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1.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198510

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a major healthcare threat globally. Xanthines, including caffeine and pentoxifylline, are attractive candidates for drug repurposing, given their well-established safety and pharmacological profiles. This study aimed to analyze potential interactions between xanthines and aromatic antibiotics (i.e., tetracycline and ciprofloxacin), and their impact on antibiotic antibacterial activity. UV-vis spectroscopy, statistical-thermodynamical modeling, and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to quantitatively evaluate xanthine-antibiotic interactions. The antibacterial profiles of xanthines, and xanthine-antibiotic mixtures, towards important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae were examined. Caffeine and pentoxifylline directly interact with ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, with neighborhood association constant values of 15.8-45.6 M-1 and enthalpy change values up to -4 kJ·M-1. Caffeine, used in mixtures with tested antibiotics, enhanced their antibacterial activity in most pathogens tested. However, antagonistic effects of caffeine were also observed, but only with ciprofloxacin toward Gram-positive pathogens. Xanthines interact with aromatic antibiotics at the molecular and in vitro antibacterial activity level. Given considerable exposure to caffeine and pentoxifylline, these interactions might be relevant for the effectiveness of antibacterial pharmacotherapy, and may help to identify optimal treatment regimens in the era of multidrug resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Pentoxifilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cafeína/química , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/química , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pentoxifilina/química , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/química , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202115

RESUMO

The literature indicates the existence of a relationship between rhamnolipids and bacterial biofilm, as well as the ability of selected bacteria to produce rhamnolipids and alginate. However, the influence of biosurfactant molecules on the mechanical properties of biofilms are still not fully understood. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of rhamnolipids concentration, CaCl2 concentration, and ionic cross-linking time on the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogels using a Box-Behnken design. The mechanical properties of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were characterized using a universal testing machine. It was assumed that the addition of rhamnolipids mainly affects the compression load, and the value of this parameter is lower for hydrogels produced with biosurfactant concentration below CMC than for hydrogels obtained in pure water. In contrast, the addition of rhamnolipids in an amount exceeding CMC causes an increase in compression load. In bacterial biofilms, the presence of rhamnolipid molecules does not exceed the CMC value, which may confirm the influence of this biosurfactant on the formation of the biofilm structure. Moreover, rhamnolipids interact with the hydrophobic part of the alginate copolymer chains, and then the hydrophilic groups of adsorbed biosurfactant molecules create additional calcium ion trapping sites.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glicolipídeos/química , Hidrogéis/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205200

RESUMO

Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer in intensively managed agriculture has resulted in abundant accumulation of nitrate in soil, which limits agriculture sustainability. How to reduce nitrate content is the key to alleviate secondary soil salinization. However, the microorganisms used in soil remediation cause some problems such as weak efficiency and short survival time. In this study, seaweed polysaccharides were used as stimulant to promote the rapid growth and safer nitrate removal of denitrifying bacteria. Firstly, the growth rate and NO3--N removal capacity of three kinds of denitrifying bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (BS), Pseudomonas stutzeri (PS) and Pseudomonas putida (PP), were compared. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis (BS) had a faster growth rate and stronger nitrate removal ability. We then studied the effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharides (EP), carrageenan (CA), and sodium alginate (AL) on growth and denitrification performance of Bacillus subtilis (BS). The results showed that seaweed polysaccharides obviously promoted the growth of Bacillus subtilis (BS), and accelerated the reduction of NO3--N. More importantly, the increased NH4+-N content could avoid excessive loss of nitrogen, and less NO2--N accumulation could avoid toxic effects on plants. This new strategy of using denitrifying bacteria for safely remediating secondary soil salinization has a great significance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitratos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alga Marinha/química , Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Desnitrificação , Pseudomonas putida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Pseudomonas stutzeri/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas stutzeri/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202440

RESUMO

Usually, wine-making by-products are discarded, presenting a significant environmental impact. However, they can be used as a source of bioactive compounds. Moreover, consumers' increasing demand for naturally nutritious and healthy products requires new formulations and food product improvement, together with sustainable, environmentally friendly extraction methods. Thus, this work aimed to compare ohmic heating (OH) with conventional methodology (CONV), using food-grade solvents, mainly water, compared to standard methanol extraction of anthocyanins. No significant differences were found between the CONV and OH for total phenolic compounds, which were 2.84 ± 0.037 and 3.28 ± 0.46 mg/g DW gallic acid equivalent, respectively. The same tendency was found for antioxidant capacity, where CONV and OH presented values of 2.02 ± 0.007 g/100 g and 2.34 ± 0.066 g/100 g ascorbic acid equivalent, respectively. The major anthocyanins identified were malvidin-3-O-acetylglucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidine-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and peonidine-3-O-glucoside. These extracts displayed antimicrobial potential against microorganisms such as Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, a methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), and Bacillus cereus. In conclusion, OH provides similar recovery yields with reduced treatment times, less energy consumption, and no need for organic solvents (green extraction routes). Thus, OH combined with water and citric acid allows a safe anthocyanin extraction from grape by-products, thus avoiding the use of toxic solvents such as methanol, and with high biological potential, including antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Alta , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Água/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202760

