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1.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1176-1183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564708

RESUMO

Recently, the potential role of gut microbiome (GM) in cardiovascular diseases has been revealed. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases worldwide; however, whether GM dysbiosis participates in the development of HF remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the specific changes in GM composition and function in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced HF in rats.The rats were divided into C (control), 4w-HF (ISO, 2.5 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, intraperitoneally), and 2w-HF (ISO, 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally) groups. The cardiac structure and function in rats were assessed, and metagenomic analyses were then performed. Compared with the healthy control group, we found that the Shannon diversity index and microbial gene count in the 4w-HF and 2w-HF groups was drastically decreased. High-throughput sequencing showed that the three groups differed in intestinal bacterial community composition. Overgrowth of bacteria, such as Prevotella, was observed in the 4w-HF group, with reduced growth of bacteria, such as Roseburia, Lactobacillus, and Butyrivibrio, associated with healthy status compared with the C group on the genus level. Concomitant with the alteration of GM composition, underrepresentation of health-linked microbial function was observed in both the 4w-HF and 2w-HF groups compared with the C group.Iso-induced HF rats showed a significant decrease in the diversity and richness of the intestinal microbiome, with a downregulation of the key intestinal bacterial groups and overgrowth of bacteria considered to be involved in inflammatory responses as well as a decrease in health-linked microbial function. Our data indicated that altered GM may be a potential player in the pathogenesis and progression of HF.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/microbiologia , Isoproterenol/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Ratos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 904-910, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484252

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017. Methods: Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens. Results: A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001). Conclusions: In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 911-916, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484253

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of hospitalized severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Shanghai, China. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, one Tertiary hospital and one Secondary hospital were chosen as the surveillance sites. Two respiratory tract specimens per case were collected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. One specimen was tested for 22 respiratory pathogens by RT-PCR, and the other specimen was cultured for 6 respiratory bacteria. Results: A total of 287 SARI cases were enrolled for sampling and lab testing. 70.73% of the cases were aged 60 years and older, with 41.46% (119/287) were positive for at least one pathogen. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen, accounting for 17.77% (51/287) of all SARI cases. Human rhinovirus/Enterovirus and Coronavirus were both accounting for 7.32% (21/287), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5.57%, 16/287). The positive rates of parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumo virus were all less than 5%. Bacterial strains were identified in seven SARI cases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (3 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (2 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 strain) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 strain). Two or Three pathogens were co-detected from 40 cases, accounting for 33.61% of 119 positive cases. The most common co-detected pathogens were influenza virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10 cases). Influenza cases peaked in winter-spring and summer. Mycoplasma pneumoniae peaked in winter-spring season and overlapped with influenza. The positive rates of pathogens were not significantly different between different age groups. Conclusions: Various respiratory pathogens can be detected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen and the co-detection of influenza virus with Mycoplasma pneumoniae the most common one.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 1018-1022, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484272

RESUMO

Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification are the recently developed thermostatic amplification techniques based on PCR. This paper briefly summarizes the principle of reaction, design principle of primer and probe, advantage of these two techniques (simple, accurate, highly sensitive and rapid) and introduces the application of the techniques in the detection of pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Replicação de Sequência Autossustentável/métodos , Primers do DNA , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10685-10693, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479251

RESUMO

Theanine is the most abundant non-protein amino acid in Camellia sinensis, but it is not known how a tea plant accumulates such high levels of theanine. The endophyte isolated from in vitro grown plantlets of C. sinensis cultivars was identified as Luteibacter spp., showing strong biocatalytic activity for converting both glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Theanine was secreted outside of the bacteria. The endophyte isolated from in vitro plantlets of Camellia oleifera cultivar was identified as Bacillus safensis and did not convert glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Enzymatic assays in vitro indicated that γ-glutamyltranspeptidases rCsEGGTs from the endophyte Luteibacter strains converted glutamine and ethylamine to theanine at higher rates than rCsGGTs from C. sinensis. This is the first report on theanine biosynthesis by an endophyte from C. sinensis, which provides a new pathway to explore the mechanism of theanine biosynthesis in C. sinensis and the interactions between an endophyte and tea plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Etilaminas/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10667-10677, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483636

