and compare WGSS and culture methods for detection and identification of the PJI microbiome.Results. WGSS detected strains when culture did not, notably dormant, culture-resistant and rare microbes. The CosmosID algorithm was used to predict micro-organisms present in the PJI and discriminate contaminants. However, culturing indicated the presence of microbes falling below the WGSS algorithm threshold. In these instances, microbes cultured are believed to be minor species. The two strategies were combined to build a population profile.Conclusions. Variability between and among PJIs showed that most infections were distinct and unique. Comparative analysis of populations revealed PJIs to form clusters that were related to, but separate from, vaginal, skin and gut microbiomes. Fungi and protists were detected by WGSS, but the role of fungi is just beginning to be understood and for protists it is unknown. These micro-organisms and their novel and strain-specific microbial interactions remain to be determined in current clinical tests.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Artropatias/microbiologia , Microbiota , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Articulações/microbiologia , Articulações/cirurgia , Masculino , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Próteses e Implantes/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 759-768, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376108

RESUMO

The cultivation of microbial species remains a primary challenge in microbiology and obtaining pure cultures is essential for the study of microbial physiology and function. When isolating microorganisms from aquaculture environments, Vibrio are the most dominate isolates on the media that are commonly used. In order to expand our ability to study microbial species, an easy-operation and low-cost medium that can reduce the interference of Vibrio strains and increase the cultivability of other bacteria is urgently needed. We compared viable cell counts on conventional media (CM; including Marine Agar 2216 and LB media) and diluted media (DM; including 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, 1/10-LB). We also assessed the diversity of cultivable microorganisms under high and low nutrient conditions by a plate-wash strategy coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that microbial communities from DM, especially 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, are more diverse than those obtained from CM. Vibrio isolates were reduced on DM. PICRUSt analysis revealed that nutrient composition is a significant contributor to the diversity and function of the cultivable microbial communities. Bacteria grown on CM possess more pathogenic characteristics, whereas DM favors the growth of bacteria that have multiple metabolic functions. Collectively, our data provide strong evidence that dilution of CM influences the cultivability of bacteria from aquaculture seawater. It also supports that DM can expand the range of microbial species that can be cultivated. This study also provides insights for media design in microbial cultivation from aquaculture systems.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vibrio/genética , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio/metabolismo
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 132, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432260

RESUMO

This paper aims to characterize halophilic bacteria inhabiting Algerian Saline Ecosystems (Sebkha and Chott) located in arid and semi-arid ecoclimate zones (Northeastern Algeria). In addition, screening of enzymatic activities, heavy metal tolerance and antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi were tested. A total of 74 bacterial isolates were screened and phylogenetically characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed a heterogeneous group of microorganisms falling within two major phyla, 52 strains belonging to Firmicutes (70.2%) and 22 strains (30.8%) of γ-Proteobacteria. In terms of main genera present, the isolates were belonging to Bacillus, Halobacillus, Lentibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Paraliobacillus, Planomicrobium, Salicola, Terribacillus, Thalassobacillus, Salibacterium, Salinicoccus, Virgibacillus, Halomonas, Halovibrio, and Idiomarina. Most of the enzymes producers were related to Bacillus, Halobacillus, and Virgibacillus genera and mainly active at 10% of growing salt concentrations. Furthermore, amylase, esterase, gelatinase, and nuclease activities ranked in the first place within the common hydrolytic enzymes. Overall, the isolates showed high minimal inhibitory concentration values (MIC) for Ni2+ and Cu2+ (0.625 to 5 mM) compared to Cd2+ (0.1 to 2 mM) and Zn2+ (0.156 to 2 mM). Moreover, ten isolated strains belonging to Bacillus, Virgibacillus and Halomonas genera, displayed high activity against the pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxyporum, F. verticillioides and Phytophthora capsici). This study on halophilic bacteria of unexplored saline niches provides potential sources of biocatalysts and novel bioactive metabolites as well as promising candidates of biocontrol agents and eco-friendly tools for heavy metal bioremediation.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biota , Microbiologia Ambiental , Salinidade , Argélia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16626, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464899

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common malignant tumors in China, with a high morbidity and mortality. With the development and application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and metagenomics, a great quantity of studies have shown that gastrointestinal microbiota is closely related to digestive system diseases. Although some studies have reported the effect of long-term follow-up after subtotal gastrectomy on intestinal flora changes in patients with GC. However, the features of gut microbiota and their shifts in patients with GC in perioperative period remain unclear.This study was designed to characterize fecal microbiota shifts of the patients with GC before and after the radical distal gastrectomy (RDG) during their hospital staying periods. Furthermore, fecal microbiota was also compared between the GC patients and healthy individuals.Patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma at distal stomach were enrolled in the study. The bacterial burden within fecal samples was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To analyze the diversity and composition of gut microbiota from fecal DNA of 20 GC patients and 22 healthy controls, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from all subjects were pyrosequenced. To study gut microbiota shifts, the fecal microbiota from 6 GC patients before and after RDG was detected and subsequently analyzed. Short-chain fatty acids were also detected by chromatography spectrometer in these 6 GC patients.RDG had a moderate effect on bacterial richness and evenness, but had pronounced effects on the composition of postoperative gut microbiota compared with preoperative group. The relative abundances of genera Akkermansia, Esherichia/Shigella, Lactobacillus, and Dialister were significant changed in perioperative period. Remarkably, higher abundances of Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, and Clostridium XVIII and lower abundances of Bacteroides were observed in gut microbiota of overall GC patients compared to healthy controls.This study is the first study to characterize the altered gut microbiota within fecal samples from GC patients during perioperative period, and provide a new insights on such microbial perturbations as a potential effector of perioperative period phenotype. Further research must validate these discoveries and may evaluate targeted microbiota shifts to improve outcomes in GC patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Filogenia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1181-1191, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466158