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of the medicinal plant Isodon rubescens led to the isolation of the two new degraded abietane lactone diterpenoids rubesanolides F (1) and G (2). Their structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR spectral data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD spectrum calculations and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Compounds 1 and 2, with a unique γ-lactone subgroup between C-8 and C-20, were found to form a carbonyl carbon at C-13 by removal of the isopropyl group in an abietane diterpene skeleton. Rubesanolide G (2) is a rare case of abietane that possesses a cis-fused configuration between rings B and C. The two isolates were evaluated for their biological activities against two cancer cell lines (A549 and HL60), three fungal strains (Candida alba, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus nigricans) and three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis).


Assuntos
Abietanos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isodon/química , Lactonas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Células A549 , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Abietanos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202776

RESUMO

The chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial properties of three commercially available essential oils: rosemary (REO), lavender (LEO), and mint (MEO), were determined in the current study. Our data revealed that the major components of REO, MEO, and LEO were 1,8-cineole (40.4%), menthol (40.1%), and linalool acetate (35.0%), respectively. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was identified in MEO (36.85 ± 0.49%) among the investigated EOs. Regarding antimicrobial activities, we found that LEO had the strongest inhibitory efficiencies against the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida (C.) tropicalis, MEO against Salmonella (S.) enterica, and REO against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. The strongest antifungal activity was displayed by mint EO, which totally inhibited the growth of Penicillium (P.) expansum and P. crustosum in all concentrations; the growth of P. citrinum was completely suppressed only by the lowest MEO concentration. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. enterica, S. aureus, and C. krusei were assessed for MEO. In situ analysis on the bread model showed that 125 µL/L of REO exhibited the lowest mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) of P. citrinum, and 500 µL/L of MEO caused the highest MGI of P. crustosum. Our results allow us to make conclusion that the analysed EOs have promising potential for use as innovative agents in the storage of bakery products in order to extend their shelf-life.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Pão/microbiologia , Lavandula/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rosmarinus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida tropicalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207960

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated systemic disease that may be treated with probiotics. In this study, probiotic strains that could or could not decrease interleukin (IL)-17 levels were applied to imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice via oral administration. Bifidobacteriumadolescentis CCFM667, B. breve CCFM1078, Lacticaseibacillusparacasei CCFM1074, and Limosilactobacillus reuteri CCFM1132 ameliorated psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and suppressed the release of IL-23/T helper cell 17 (Th17) axis-related inflammatory cytokines, whereas B. animalis CCFM1148, L. paracasei CCFM1147, and L. reuteri CCFM1040 neither alleviated the pathological characteristics nor reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines. All effective strains increased the contents of short-chain fatty acids, which were negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory cytokines. By performing 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the diversity of gut microbiota in psoriasis-like mice was found to decrease, but all effective strains made some specific changes to the composition of gut microbiota compared to the ineffective strains. Furthermore, except for B. breve CCFM1078, all other effective strains decreased the abundance of the family Rikenellaceae, which was positively correlated with psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and was negatively correlated with propionate levels. These findings demonstrated effects of strain-specificity, and how probiotics ameliorated psoriasis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/dietoterapia , Psoríase/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Imiquimode , Interleucinas/análise , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/farmacologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Células Th17/imunologia
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204052

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the packaging system type on the physical characteristics and microbial changes in ostrich meat during refrigerated storage. The applied packaging systems were vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) using two combinations of gases: MAP1 (40% O2/40% CO2/20% N2) and MAP2 (60% O2/30% CO2/10% N2). Eight meat samples were obtained in three replicates for all parameters, except for pH, for which six replicates were obtained from the M. ilifibularis (IF) muscle, and were stored in a refrigerator at 2 °C and analyzed at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days for the effect of packaging methods on physical meat quality. The initial pH (5.99) decreased at the end of the storage time for MAP1 to 5.81, whereas VP was stable from day 0 to 12 and increased up to 6.08 on day 16. Regarding meat color, the L* value increased during storage for MAP1 and MAP2 from 36.99 to 40.75 and 41.60, respectively, whereas it declined for VP to 34.22. The same tendencies were reported for redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Drip loss was the lowest in MAP1 and highest in VP. The lowest total viable bacteria counts were identified in VP, as compared to MAP1 and MAP2.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Struthioniformes , Animais , Atmosfera , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne/microbiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana , Refrigeração , Tempo , Vácuo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070397