RESUMO

This study investigated the modulatory effects of Decaisnea insignis seed oil (DISO), which was rich in palmitoleic acid (55.25%), palmitic acid (12.25%), and oleic acid (28.74%), on alcohol-induced metabolism disorder in mice. Fifty mice were orally administered with 38% alcohol (0.4 mL/day) and without or with DISO (3, 6, and 12 g/kg) for consecutive 12 weeks. DISO inhibited the alcohol-induced weight loss and liver function abnormality (p < 0.01) and shifted the profiles of cecal microbiome: elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus, Ruminoccoceae_UCG_004 (p < 0.05) and decreasing abundance of Parabacteroides (p < 0.05). This treatment also regulated metabolome response of amino acid and lipid metabolism in cecal content: upregulating 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (p < 0.05), 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, nicotinamide, and nicotinic acid (p < 0.1) and downregulating androsterone, tryptophan, and indole-3-acetamide (p < 0.05). DISO protected against alcoholic liver injury and gut microbiota dysbiosis by enriching the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, which was positively associated with the improvement of intestinal permeability and tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
9.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 37-48, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419763

RESUMO

Previous studies have begun to characterize the microbial community dynamics of the skin, soil, gut, and oral cavities of decomposing remains. One area that has yet to be explored in great detail is the microbiome of the fly larval mass, the community of immature flies that plays a significant role in decomposition. The current study aimed to characterize the microbiology and chemistry of larval masses established on pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses and to determine if these characteristics have potential as temporal evidence. Carcasses (n = 3) were decomposed on the soil surface of a tropical habitat on Oahu, Hawaii, USA and sampled over three days at 74 h, 80 h, 98 h, 104 h, 122 h, and 128 h (∼85-142 Accumulated Degree Days) postmortem. Larval masses were analyzed via high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and in situ chemical measurements (pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential). A trend was observed that resulted in three distinct microbial communities (pre-98 h, 98 h, and post-98 h). The oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) of larval masses apparently regulated microbial community structure with the most negative Eh being associated with the least rich and diverse microbial communities. Overall, a significant interaction between time and taxa was observed, particularly with bacterial phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The current results provide new insight into the microbial community and chemical parameters of larval masses and indicate a temporal shift that could be further studied as a PMI estimator.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Larva/química , Larva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Entomologia , Patologia Legal , Hawaii , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Animais , Oxirredução , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suínos
10.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 759-768, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376108

RESUMO

The cultivation of microbial species remains a primary challenge in microbiology and obtaining pure cultures is essential for the study of microbial physiology and function. When isolating microorganisms from aquaculture environments, Vibrio are the most dominate isolates on the media that are commonly used. In order to expand our ability to study microbial species, an easy-operation and low-cost medium that can reduce the interference of Vibrio strains and increase the cultivability of other bacteria is urgently needed. We compared viable cell counts on conventional media (CM; including Marine Agar 2216 and LB media) and diluted media (DM; including 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, 1/10-LB). We also assessed the diversity of cultivable microorganisms under high and low nutrient conditions by a plate-wash strategy coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that microbial communities from DM, especially 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, are more diverse than those obtained from CM. Vibrio isolates were reduced on DM. PICRUSt analysis revealed that nutrient composition is a significant contributor to the diversity and function of the cultivable microbial communities. Bacteria grown on CM possess more pathogenic characteristics, whereas DM favors the growth of bacteria that have multiple metabolic functions. Collectively, our data provide strong evidence that dilution of CM influences the cultivability of bacteria from aquaculture seawater. It also supports that DM can expand the range of microbial species that can be cultivated. This study also provides insights for media design in microbial cultivation from aquaculture systems.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vibrio/genética , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio/metabolismo
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 131, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432251

RESUMO

Cholesterol is a C27-sterol employed as starting material for the synthesis of valuable pharmaceutical steroids and precursors. The microbial transformations of cholesterol have been widely studied, since they are performed with high regio- and stereoselectivity and allow the production of steroidal compounds which are difficult to synthesize by classical chemical methods. In recent years, ongoing research is being conducted to discover novel biocatalysts and to develop biotechnological processes to improve existing biocatalysts and biotransformation reactions. The main objective of this review is to present the most remarkable advances in fungal and bacterial transformation of cholesterol, focusing on the different types of microbial reactions and biocatalysts, biotransformation products, and practical aspects related to sterol dispersion improvement, covering literature since 2000. It reviews the conversion of cholesterol by whole-cell biocatalysts and by purified enzymes that lead to various structural modifications, including side chain cleavage, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation/reduction, isomerization and esterification. Finally, approaches used to improve the poor solubility of cholesterol in aqueous media, such as the use of different sterol-solubilizing agents or two-phase conversion system, are also discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotecnologia/tendências , Biotransformação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 132, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432260

