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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 551-556, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on gut microbiota. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty adults with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency [25(OH)D <30 ng/ml] were enrolled and given 600, 4,000 or 10,000 IUs/day of oral vitamin D3 Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks for identifying gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. RESULTS: Baseline serum 25(OH)D was associated with increased relative abundance of Akkermansia and decreased relative abundance of Porphyromonas (p<0.05). After the intervention, we observed a dose-dependent increase in relative abundance of Bacteroides with a significant difference between the 600 IUs and the 10,000 IUs groups (p=0.027), and Parabacteroides with a significant difference between the 600 IUs and the 4,000 IUs groups (p=0.039). CONCLUSION: Increased serum 25(OH)D was associated with increased beneficial bacteria and decreased pathogenic bacteria. A dose-dependent increase in bacteria associated with decreased inflammatory bowel disease activity was observed after vitamin D3 supplementation.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos
2.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 46-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902901

RESUMO

Over the past decade, a number of new 1,4-naphthoquinones have been isolated from natural sources and new 1,4-naphthoquinones with diverse structural features have been synthesized. Cardioprotective, anti-ischemic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and some other new properties were found for these compounds; their role in protecting against neurodegenerative diseases has been established. Their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumor activities have been studied in more detail; new, previously unknown intracellular molecular targets and mechanisms of action have been discovered. Some compounds of this class are already being used as a medicinal drugs and some substances can be used as biochemical tools and probes for non-invasive detection of pathological areas in cells and tissues in myocardial infarction and neurodegenerative diseases using modern molecular imaging techniques.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Naftoquinonas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 313-320, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854932

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants hold a vast pool of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The aim of this study is to analyze the ARB and ARGs in a pharmaceutical and chemical wastewater treatment plant using a metagenomic technique. The results of taxonomic annotation revealed that bacteria were the predominant domain. The most abundant phyla and genus was Proteobacteria and Hyphomicrobium, respectively. A total of 74 categories of ARGs were predicted using CARD with the most dominant types being sav 1866, dfrE, and mfd. Furthermore, a network analysis was conducted to investigate the co-occurrence patterns between ARGs and microbial taxa. ARGs were found to be highly connected to microbial taxa at the genus level. With respect to the antibiotic resistance mechanisms, antibiotic-specific efflux pumps appeared to be the most common mechanisms. Among these, resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) was the major type. The most important functional pathway of this microbial community was metabolic correlation. Interestingly, there were many genes related to human diseases, among which bacterial infectious diseases were the main ones. On the one hand, these data further confirmed that pharmaceutical and chemical wastewater treatment plants are rich in ARB and ARGs. The accumulation of ARGs increases the potential environmental risks, and hence it is necessary to strengthen the active monitoring of ARB and ARGs in pharmaceutical and chemical wastewater treatment plants. On the other hand, research on ARB and ARGs offers important information for the selection of deep processing technology to effectively remove ARB and ARGs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Genes Bacterianos , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metagenoma , Preparações Farmacêuticas
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 705-713, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing importance of probiotics apparent health benefits, an impediment to the use of new probiotic cultures is their safety. Hence there is a need to strictly examine the biosafety as well as health benefits of probiotics in in vivo model systems. RESULTS: In this study, two lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cultures Lactobacillus fermentum NCMR 2826 and FIX proven for their in vitro probiotic properties were investigated for their in vivo safety in Wistar rats. An acute toxicity study (14 days) with a high dose of biomass (1016 colony-forming units (CFU) mL-1 ) followed by a subchronic test for 13 weeks with oral feeding of the probiotic cultures in three different doses (107 , 108 and 1010 CFU mL-1 ) on a daily basis revealed the safety of the L. fermentum cultures. The probiotic feeding had no toxic effects on survival, body weight and food consumption with any of the dosages used throughout the treatment period. No statistically significant changes in relative organ weights and serum biochemical and hematological indices were found between the control and the probiotic fed animals. In addition to the safety attributes, the L. fermentum culture fed rats showed reduced serum cholesterol levels, macrovesicular steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning compared with control animals. Further, quantification of intestinal microbiota using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis from animal feces indicated a significant increase and stability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts but a decrease of Escherichia coli numbers. CONCLUSION: This study of safety and beneficial features highlights the use of the two native L. fermentum isolates as potential probiotic food supplements. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colesterol/sangue , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus fermentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Probióticos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 515-525, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880895

