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1.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 181, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of bacterial taxa associated with diseases, exposures, and other variables of interest offers a more comprehensive understanding of the role of microbes in many conditions. However, despite considerable research in statistical methods for association testing with microbiome data, approaches that are generally applicable remain elusive. Classical tests often do not accommodate the realities of microbiome data, leading to power loss. Approaches tailored for microbiome data depend highly upon the normalization strategies used to handle differential read depth and other data characteristics, and they often have unacceptably high false positive rates, generally due to unsatisfied distributional assumptions. On the other hand, many non-parametric tests suffer from loss of power and may also present difficulties in adjusting for potential covariates. Most extant approaches also fail in the presence of heterogeneous effects. The field needs new non-parametric approaches that are tailored to microbiome data, robust to distributional assumptions, and powerful under heterogeneous effects, while permitting adjustment for covariates. METHODS: As an alternative to existing approaches, we propose a zero-inflated quantile approach (ZINQ), which uses a two-part quantile regression model to accommodate the zero inflation in microbiome data. For a given taxon, ZINQ consists of a valid test in logistic regression to model the zero counts, followed by a series of quantile rank-score based tests on multiple quantiles of the non-zero part with adjustment for the zero inflation. As a regression and quantile-based approach, the method is non-parametric and robust to irregular distributions, while providing an allowance for covariate adjustment. Since no distributional assumptions are made, ZINQ can be applied to data that has been processed under any normalization strategy. RESULTS: Thorough simulations based on real data across a range of scenarios and application to real data sets show that ZINQ often has equivalent or higher power compared to existing tests even as it offers better control of false positives. CONCLUSIONS: We present ZINQ, a quantile-based association test between microbiota and dichotomous or quantitative clinical variables, providing a powerful and robust alternative for the current microbiome differential abundance analysis. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Microbiota/genética
2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 182, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep-sea animals in hydrothermal vents often form endosymbioses with chemosynthetic bacteria. Endosymbionts serve essential biochemical and ecological functions, but the prokaryotic viruses (phages) that determine their fate are unknown. RESULTS: We conducted metagenomic analysis of a deep-sea vent snail. We assembled four genome bins for Caudovirales phages that had developed dual endosymbiosis with sulphur-oxidising bacteria (SOB) and methane-oxidising bacteria (MOB). Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) spacer mapping, genome comparison, and transcriptomic profiling revealed that phages Bin1, Bin2, and Bin4 infected SOB and MOB. The observation of prophages in the snail endosymbionts and expression of the phage integrase gene suggested the presence of lysogenic infection, and the expression of phage structural protein and lysozyme genes indicated active lytic infection. Furthermore, SOB and MOB appear to employ adaptive CRISPR-Cas systems to target phage DNA. Additional expressed defence systems, such as innate restriction-modification systems and dormancy-inducing toxin-antitoxin systems, may co-function and form multiple lines for anti-viral defence. To counter host defence, phages Bin1, Bin2, and Bin3 appear to have evolved anti-restriction mechanisms and expressed methyltransferase genes that potentially counterbalance host restriction activity. In addition, the high-level expression of the auxiliary metabolic genes narGH, which encode nitrate reductase subunits, may promote ATP production, thereby benefiting phage DNA packaging for replication. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insights into phage-bacteria interplay in intracellular environments of a deep-sea vent snail. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Genômica , Proteômica , Caramujos , Transcriptoma/genética
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501634