RESUMO

Efforts to understand the environmental and biological factors that influence the dynamics of microbial communities have received substantial attention in microbial ecology. In this study, Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to examine the microbial community structure of activated sludge in municipal wastewater treatment systems (Chuzhou city, China). Overall, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were the most dominant phyla in the five activated sludge samples. However, the community structure of nitrifying bacteria was relatively simple, and diversity was low; only AOB (Nitrosomonas) and NOB (Nitrospira) were detected. The dominant bacteria in the anaerobic sludge, anoxic sludge and oxic sludge were the same, and each bacterial species was relatively uniform, with differences only in proportions. Redundancy analysis indicated that pH, TP and COD were strong environmental factors influencing the bacterial community distribution. PICRUSt was used to describe the metabolic and functional abilities of the activated sludge bacterial communities. The results emphasized the vast genetic diversity of these organisms, which are involved in various essential processes such as amino acid transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, cell wall/membrane/envelope/biogenesis, signal transduction mechanisms, and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Activated sludge of municipal wastewater treatment systems can be ranked in the following order based on the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of the detected phylotypes: S1 > S2 > S4 > S5 > S3. This study provides basic data and a theoretical analysis of the optimal design and operation in wastewater treatment plants.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , China , Firmicutes , Filogenia , Proteobactérias/genética , Esgotos/microbiologia
19.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126307, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422229

RESUMO

Bacterial plasmids carry genes that code for additional traits such as osmoregulation, CO2 fixation, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance, root nodulation and nitrogen fixation. The main objective of the current study was to identify plasmid-conferring osmoregulatory genes in bacteria isolated from rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils of halophytes (Salsola stocksii and Atriplex amnicola). More than 55% of halophilic bacteria from the rhizosphere and 70% from non-rhizospheric soils were able to grow at 3 M salt concentrations. All the strains showed optimum growth at 1.5-3.0 M NaCl. Bacterial strains from the Salsola rhizosphere showed maximum (31%) plasmid elimination during curing experiments as compared to bacterial strains from the Atriplex rhizosphere and non-rhizospheric soils. Two plasmid cured strains Bacillus HL2HP6 and Oceanobacillus HL2RP7 lost their ability to grow in halophilic medium, but they grew well on LB medium. The plasmid cured strains also showed a change in sensitivity to specific antibiotics. These plasmids were isolated and transformed into E. coli strains and growth response of wild-type and transformed E. coli strains was compared at 1.5-4 M NaCl concentrations. Chromosomal DNA and plasmids from Bacillus filamentosus HL2HP6 were sequenced by using high throughput sequencing approach. Results of functional analysis of plasmid sequences showed different proteins and enzymes involved in osmoregulation of bacteria, such as trehalose, ectoine synthetase, porins, proline, alanine, inorganic ion transporters, dehydrogenases and peptidases. Our results suggested that plasmid conferring osmoregulatory genes play a vital role to maintain internal osmotic balance of bacterial cells and these genes can be used to develop salt tolerant transgenic crops.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Osmorregulação/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/isolamento & purificação , Rizosfera , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Alanina/metabolismo , Diamino Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Atriplex/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Oxirredutases , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Filogenia , Porinas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Trealose/metabolismo
20.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126308, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430656

RESUMO

Mine tailings represent a serious environmental pollution problem and techniques such as phytoremediation using plant growth-promoting bacteria become an important solution due to their environmentally friendly nature. The study performed using Brassica juncea L. (Indian mustard) and plant growth-promoting bacteria such as Serratia K120, Enterobacter K125, Serratia MC107, Serratia MC119 and Enterobacter MC156 showed that plant roots colonization favored the transfer of metals to the plant, mainly Al and Pb from the 8 analyzed metals with bioaccumulation factors >1 for Al, Pb, Cd and Fe obtained with Serratia K120, Enterobacter K125, Serratia MC107, Serratia MC119 and Enterobacter MC156. Based on these results, this system could be used in phytoextraction processes whereas Enterobacter MC156 reduced the bioaccumulation of metals, indicating the possible phytostabilization of metals present in mine tailings.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Bactérias/classificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metais/metabolismo , México , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo
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