RESUMO

This paper aims to characterize halophilic bacteria inhabiting Algerian Saline Ecosystems (Sebkha and Chott) located in arid and semi-arid ecoclimate zones (Northeastern Algeria). In addition, screening of enzymatic activities, heavy metal tolerance and antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi were tested. A total of 74 bacterial isolates were screened and phylogenetically characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed a heterogeneous group of microorganisms falling within two major phyla, 52 strains belonging to Firmicutes (70.2%) and 22 strains (30.8%) of γ-Proteobacteria. In terms of main genera present, the isolates were belonging to Bacillus, Halobacillus, Lentibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Paraliobacillus, Planomicrobium, Salicola, Terribacillus, Thalassobacillus, Salibacterium, Salinicoccus, Virgibacillus, Halomonas, Halovibrio, and Idiomarina. Most of the enzymes producers were related to Bacillus, Halobacillus, and Virgibacillus genera and mainly active at 10% of growing salt concentrations. Furthermore, amylase, esterase, gelatinase, and nuclease activities ranked in the first place within the common hydrolytic enzymes. Overall, the isolates showed high minimal inhibitory concentration values (MIC) for Ni2+ and Cu2+ (0.625 to 5 mM) compared to Cd2+ (0.1 to 2 mM) and Zn2+ (0.156 to 2 mM). Moreover, ten isolated strains belonging to Bacillus, Virgibacillus and Halomonas genera, displayed high activity against the pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxyporum, F. verticillioides and Phytophthora capsici). This study on halophilic bacteria of unexplored saline niches provides potential sources of biocatalysts and novel bioactive metabolites as well as promising candidates of biocontrol agents and eco-friendly tools for heavy metal bioremediation.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biota , Microbiologia Ambiental , Salinidade , Argélia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190252, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365611

RESUMO

The various descriptors of biochemical diversity and an evaluation of its status of knowledge are briefly outlined. Using a few examples from in house research projects, I illustrate strategies used to increase this knowledge. Because bacteria represent an extremely diverse domain of life and carry out the widest known range of biochemical transformations, this mini-review focusses on bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo
15.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126309, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421713

RESUMO

The phosphorus availability in soil ranged from <0.01 to 1 ppm and found limiting for the utilization by plants. Hence, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) proficiently fulfill the phosphorus requirement of plants in an eco-friendly manner. The PSB encounter dynamic and challenging environmental conditions viz., high temperature, osmotic, acid, and climatic changes often hamper their activity and proficiency. The modern trend is shifting from isolation of the PSB to their genetic potentials and genome annotation not only for their better performance in the field trials but also to study their ability to cope up with stresses. In order to withstand environmental stress, bacteria need to restructure its metabolic network to ensure its survival. Pi starving condition response regulator (PhoB) and the mediator of stringent stress response alarmone (p)ppGpp known to regulate the global regulatory network of bacteria to provide balanced physiology under various stress condition. The current review discusses the global regulation and crosstalk of genes involved in phosphorus homeostasis, solubilization, and various stress response to fine tune the bacterial physiology. The knowledge of these network crosstalk help bacteria to respond efficiently to the challenging environmental parameters, and their physiological plasticity lead us to develop proficient long-lasting consortia for plant growth promotion.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Guanosina Pentafosfato/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Bactérias/genética , Plasticidade Celular , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Homeostase , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Nitrogênio , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Solo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9820-9830, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411471

RESUMO

Brain aging is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but the ameliorative effect of krill oil and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the components of krill oil were measured, and the antiaging effects of krill oil were investigated in mice with d-galactose (d-gal)-induced brain aging via proteomics and gut microbiota analysis. Krill oil treatment decreased the expression of truncated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins and proteins involved in the calcium signaling pathway. In addition, the concentrations of dopamine were increased in the serum (p < 0.05) and brain (p > 0.05) due to the enhanced expressions of tyrosine-3-monooxygenase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Moreover, krill oil alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis, decreased the abundance of bacteria that consume the precursor tyrosine, and increased the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and short-chain fatty acid producers. This study revealed the beneficial effect of krill oil against d-gal-induced brain aging and clarified the underlying mechanism through proteomics and gut microbiota analysis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Euphausiacea/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16626, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464899