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains a global health issue for several reasons, such as the low vaccination rates and a lack of developed herd immunity to the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its potential inclination to elude neutralizing antibodies. It should be noted that the severity of the COVID-19 disease is significantly affected by the presence of co-infections. Comorbid conditions are caused not only by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms but also by some representatives of the environmental microbiome. The presence of patients with moderate and severe forms of the disease in hospitals indicates the need for epidemiological monitoring of (1) bacterial pathogens circulating in hospitals, especially the ESKAPE group pathogens, and (2) the microbiome of various surfaces in hospitals. In our study, we used combined methods based on PCR and NGS sequencing, which are widely used for epidemiological monitoring. Through this approach, we identified the DNA of pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, CoNS, and Achromobacter spp.) on various surfaces. We also estimated the microbiome diversity of surfaces and identified the potential reservoirs of infections using 16S rRNA profiling. Although we did not assess the viability of identified microorganisms, our results indicate the possible risks of insufficient regular disinfection of surfaces, regardless of department, at the Infectious Diseases Hospital. Controlling the transmission of nosocomial diseases is critical to the successful treatment of COVID-19 patients, the rational use of antimicrobial drugs, and timely decontamination measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bactérias/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Hospitais , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 652, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Composting is an important technique for environment-friendly degradation of organic material, and is a microbe-driven process. Previous metagenomic studies of composting have presented a general description of the taxonomic and functional diversity of its microbial populations, but they have lacked more specific information on the key organisms that are active during the process. RESULTS: Here we present and analyze 60 mostly high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from time-series samples of two thermophilic composting cells, of which 47 are potentially new bacterial species; 24 of those did not have any hits in two public MAG datasets at the 95% average nucleotide identity level. Analyses of gene content and expressed functions based on metatranscriptome data for one of the cells grouped the MAGs in three clusters along the 99-day composting process. By applying metabolic modeling methods, we were able to predict metabolic dependencies between MAGs. These models indicate the importance of coadjuvant bacteria that do not carry out lignocellulose degradation but may contribute to the management of reactive oxygen species and with enzymes that increase bioenergetic efficiency in composting, such as hydrogenases and N2O reductase. Strong metabolic dependencies predicted between MAGs revealed key interactions relying on exchange of H+, NH3, O2 and CO2, as well as glucose, glutamate, succinate, fumarate and others, highlighting the importance of functional stratification and syntrophic interactions during biomass conversion. Our model includes 22 out of 49 MAGs recovered from one composting cell data. Based on this model we highlight that Rhodothermus marinus, Thermobispora bispora and a novel Gammaproteobacterium are dominant players in chemolithotrophic metabolism and cross-feeding interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained expand our knowledge of the taxonomic and functional diversity of composting bacteria and provide a model of their dynamic metabolic interactions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metagenoma , Actinobacteria , Bactérias/genética , Rhodothermus
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2765-2778, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472294

RESUMO

Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are difficult to be degraded, and bioremediation has received increasing attention for remediating the hydrocarbon polluted area. This review started by introducing the interphase adaptation and transport process of hydrocarbon by microbes. Subsequently, the advances made in the identification of hydrocarbon-degrading strains and genes as well as elucidation of metabolic pathways and underpinning mechanisms in the biodegradation of typical petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants were summarized. The capability of wild-type hydrocarbon degrading bacteria can be enhanced through genetic engineering and metabolic engineering. With the rapid development of synthetic biology, the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted area can be further improved by engineering the metabolic pathways of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes, or through design and construction of synthetic microbial consortia.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6627-6648, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468802

RESUMO

Mixotrophic bacteria provide a desirable alternative to the use of classical heterotrophic or chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in environmental technology, particularly under limiting nutrients conditions. Their bi-modal ability of adapting to inorganic or organic carbon feed and sulfur, nitrogen, or even heavy metal stress conditions are attractive features to achieve efficient bacterial activity and favorable operation conditions for the environmental detoxification or remediation of contaminated waste and wastewater. This review provides an overview on the state of the art and summarizes the metabolic traits of the most promising and emerging non-model mixotrophic bacteria for the environmental detoxification of contaminated wastewater and waste containing excess amounts of limiting nutrients. Although mixotrophic bacteria usually function with low organic carbon sources, the unusual capabilities of mixotrophic electroactive exoelectrogens and electrotrophs in bioelectrochemical systems and in microbial electrosynthesis for accelerating simultaneous metabolism of inorganic or organic C and N, S or heavy metals are reviewed. The identification of the mixotrophic properties of electroactive bacteria and their capability to drive mono- or bidirectional electron transfer processes are highly exciting and promising aspects. These aspects provide an appealing potential for unearthing new mixotrophic exoelectrogens and electrotrophs, and thus inspire the next generation of microbial electrochemical technology and mixotrophic bacterial metabolic engineering. KEY POINTS: • Mixotrophic bacteria efficiently and simultaneously remove C and N, S or heavy metals. • Exoelectrogens and electrotrophs accelerate metabolism of C and N, S or heavy metals. • New mixotrophic exoelectrogens and electrotrophs should be discovered and exploited.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Águas Residuárias , Bactérias/genética , Processos Heterotróficos , Nitrogênio
7.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 7035-7050, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477939