RESUMO

Bacterial communities in rhizosphere and root nodules have significant contributions to the growth and productivity of the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). In this report, we analyzed the physiological properties and dynamics of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere and root nodules at different growth stages using BioLog EcoPlate and high-throughput sequencing technology, respectively. The BioLog assay found that the metabolic capability of rhizosphere is in increasing trend in the growth of soybeans as compared to the bulk soil. As a result of the Illumina sequencing analysis, the microbial community structure of rhizosphere and root nodules was found to be influenced by the variety and growth stage of the soybean. At the phylum level, Actinobacteria were the most abundant in rhizosphere at all growth stages, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, and the phylum Bacteroidetes showed the greatest change. But, in the root nodules Alphaproteobacteria were dominant. The results of the OTU analysis exhibited the dominance of Bradyrhizobium during the entire stage of growth, but the ratio of non-rhizobial bacteria showed an increasing trend as the soybean growth progressed. These findings revealed that bacterial community in the rhizosphere and root nodules changed according to both the variety and growth stages of soybean in the field.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Nodulação , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 351: 109264, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098468

RESUMO

Fresh meat is commonly packaged in modified atmosphere to decelerate spoilage processes. The applied gas mixture affects the growth of spoilage organisms and selectively shapes the spoilage community. In this study, we investigated the impact of O2 and CO2 on the growth of Photobacterium (P.) phosphoreum and P. carnosum strains in situ on chicken meat by packaging under different modified atmospheres (air, 70% O2/30% CO2, 70% N2/30% CO2, 100% N2). Combination of 70% O2 and 30% CO2 resulted in significant growth reduction of the analyzed strains, suggesting inhibitory effects of both gases in combination. In contrast, 30% CO2 alone had only a minor effect and photobacteria are supposed to have a growth advantage over other meat spoilers in this atmosphere. Additionally, single growth of the strains in the different atmospheres was compared when challenged with the presence of Pseudomonas (Ps.) fragi or Brochothrix (B.) thermosphacta as prominent co-contaminants in different ratios (10:1, 1:1, 1:10). Presence of co-contaminants resulted in increased cell numbers of P. carnosum TMW2.2149 but reduced or unchanged cell numbers of P. phosphoreum TMW2.2103 in most packaging atmospheres. The initial ratio of photobacteria and co-contaminants defined the relative abundance during storage but did not change the type of the interaction. Our results suggest either a commensalistic (P. carnosum) or competitive interaction (P. phosphoreum) of photobacteria and co-contaminants on modified atmosphere packaged chicken, respectively. Furthermore, in a mix comprising seven prominent spoilers, strains of both Photobacterium species prevailed as a constant part of the spoilage microbiome during 7 days of refrigerated storage on chicken meat packaged under O2/CO2 atmosphere.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Photobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/análise , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Photobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3195-3204, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146398

RESUMO

Effect of capsaicinoids in hot pepper powder (HP) contains various chemical compounds, including capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, which are the main ingredients of the spicy taste. To evaluate the effect of HP on the microbial community in kimchi fermentation, kimchi [kimchi-HP, kimchi-HPE and kimchi-HPER made by adding HP, HP alcohol extract (HPE) and HPE residues (HPER)] was fermented at 4°C for 28 days. The pH and titratable acidity of the samples and the number of bacteria changed with fermentation time. Kimchi-HPER had significantly higher total viable and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) than other samples after 28 days of fermentation. The capsaicinoids content did not differ before and after fermentation, whereas the major free sugar content decreased, and the mannitol content increased. The principal component analysis (PCA) biplots showed similar patterns between kimchi-HP and -HPE. It was confirmed that Leuconostoc and Weissella were related to the initial fermentation, and Lactobacillus was involved in late fermentation. Kimchi-HP and kimchi-HPE increased the ratio of Lactobacillus sakei and decreased that of Leuconostoc mesenteroides compared to kimchi-HPER. Overall, these results revealed that capsaicinoids contained in HP affected Lactobacillus proliferation and mannitol increase during kimchi fermentation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Capsicum/química , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Açúcares/análise , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pós/química
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3897, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162835