RESUMO

The progress of research on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their inclusion in many consumer products (chemicals, cosmetics, clothing, water filters, and medical devices) as a biocide. Despite the widespread use of AgNPs, their biocidal activity is not yet fully understood and is usually associated with various factors (size, composition, surface, red-ox potential, and concentration) and, obviously, specific features of microorganisms. There are merely a few studies concerning the interaction of molds with AgNPs. Therefore, the determination of the minimal AgNPs concentration required for effective growth suppression of five fungal species (Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium pinophilum, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma virens, and Aspergillus brasiliensis), involved in the deterioration of construction materials, was particularly important. Inhibition of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Yarrowia lipolytica) was also assessed as the control of AgNPs effectiveness. AgNPs at the concentrations of 9-10.7 ppm displayed high inhibitory activity against moulds, yeast, and bacteria. The TEM images revealed that 20 nm AgNPs migrated into bacterial, yeast, and fungal cells but aggregated in larger particles (50-100 nm) exclusively inside eukaryotic cells. The aggregation of 20 nm AgNPs and particularly their accumulation in the cell wall, observed for A. brasiliensis cells, are described here for the first time.The progress of research on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their inclusion in many consumer products (chemicals, cosmetics, clothing, water filters, and medical devices) as a biocide. Despite the widespread use of AgNPs, their biocidal activity is not yet fully understood and is usually associated with various factors (size, composition, surface, red-ox potential, and concentration) and, obviously, specific features of microorganisms. There are merely a few studies concerning the interaction of molds with AgNPs. Therefore, the determination of the minimal AgNPs concentration required for effective growth suppression of five fungal species (Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium pinophilum, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma virens, and Aspergillus brasiliensis), involved in the deterioration of construction materials, was particularly important. Inhibition of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Yarrowia lipolytica) was also assessed as the control of AgNPs effectiveness. AgNPs at the concentrations of 9­10.7 ppm displayed high inhibitory activity against moulds, yeast, and bacteria. The TEM images revealed that 20 nm AgNPs migrated into bacterial, yeast, and fungal cells but aggregated in larger particles (50­100 nm) exclusively inside eukaryotic cells. The aggregation of 20 nm AgNPs and particularly their accumulation in the cell wall, observed for A. brasiliensis cells, are described here for the first time.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prata/química
6.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 10-16, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687941

RESUMO

Aim - to evaluate pathogens and their susceptibility to antibiotic therapy (ABT) in combat-related penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wound (PCGW) patients and develop recommendations for treatment of post-traumatic meningoencephalitis. We conducted a prospective analysis of examination and treatment results of 121 patients who were admitted to the Public Institution, Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Regional Clinical Hospital, Dnipro, Ukraine, from 25 May 2014, to 31 December 2017, and were successively enrolled in the study. Intracranial purulent-septic complications were diagnosed in 14 (11.6%) patients including eight cases of isolated meningoencephalitis, three cases of meningoencephalitis combined with ventriculitis, two cases of meningoencephalitis combined with ventriculitis and subdural empyema and one case of multiple brain abscesses. In most cases of combat-related craniocerebral wounds, infections are considered nosocomial and typically related to medical procedures and devices. In most cases, the effectiveness of first-line antibiotics was low, and it was often necessary to prescribe broad-spectrum ABT, including those related to second-line antibiotics and reserve drugs, according to the World Health Organisation classification. The use of initial de-escalation of empiric ABT with the broadest-spectrum drugs, mainly as a part of combination therapy for expected gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic infection pathogens, is recommended.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Abscesso Encefálico/epidemiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/diagnóstico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 219, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692780