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms are essential for the long-term sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, continuous grapevine replanting can disrupt the stability of soil microbial communities. We investigated the bacterial and fungal abundance, diversity, and community composition in rhizosphere soils with continuous grapevine replanting for 5, 6, 7 (Y5, Y6, and Y7; short-term), and 20 (Y20; long-term) years with high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that diversities and abundances of bacterial and fungal communities in Y20 were significantly lower than in other samples. The bacterial and fungal community compositions were markedly affected by the replanting time and planting year. After short-term grapevine replanting, relative abundances of potential beneficial bacteria and harmful fungi in rhizosphere soils were higher compared to long-term planting. Bacterial and fungal communities were significantly correlated with available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus, available potassium (AK), and pH. AK and AN were the primary soil factors related to the shift of bacterial and fungal communities. Bacterial and fungal co-occurrence patterns were remarkably affected by replanting time, showing that fallow land harbored co-occurrence networks more complex than those in other groups, with the Y20 group showing the lowest complexity. Then, we isolated the dominant fungi in grapevine rhizosphere soil after continuous replanting and verified the harmful effects of three candidate strains through pot experiments. The results showed that 12 days post-treating the soil with fungal spore suspensions significantly inhibited grapevine seedlings' growth, whereas Fusarium solani inhibited plant growth. Overall, we showed that F. solani might be a potentially harmful fungus related to grapevine replant diseases. KEY POINTS: • Continuous grapevine planting reduced soil microbe diversities/abundances. • Beneficial bacteria and harmful fungi increased after short-term replanting. • F. solani may be a harmful fungus related to grapevine replant diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , Fungos , Fusarium , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242536, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495143

RESUMO

Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46.0"N 66˚59'25.7"E and 24˚48'37.5"N 67˚06'52.6"E). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Assuntos
Cromo , Metais Pesados , Bacillus , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495150

RESUMO

Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Assuntos
Archaea , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , México , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125805, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492779

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem affecting the quality of agricultural production and human health. In this study, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and its compost (CSMS) were used to remedy black soil and red soil with simulated Pb contamination, aiming to discover their role in the improving rhizosphere environment and structuring rhizosphere bacterial community under lead stress. We designed an ultra-small-scale plot experiment to separate the rhizosphere from non-rhizosphere soil when planting water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk). The results showed that under 600 mg/kg of lead pollution, CSMS and SMS had no significant effect on the rhizosphere bacterial diversity in the black soil, but CSMS significantly increased the rhizosphere bacterial diversity in the red soil. The amendments significantly increased the percentage of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in rhizosphere soil, and the relative abundance of some beneficial genera, such as Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhizomicrobium, Lysobacter etc., which subsequently restructured the bacterial community. The compositions of bacterial community of the red soil remediated by both amendments evolved to those of the black soil.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125850, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492801