RESUMO

A major health concern of the 21st century is the rise of multi-drug resistant pathogenic microbial species. Recent technological advancements have led to considerable opportunities for low-dimensional materials (LDMs) as potential next-generation antimicrobials. LDMs have demonstrated antimicrobial behaviour towards a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal cells, due to their unique physicochemical properties. This review provides a critical assessment of current LDMs that have exhibited antimicrobial behaviour and their mechanism of action. Future design considerations and constraints in deploying LDMs for antimicrobial applications are discussed. It is envisioned that this review will guide future design parameters for LDM-based antimicrobial applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/fisiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Micoses/microbiologia , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Tamanho da Partícula
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2074-2087, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097961

RESUMO

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known for their beneficial effects on diabetes, NAFLD and related chronic metabolic diseases induced by high-fat diet (HFD). However, the relevant researches are mainly about the whole crude polysaccharides, the specific active ingredient of LBPs and its bioactivity have been rarely explored. Herein, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LBP-W) was isolated and purified from crude LBPs. Structure characterizations indicated that LBP-W contained a main chain consisting of a repeated unit of →6)-ß-Galp(1 â†’ residues with branches composed of α-Araf, ß-Galp and α-Rhap residues at position C-3. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of LBP-W and figure out the underlying mechanisms. In vivo efficacy trial illustrated that LBP-W supplements can alleviate HFD-induced mice obesity significantly. Gut microbiota analysis showed that LBP-W not only improved community diversity of intestinal flora, but also regulated their specific genera. Moreover, LBP-W can increase the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a metabolite of the intestinal flora. In summary, all these results demonstrated that the homogeneous polysaccharide purified from L. barbarum could be used as a prebiotic agent to improve obesity by modulating the composition of intestinal flora and the metabolism of SCFAs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Prebióticos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Arabinose/química , Arabinose/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Disbiose , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Galactose/química , Galactose/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ramnose/química , Ramnose/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 2272-2281, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097970

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on mice fecal bacterial flora and the contents of SCFAs in vitro. Following 24 h of fermentation, 16S rRNA analysis revealed several differences in the fecal microbiota community structure among primal bacteria (PB), LRS and different SCFAs combined with LRS groups (SCFAs-LRS). The LRS group increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Allobaculum, Clostridium, Bacteroides and Prevotella. Among the SCFAs-LRS group, AA-LRS increased the relative abundance of Prevotella, and Bacillus. PA-LRS increased abundance of Sphingomonas and the BA-LRS group significantly increased the relative abundance of Rhizobiales, Brucellaceae and Ochrobactrum. Meanwhile, propionic acid and BA productions significantly increased in the BA-LRS group. The SCFAs-LRS group elicited a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota by increasing production of SCFAs. We highlight the fact that the combination of LRS and SCFA can increase the contents of SCFAs produced by mice fecal microbiota. In short, the combination of LRS and SCFA can influence intestinal flora by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and can serve as new prebiotics for promoting health and disease management.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lotus , Prebióticos , Amido Resistente/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lotus/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ribotipagem , Sementes/química
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2891, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976223

RESUMO

Managing and engineering microbial communities relies on the ability to predict their composition. While progress has been made on predicting compositions on short, ecological timescales, there is still little work aimed at predicting compositions on evolutionary timescales. Therefore, it is still unknown for how long communities typically remain stable after reaching ecological equilibrium, and how repeatable and predictable are changes when they occur. Here, we address this knowledge gap by tracking the composition of 87 two- and three-species bacterial communities, with 3-18 replicates each, for ~400 generations. We find that community composition typically changed during evolution, but that the composition of replicate communities remained similar. Furthermore, these changes were predictable in a bottom-up approach-changes in the composition of trios were consistent with those that occurred in pairs during coevolution. Our results demonstrate that simple assembly rules can hold even on evolutionary timescales, suggesting it may be possible to forecast the evolution of microbial communities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Divisão Celular/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4152-4164, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977942