RESUMO

Introduction: "suya" and smoked fish are cherished food delicacies in Nigeria, but can be a source of dissemination of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Moreover, there are limited studies on these MDR bacteria from Dutsin-Ma. Therefore, this study examined the bacteriological qualities and antibiogram profiles of bacteria in these foods from this area in Nigeria. Methods: Twenty samples of each of "suya" and smoked fish were collected from the study areas and microbiologically analyzed. Total viable count, coliform count, characterization and identification of bacteria were carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Results: Findings revealed that "suya" samples possessed the highest total viable bacteria count (3.4×105 to 7.7×105 cfu/g) and coliform count (2.1×105 to 6.2×105 cfu/g). A total of 85 and 78 bacteria were isolated from "suya" and smoked fish samples respectively. E. coli (24.7% and 24.4%) was the most frequently isolated from each sample respectively. Highest (66.7%) resistance to each of cefuroxime, gentamicin, amoxillin/clavulanate and ciprofloxacin were observed among E. coli from "suya". MDR phenotypes commonly isolated was resistance to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, augmentin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: These studies showed the presence of MDR bacteria in samples, hence, raise the need for improved production hygiene and public health awareness.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nigéria , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692847

RESUMO

Introduction: This study was carried out to isolate and screen actinomycetes from soil of two salterns in Taza-Morocco, for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a set of target bacteria. Also, it aims to highlight some practices in order to isolates actinomycetes and screen for their ability to produce antibacterial compounds. Methods: Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, and salinity. The actinomycetes were isolated on Casein Starch Agar (CSA) medium and purified on International Streptomyces Project 2 (ISP-2) medium. Antimicrobial activity of actinomycete isolates was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zone. These activities were tested against Dickeya solani IP2222, Pectobacterium brasiliensis 13471a, Escherichia coli K12, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CECT118, Listeria innocua CECT4030, Staphylococcus aureus CECT976, Bacillus subtilis DSM 347 and Candida alibicans, using three different culture media (CSA, Bennett and Mueller Hinton) and at two temperatures of incubation (30°C and 37°C). Results: Physical and chemical analysis of soil samples showed that both sites are alkaline. Also, with regards to salinity, the second site showed to contain high salt concentration compared the first site. The abundance of bacteria isolated on CSA medium from both sites showed correlation with the physical-chemical properties of the sampling soils. Incubation temperature of 30°C resulted in a high number of actinomycetes (18/22) isolates with antimicrobial effect relative to the temperature of 37°C (4/22). Some actinomycetes isolates show antimicrobial effect on only one culture medium, which shows a special nutritional requirement to express their antimicrobial effect. On the other hand, some isolates, they express their antimicrobial effect on the three media at the same time. Additionally, some isolates of actinomycetes inhibit the growth of several microorganisms at once. While others inhibit the growth of only one microorganism tested which reflects a possible specificity of antimicrobial substances. Conclusion: Growth conditions including, media composition, temperature of incubation and the spectrum of test strain tailors the behavior of the antimicrobial screening.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Marrocos , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12452-12460, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674183

RESUMO

Increasing cases of infections by foodborne pathogenic bacteria resulted in a great demand to find safe and novel antimicrobial compounds that can be used in the food industry. The isolation and application of antimicrobial peptides including lipopeptides has been increasing tremendously in the past years. In this study, a new bacterial strain called Brevibacillus laterosporus fmb70 (fmb70) was isolated and exhibited strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. Two major antimicrobial components produced by fmb70 were respectively identified as lipopeptide: brevibacillin V (MW: 1570.12 Da) and brevibacillin (MW: 1583.75 Da), of which brevibacillin V was a new compound. Both of them consisted of 13 amino acids and C6 fatty acyl (FA) chain. Brevibacillin V and brevibacillin showed significant antimicrobial activities against most foodborne pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. They stayed activity at 100 °C and remained 50% of their antimicrobial activities at pH 3 for 22 h. Hemolytic activities of them were lower than 8%. They effectively eliminated the S. aureus GIM 1.142 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 21633 in skim milk. In conclusion, the Brevibacillus laterosporus fmb70 and its major antimicrobial components has remarkable potentials in the food industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brevibacillus/química , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Leite/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brevibacillus/metabolismo , Bovinos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mapeamento de Peptídeos
10.
Zool Res ; 40(6): 488-505, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592585