RESUMO

This study aims to unravel the microbial responses to Cr(VI) stress in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor. The result showed that anammox process could tolerate 2 mg/L Cr(VI) after acclimation, while 5 mg/L Cr(VI) stress resulted in significant inhibition on anammox bacterial activity. Ca. Jettenia was the predominant anammox genus, whose abundance showed a decreasing tendency with increasing Cr(VI) dosage. Cr(VI) addition resulted in significant and irreversible changes in microbial community structure, and increased the relative influence of stochastic processes on community assembly. Furthermore, rare subcommunity contributed greatly to biodiversity of whole community (90.35%), while abundant subcommunity were more similar to the whole community. Importantly, Cr(VI) exposure caused greater variations in rare subcommunity compared with abundant one, indicating that rare taxa were more sensitive to Cr(VI) stress. This was further confirmed by ABT model, which showed higher relative influence of Cr(VI) on rare subcommunity. In addition, results suggested that rare taxa play essential roles in whole community stability, because of their great contribution to species richness and community variations, and keystone roles in ecosystem network. Moreover, network analysis showed that conditionally rare taxa frequently and positively interacted with abundant taxa, which may contribute to the community resilience to Cr(VI) stress.


Assuntos
Cromo , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Cromo/toxicidade , Oxirredução
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516368

RESUMO

The status Candidatus was introduced to bacterial taxonomy in the 1990s to accommodate uncultured taxa defined by analyses of DNA sequences. Here I review the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) associated with the status Candidatus in the light of a quarter century of use, twinned with recent developments in bacterial taxonomy and sequence-based taxonomic discovery. Despite ambiguities as to its scope, philosophical objections to its use and practical problems in implementation, the status Candidatus has now been applied to over 1000 taxa and has been widely adopted by journals and databases. Although lacking priority under the International Code for Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, many Candidatus names have already achieved de facto standing in the academic literature and in databases via description of a taxon in a peer-reviewed publication, alongside deposition of a genome sequence and there is a clear path to valid publication of such names on culture. Continued and increased use of Candidatus names provides an alternative to the potential upheaval that might accompany creation of a new additional code of nomenclature and provides a ready solution to the urgent challenge of naming many thousands of newly discovered but uncultured species.


Assuntos
Archaea , Ácidos Graxos , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5216, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471137

RESUMO

Bacterial biosensors, or bactosensors, are promising agents for medical and environmental diagnostics. However, the lack of scalable frameworks to systematically program ligand detection limits their applications. Here we show how novel, clinically relevant sensing modalities can be introduced into bactosensors in a modular fashion. To do so, we have leveraged a synthetic receptor platform, termed EMeRALD (Engineered Modularized Receptors Activated via Ligand-induced Dimerization) which supports the modular assembly of sensing modules onto a high-performance, generic signaling scaffold controlling gene expression in E. coli. We apply EMeRALD to detect bile salts, a biomarker of liver dysfunction, by repurposing sensing modules from enteropathogenic Vibrio species. We improve the sensitivity and lower the limit-of-detection of the sensing module by directed evolution. We then engineer a colorimetric bactosensor detecting pathological bile salt levels in serum from patients having undergone liver transplant, providing an output detectable by the naked-eye. The EMeRALD technology enables functional exploration of natural sensing modules and rapid engineering of synthetic receptors for diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and control of therapeutic microbes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vibrio , Vibrioses/diagnóstico
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125928, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489083

RESUMO

Plastic wastes are becoming the most common form of marine debris and present a growing global pollution problem. Here, we used a screening approach on hundreds of plastic waste-associated samples and discovered a marine bacterial community capable of efficiently colonizing and degrading both poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyethylene (PE). Using absolute quantitative 16S rRNA sequencing and cultivation methods, we obtained corresponding abundance and purified cultures of three bacterial strains that mediated plastic degradation. We further performed numerous techniques to characterize the efficient degradation of PET and PE by the reconstituted bacterial community containing these three bacteria. Additionally, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to further demonstrate the degradation of PET and PE films by the reconstituted bacterial community. We conducted transcriptomic methods to investigate the plastic degradation process and potential degradation mechanisms mediated by our reconstituted bacterial community. Lastly, we overexpressed PE degradation enzymes based on transcriptomic results and verified their significant degradation effects on the PE films. Overall, our study establishes a stable marine bacterial community that efficiently degrades PET and PE and provides insights into plastic degradation pathways and their associated biological and mechanistic processes-paving the way for developing microbial products against plastic wastes.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Polietileno , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Etilenos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Plásticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126141, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492930