RESUMO

The human gut is a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. Although showing a well-defined core of dominant taxa, an interindividual variability exists in microbiome arrangement patterns, and the presence and proportion of specific species, determining individual metabolic features-metabotypes-which govern the health effects of dietary interventions (i.e. polyphenol consumption). Starting with a 19-volunteer human intervention study, divided into low, medium, and high wine-polyphenol-metabolizers, we detected interindividual discrepancies on the effect of wine consumption in gut bacterial alpha-diversity, but a significant homogenization of beta-diversity among moderate wine consumers, independently of their metabotype. In addition, the abundance of key health-related taxa such as Akkermansia sp. increased after moderate wine intake in the group of high polyphenol-metabolizers. Regarding the metabolic activity, significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations in the production of SCFAs were observed after wine intake. Finally, we were able to correlate the microbiome and the metabolome of the three metabotypes, and to identify some metabolites-biomarker species, highlighting the genera Phascolarctobacterium, Pelotomaculum and Prevotella, as positively correlated with polyphenol concentration, and Prevotella, Zymophilus and Eubacterium as positively correlated with SCFAs concentration in faeces. Our results contribute to the evidence of the need of including the microbiome variable in personalized nutrition programs, as different metabotyes respond differently to dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vinho , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 191, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986253

RESUMO

COVID-19 remains a serious emerging global health problem, and little is known about the role of oropharynx commensal microbes in infection susceptibility and severity. Here, we present the oropharyngeal microbiota characteristics identified by shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of oropharynx swab specimens from 31 COVID-19 patients, 29 influenza B patients, and 28 healthy controls. Our results revealed a distinct oropharyngeal microbiota composition in the COVID-19 patients, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Veillonella and Megasphaera and depletion of Pseudopropionibacterium, Rothia, and Streptococcus. Based on the relative abundance of the oropharyngeal microbiome, we built a microbial classifier to distinguish COVID-19 patients from flu patients and healthy controls with an AUC of 0.889, in which Veillonella was identified as the most prominent biomarker for COVID-19 group. Several members of the genus Veillonella, especially Veillonella parvula which was highly enriched in the oropharynx of our COVID-19 patients, were also overrepresented in the BALF of COVID-19 patients, indicating that the oral cavity acts as a natural reservoir for pathogens to induce co-infections in the lungs of COVID-19 patients. We also found the increased ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Serratia sp. were correlated with both disease severity and elevated systemic inflammation markers (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, NLR), suggesting that these oropharynx microbiota alterations may impact COVID-19 severity by influencing the inflammatory response. Moreover, the oropharyngeal microbiome of COVID-19 patients exhibited a significant enrichment in amino acid metabolism and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. In addition, all 26 drug classes of antimicrobial resistance genes were detected in the COVID-19 group, and were significantly enriched in critical cases. In conclusion, we found that oropharyngeal microbiota alterations and functional differences were associated with COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
Bactérias , COVID-19/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Orofaringe/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946845

RESUMO

Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the leading nosocomial infections in the world and have led to the extensive study of various strategies to prevent infection. However, despite an abundance of anti-infection materials having been studied over the last forty-five years, only a few types have come into clinical use, providing an insignificant reduction in CAUTIs. In recent decades, marine resources have emerged as an unexplored area of opportunity offering huge potential in discovering novel bioactive materials to combat human diseases. Some of these materials, such as antimicrobial compounds and biosurfactants synthesized by marine microorganisms, exhibit potent antimicrobial, antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity against a broad spectrum of uropathogens (including multidrug-resistant pathogens) that could be potentially used in urinary catheters to eradicate CAUTIs. This paper summarizes information on the most relevant materials that have been obtained from marine-derived microorganisms over the last decade and discusses their potential as new agents against CAUTIs, providing a prospective proposal for researchers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Cateteres de Demora/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Cateterismo Urinário/instrumentação , Cateteres Urinários/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Metabolismo Secundário , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/isolamento & purificação , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Urinários/efeitos adversos
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 349: 109227, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022613

RESUMO

The present work mainly investigated the effects of prepared chitosan­sodium alginate-nisin (CS-SA-N) preservatives on the quality and bacterial phase of Penaeus vannamei shrimp during cold storage. Results showed that CS-SA-N preservatives treated samples had the lower pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), total viable count (TVC), and freeness (K) values than those of untreated ones during cold storage. The sensory evaluation results indicated that CS-SA-N preservatives treated shrimps had the higher comprehensive scores than those of untreated ones during whole storage. Microbial community of all samples was dominated by Proteobacteria. The initial predominant bacteria of fresh shrimps were Sphingomonas, Carnobacterium and Psychrobacter. Psychrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Shewanella, Acinetobacter and Vibrio were the predominant bacteria of untreated samples. CS-SA-N preservatives significantly decreased predominant microbial numbers by inhibiting the growth of Psychrobacter, Vibrio, Acinetobacter and Carnobacterium during cold storage. Therefore, the CS-SA-N preservatives could be used to prolong the shelf life of shrimp and guarantee its quality.


Assuntos
Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Alginatos/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/farmacologia , Nisina/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
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