RESUMO

The discovery of antibiotics marked a golden age in the revolution of human medicine. However, decades later, bacterial infections remain a global healthcare threat, and a return to the pre-antibiotic era seems inevitable if stringent measures are not adopted to curb the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistance and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. In hospital settings, multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) bearing Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are amongst the most problematic due to the paucity of treatment options, increased hospital stay, and exorbitant medical costs. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide an excellent potential strategy for combating these threats. Compared to empirical antibiotics, they show low tendency to select for resistance, rapid killing action, broad-spectrum activity, and extraordinary clinical efficacy against several MDR strains. Therefore, this review highlights multidrug resistance among nosocomial bacterial pathogens and its implications and reiterates the importance of AMPs as next-generation antibiotics for combating MDR superbugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Humanos
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7707-7727, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571873

RESUMO

Background: The encapsulation of plant essential oils (EOs) with polymeric materials (e.g. chitosan (CS) and N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC)) and the further reduction of the polymers into their nano sizes are gaining research interest in nanotechnology due to potential applications in medical drug delivery systems as well as the food and pharmaceutical industry. The present study reports a novel approach for the synthesis of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil (OGEO)-loaded CS and TMC nanoparticles with distinct bioactive and physiochemical properties. Methods: The OGEO-loaded CS and TMC nanoparticles were characterised using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The bioactive compounds in Ocimum gratissimum methanolic extract (OG-MeOH) and EOs was evinced with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total phenolic content (TPC) of OGEO and OG-MeOH was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The in vitro drug release kinetic pattern was ascertained by membrane dialysis, while antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrozyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. The disc diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity evaluation, while MTT and a trypan blue dye exclusion assay were used to assess cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Results: GC-MS analysis revealed components that have not been previously reported for Ocimum gratissimum. The maximum OGEO cumulative drug release percentage in vitro was observed at pH 3 for both OGEO-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (OGEO-CSNPs) and OGEO-loaded N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (OGEO-TMCNPs). The antioxidant activity of OGEO-CSNPs and OGEO-TMCNPs never reached a steady state after 75 h. OGEO-TMCNPs exhibited antibacterial activity at a lower concentration for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive food pathogens. In vitro cytotoxicity revealed the increased toxicity of OGEO-TMCNPs on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Conclusion: OGEO-loaded CS and TMC nanoparticles were synthesised using a novel material optimisation approach. The synthesised nanoparticles have shown a promising application in the pharmaceutical and food industries.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Ocimum/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Humanos , Cinética , Metanol/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Eletricidade Estática
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 33(suppl 1): e065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576949

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging process for biomaterials and medical devices. Direct Laser Metal Sintering (DLMS) is an AM technique used to fabricate Ti-6Al-4V implant materials with enhanced surface-related properties compared with wrought samples; thus, this technique could influence microbial adsorption and colonization. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different implant production processes on microbial adhesion of periodontal pathogens. Titanium discs produced using two different processes-conventional and AM-were divided into three groups: conventional titanium discs with machined surface (G1), AM titanium discs with chemical treatment (G2) and AM titanium discs without chemical treatment (G3). Subgingival biofilm composed of 32 species was formed on the titanium discs, and positioned vertically in 96-well plates, for 7 days. The proportions of microbial complexes and the microbial profiles were analyzed using a DNA-DNA hybridization technique, and data were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunnett tests (p < 0.05). Lower proportions of the red complex species were observed in the biofilm formed in G2 compared with that in G1 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the proportions of the microbial complexes were similar between G2 and G3 (p > 0.05). Compared with G1, G2 showed reduced levels of Porphyromonas gingvalis , Actinomyces gerencseriae, and Streptococcus intermedius , and increased levels of Parvimonas micra , Actinomyces odontolyticus, and Eikenella corrodens (p < 0.05). The microbial profile of G3 did not differ from G1 and G2 (p > 0.05). The results of this in vitro study showed that titanium discs produced via AM could alter the microbial profile of the biofilm formed around them. Further clinical studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sondas de DNA , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1585-1590, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647400