RESUMO

Microbial communities in hyporheic zones (HZ) provide vital biogeochemical functions such as contaminant degradation for river ecosystems. Antibiotics are contaminants that have been increasingly detected in HZ sediments. In this study, sediments from different HZ locations in a contaminated river, Maozhou river, China were sampled and analyzed using qPCR and high-throughput sequencing to investigate the effect of antibiotic contamination on microbial community structures and functions in HZ sediments. Results indicated that types and concentrations of antibiotics in HZ sediments were heterogeneously distributed that were largely consistent with the distribution of antibiotic sources. Sediments near animal farm and hospital contained higher antibiotic concentrations compared with those from mainstream. The distribution of ARGs was well correlated with antibiotics. Bacterial indicator genera indicating differences between mainstream area and other sampling areas were positively correlated with antibiotics, suggesting the influences of antibiotics on reshaping microbial community structures. PICRUSt revealed positive relationships between antibiotics and predicted functional genes involved in defense, signal transduction, and recombination and repair. This imply the defensive response of microbial communities on antibiotic attack. These results indicated that antibiotic contamination in the watershed posed a potential risk on HZ microbial community structures and functions, which may further threaten river ecosystem functions.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Microbiota , Antibacterianos , Bactérias/genética , China , Genes Bacterianos , Rios
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(14-15): 6103-6115, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338804

RESUMO

Metoprolol is widely used as a beta-blocker and considered an emerging contaminant of environmental concern due to pseudo persistence in wastewater effluents that poses a potential ecotoxicological threat to aquatic ecosystems. Microbial removal of metoprolol in the redox-delineated hyporheic zone (HZ) was investigated using streambed sediments supplemented with 15 or 150 µM metoprolol in a laboratory microcosm incubation under oxic and anoxic conditions. Metoprolol disappeared from the aqueous phase under oxic and anoxic conditions within 65 and 72 days, respectively. Metoprolol was refed twice after initial depletion resulting in accelerated disappearance under both conditions. Metoprolol disappearance was marginal in sterile control microcosms with autoclaved sediment. Metoprolol was transformed mainly to metoprolol acid in oxic microcosms, while metoprolol acid and α-hydroxymetoprolol were formed in anoxic microcosms. Transformation products were transient and disappeared within 30 days under both conditions. Effects of metoprolol on the HZ bacterial community were evaluated using DNA- and RNA-based time-resolved amplicon Illumina MiSeq sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively, and were prominent on 16S rRNA rather than 16S rRNA gene level suggesting moderate metoprolol-induced activity-level changes. A positive impact of metoprolol on Sphingomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae under oxic and anoxic conditions, respectively, was observed. Nitrifiers were impaired by metoprolol under oxic and anoxic conditions. Collectively, our findings revealed high metoprolol biodegradation potentials in the hyporheic zone under contrasting redox conditions associated with changes in the active microbial communities, thus contributing to the attenuation of micropollutants. KEY POINTS: • High biotic oxic and anoxic metoprolol degradation potentials in the hyporheic zone. • Key metoprolol-associated taxa included Sphingomonadaceae, Enterobacteraceae, and Promicromonosporaceae. • Negative impact of metoprolol on nitrifiers.


Assuntos
Metoprolol , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444410

RESUMO

The structural changes of microorganisms in soil are the focus of soil indicators research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the composition of the soil bacterial community in heavy metal-contaminated soil. A total of six soil samples (two sampling times) were collected from contaminated farmland at three different depths (surface, middle, and deep layer). The pH value was measured. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) and the soil bacterial community were analyzed using ICP-OES and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results of the two samplings showed that the pH value in the deep layer decreased from 6.88 to 6.23, and the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, with a smaller ion radius, increased by 16-28%, and Shannon, Chao1 increased by ~13%. The bacteria community composition at the three depths changed, but Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla. In the copper and zinc tolerance test, the isolated bacterium that was able to tolerate copper and zinc was Bacillus sp. We found that, the longer the heavy metal pollution was of concern, the higher the tolerance. These results can be used as references for the microbial remediation of heavy metal-contaminated farmland.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 946, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373573

RESUMO

Integrons are bacterial genetic elements that can capture mobile gene cassettes. They are mostly known for their role in the spread of antibiotic resistance cassettes, contributing significantly to the global resistance crisis. These resistance cassettes likely originated from sedentary chromosomal integrons, having subsequently been acquired and disseminated by mobilised integrons. However, their taxonomic and environmental origins are unknown. Here, we use cassette recombination sites (attCs) to predict the origins of those resistance cassettes now spread by mobile integrons. We modelled the structure and sequence homology of 1,978 chromosomal attCs from 11 different taxa. Using these models, we show that at least 27% of resistance cassettes have attCs that are structurally conserved among one of three taxa (Xanthomonadales, Spirochaetes and Vibrionales). Indeed, we found some resistance cassettes still residing in sedentary chromosomal integrons of the predicted taxa. Further, we show that attCs cluster according to host environment rather than host phylogeny, allowing us to assign their likely environmental sources. For example, the majority of ß-lactamases and aminoglycoside acetyltransferases, the two most prevalent resistance cassettes, appear to have originated from marine environments. Together, our data represent the first evidence of the taxonomic and environmental origins of resistance cassettes spread by mobile integrons.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Integrons/genética , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência
19.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 166, 2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the gut microbiota of animals is largely based on studies of mammals. To better understand the evolutionary basis of symbiotic relationships between animal hosts and indigenous microbes, it is necessary to investigate the gut microbiota of non-mammalian vertebrate species. In particular, fish have the highest species diversity among groups of vertebrates, with approximately 33,000 species. In this study, we comprehensively characterized gut bacterial communities in fish. RESULTS: We analyzed 227 individual fish representing 14 orders, 42 families, 79 genera, and 85 species. The fish gut microbiota was dominated by Proteobacteria (51.7%) and Firmicutes (13.5%), different from the dominant taxa reported in terrestrial vertebrates (Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes). The gut microbial community in fish was more strongly shaped by host habitat than by host taxonomy or trophic level. Using a machine learning approach trained on the microbial community composition or predicted functional profiles, we found that the host habitat exhibited the highest classification accuracy. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that the gut bacterial community of fish differs significantly from those of other vertebrate classes (reptiles, birds, and mammals). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data provide a reference for future studies of the gut microbiome of aquatic animals as well as insights into the relationship between fish and their gut bacteria, including the key role of host habitat and the distinct compositions in comparison with those of mammals, reptiles, and birds. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Firmicutes/genética , Peixes , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378755

RESUMO

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have received great interest in recent decades. However, PGPB mechanisms remain poorly understood in forage species. We aimed to evaluate roots endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria strains from Brachiaria humidicola and Brachiaria decumbens. The strains were evaluated for biological nitrogen-fixing in saline stress (0 to 10.0 g L-1 of NaCl), N-acyl homoserine lactones and indole-like compounds (ILC) production, the activity of hydrolytic enzymes, and inorganic phosphate solubilization (IPS) under different C sources. The diversity of strains was assessed by BOX-PCR. About 58% of strains were positive for BNF. High salinity levels reduced the growth and BNF. About 58% produced N-acyl homoserine lactones. The ILC was present in 39% of strains. Cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectate lyase, and amylase production were observed in 77, 14, 22, and 25% of strains, respectively. The IPS was observed in 44, 81, and 87% of isolates when glucose, mannitol and sucrose were used, respectively. Comparing two plant species and niches, the strains associated with B. humidicola and root endophytic presented more PGPB mechanisms than others. We found high strain diversity, of which 64% showed similarity lower than 70%. These results can be supporting the bioproducts development to increase forage grasses production in tropical soils.


Assuntos
Brachiaria , Bactérias/genética , Brachiaria/genética , Variação Genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Poaceae
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