RESUMO

Purpose. Acute bacterial meningitis continues to be a potentially life threatening condition. Hospital-acquired meningitis is rapidly increasing and adding an immense burden to the health system due to the emergence of multidrug resistance isolates. The purpose of this study is to find the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the bacteria detected from hospital- and community-acquired meningitis.Methodology. A total of 400 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the suspected meningitis cases were collected and processed for cell count, biochemical examination, Gram staining, latex agglutination and culture. Bacteria grown on blood, chocolate and Mac-conkey agar were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed as per Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines.Results. Of the isolates, most prevalent Gram negative organisms in hospital-acquired bacterial meningitis were Escherichia coli 13 (27.08 %), Acinetobacter baumannii 12 (25 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae 5 (10.42 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 (8.33 %) and Gram positive organisms were Staphylococcus aureus 4 (8.33 %), Enterococcus faecium 3 (6.25 %) and CONS 2 (4.16 %). Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 (6.25 %) was the predominant organism in community-acquired bacterial meningitis. All the Gram negative isolates were multidrug resistance. Only colistin and imipenem were effective antibiotics against them. Likewise Gram positive organisms were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested. However, E. faecium was only susceptible to Vanco+Teicoplanin.Conclusion. In hospital-acquired bacterial meningitis, multidrug resistance Gram negative bacteria are a huge challenge for the treatment of patients. Hence, antimicrobial stewardship should be followed to counteract with the emerging multidrug resistance isolates.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colistina/farmacologia , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacologia , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Vancomicina/farmacologia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11684-11693, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564105

RESUMO

Enzymatic acylation is commonly used to increase the lipophilicity of flavonoids. However, the absence of primary hydroxyl groups makes it challenging to acylate baicalin using traditional acylation methods. In this study, an enzymatic esterification strategy was developed to introduce fatty-acid chains into baicalin at its carboxyl group, hence successfully synthesizing a new series of baicalin ester derivatives in nonaqueous media. Under the optimal reaction conditions, up to 95% conversion of baicalin was achieved. Antimicrobial evaluation of the baicalin ester derivatives indicated a corresponding increase to that of C log P values, with a cutoff effect at C log P = 5.2. Baicalin ester derivatives with C log P values of 4.9-5.2 exhibited the most potent antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, the introduction of medium-length fatty alcohol chains not only increased lipophilicity but also endowed them with membrane-disrupting properties. This study, therefore, provides an understanding of the esterification of flavonoid glycosides and a prospective application of the ester derivatives.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Flavonoides/química , Lipase/química , Acilação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biocatálise , Esterificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Leveduras/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113118, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476674

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) inevitably enter domestic sewage and industrial wastewater with the continuous increase of their production and application field. The potential effect of CNTs on biological wastewater treatment processes has raised wide concerns due to their biotoxicity. In the present study, the performance, microbial community and enzymatic activity of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were evaluated under 148-day exposure of amino-functionalized multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs-NH2) at 10 and 30 mg/L. The COD removal efficiency at 10 and 30 mg/L MWCNTs-NH2 gradually reduced from 91.03% and 90.43% on day to 89.11% and 86.70% on day 148, respectively. The NH4+-N removal efficiency at 10 and 30 mg/L MWCNTs-NH2 gradually reduced from 98.98% and 98.46% on day 1 to 96.65% and 63.39% on day 148, respectively. Compared to 0 mg/L MWCNTs-NH2, the oxygen-utilizing rate, ammonia-oxidizing rate, nitrite-oxidizing rate, nitrite-reducing rate and nitrate-reducing rate at 30 mg/L MWCNTs-NH2 were decreased by 52.35%, 60.58%, 55.12%, 56.56% and 57.42% on day 148, respectively. The microbial reactive oxygen species and lactate dehydrogenase release on day 148 was increased by 59.71% and 55.28% at 30 mg/L MWCNTs-NH2, respectively. The key microbial enzymatic activity related to nitrogen removal decreased with the increase of operation time under MWCNTs-NH2 stress. The relative abundances of Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, Nitrospira and some denitrifying bacteria at 10 mg/L MWCNTs-NH2 gradually reduced with an increment in operation time. The changes of nitrogen removal rate, microbial community and enzymatic activity of SBR were related to the time-cumulative nonlinear inhibition effect under long-term exposure.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Nanotubos de Carbono , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes da Água/química , Purificação da Água
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
19.
Life Sci ; 235: 116818, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473193

RESUMO

AIMS: Considering the potential oral administration sequences and role of microbiota for metformin (MET) and berberine (BBR) during anti-diabetic treatments, the current study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions between MET and BBR in rats after oral administration at different sequences and impacts of microbiota on such interactions. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups as per what was orally administered to them: MET (G1)/BBR (G2) at 200 mg/kg, BBR 2-hour (h) after dosing MET (G3), MET 2-h after dosing BBR (G4) or MET with BBR at the same time (G5) followed by monitoring their pharmacokinetic profiles. Further in vitro incubations mimicking the above five treatments in rat intestinal content (G1R-G5R), human fecalase (G1H-G5H) and selected bacteria (G1B-G5B) were conducted for both MET and BBR (10 µg/ml for G1R/H-G5R/H and 50 µM for G1B-G5B) up to 24-h. Concentrations of MET and BBR were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. KEY FINDINGS: Although BBR was barely measurable in vivo, it significantly increased systemic exposure of MET in G3/G4. Consistent with pharmacokinetic findings, sequential in vitro incubations of MET and BBR in both rat intestinal content and human fecalase demonstrated significant increase on MET persisted after 24-h incubation in G3R/H & G4R/H. Moreover, post-dose (G3B) and pre-dose (G4B) of BBR decreased the MET degradation significantly in most selected bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding for the first time demonstrated the significant effect of sequential co-administration of BBR and MET on their pharmacokinetic interactions, which could be related to their microbiota mediated metabolisms in gastrointestinal tract (GI).


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/farmacocinética , Interações de Medicamentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Metformina/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Orv Hetil ; 160(36): 1437-1442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492084

RESUMO

Introduction: Due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics (AB), more pathogens become multiresistant. One of the most severe sources of sepsis is cholangitis. To avoid fatal outcome, an effective AB policy plays a key role. Aim: To investigate the AB resistance of bacteria causing cholangitis and the efficacy of AB treatment. Patients and method: Microbiological tests of bile samples collected during cholangitis-indicated endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies were analysed at the First Department of Medicine, University of Szeged, in 2006 and in 2016. Results: 29 and 111 patients had bile sample collection in 2006 and in 2016, respectively. Of that, 22 (75%) and 106 (95%) were positive. Mean age: 61 ± 14 vs. 71 ± 14 years, no difference between men/women ratio. In 2006, 10 cases empirical AB (ciprofloxacine with metronidazole or imipenem) were used. In 9 cases (90%), the AB was adequate based on the microbiological results. In 2016, in 88 cases empirical AB was applied (ciprofloxacine and metronidazole, ceftriaxone with metronidazole or imipenem with metronidazole). In 29 cases, the empirical AB was ineffective. The efficacy of ciprofloxacine decreased to 64% in 2016. The profile of the most frequent cholangitis-causing pathogens (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) was the same, but their resistency against ciprofloxacine increased. The rates of polymicrobal infections were 73% and 63%, respectively. Conclusion: The rates of positive bile samples were significantly higher in 2016. The profile of the most frequent pathogens was the same. The efficacy of the first-choice empirical AB ciprofloxacine decreased in 2016. The types of the most frequent cholangitis-causing bacteria are in line with the ones included in the Tokyo Guideline. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(36): 1437-1442.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bile/microbiologia , Colangite/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangite/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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