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common malignant tumors in China, with a high morbidity and mortality. With the development and application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and metagenomics, a great quantity of studies have shown that gastrointestinal microbiota is closely related to digestive system diseases. Although some studies have reported the effect of long-term follow-up after subtotal gastrectomy on intestinal flora changes in patients with GC. However, the features of gut microbiota and their shifts in patients with GC in perioperative period remain unclear.This study was designed to characterize fecal microbiota shifts of the patients with GC before and after the radical distal gastrectomy (RDG) during their hospital staying periods. Furthermore, fecal microbiota was also compared between the GC patients and healthy individuals.Patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma at distal stomach were enrolled in the study. The bacterial burden within fecal samples was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To analyze the diversity and composition of gut microbiota from fecal DNA of 20 GC patients and 22 healthy controls, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from all subjects were pyrosequenced. To study gut microbiota shifts, the fecal microbiota from 6 GC patients before and after RDG was detected and subsequently analyzed. Short-chain fatty acids were also detected by chromatography spectrometer in these 6 GC patients.RDG had a moderate effect on bacterial richness and evenness, but had pronounced effects on the composition of postoperative gut microbiota compared with preoperative group. The relative abundances of genera Akkermansia, Esherichia/Shigella, Lactobacillus, and Dialister were significant changed in perioperative period. Remarkably, higher abundances of Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, and Clostridium XVIII and lower abundances of Bacteroides were observed in gut microbiota of overall GC patients compared to healthy controls.This study is the first study to characterize the altered gut microbiota within fecal samples from GC patients during perioperative period, and provide a new insights on such microbial perturbations as a potential effector of perioperative period phenotype. Further research must validate these discoveries and may evaluate targeted microbiota shifts to improve outcomes in GC patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Filogenia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 107, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267318

RESUMO

Marine microbial diversity offers enormous potential for discovery of compounds of crucial importance in healthcare, food security and bioindustry. However, access to it has been hampered by the difficulty of accessing and growing the organisms for study. The discovery and exploitation of marine bioproducts for research and commercial development requires state-of-the-art technologies and innovative approaches. Technologies and approaches are advancing rapidly and keeping pace is expensive and time consuming. There is a pressing need for clear guidance that will allow researchers to operate in a way that enables the optimal return on their efforts whilst being fully compliant with the current regulatory framework. One major initiative launched to achieve this, has been the advent of European Research Infrastructures. Research Infrastructures (RI) and associated centres of excellence currently build harmonized multidisciplinary workflows that support academic and private sector users. The European Marine Biological Research Infrastructure Cluster (EMBRIC) has brought together six such RIs in a European project to promote the blue bio-economy. The overarching objective is to develop coherent chains of high-quality services for access to biological, analytical and data resources providing improvements in the throughput and efficiency of workflows for discovery of novel marine products. In order to test the efficiency of this prototype pipeline for discovery, 248 rarely-grown organisms were isolated and analysed, some extracts demonstrated interesting biochemical properties and are currently undergoing further analysis. EMBRIC has established an overarching and operational structure to facilitate the integration of the multidisciplinary value chains of services to access such resources whilst enabling critical mass to focus on problem resolution.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Biotecnologia , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Descoberta de Drogas , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Metabolômica
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8847-8854, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328515

RESUMO

Microbiome has been revealed as a key element involved in maintaining the circadian rhythms. Oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) has been shown to have potential prebiotic activity. Therefore, this study focused on the regulation mechanisms of OTP on host circadian rhythms. After 8 weeks of OTP administration, a large expansion in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes with a decrease in Firmicutes was observed, which reflected the positive modulatory effect of OTP on gut flora. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways of ATP-binding cassette transporters, two-component system, and the biosynthesis of amino acids enriched the most differentially expressed genes after OTP treatment. Of the differentially expressed proteins identified, most were related to metabolism, genetic information processing, and environmental information processing. It underscores the ability of OTP to regulate circadian rhythm by enhancing beneficial intestinal microbiota and affecting metabolic pathways, contributing to the improvement of host microecology.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/microbiologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Chá/química
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8493-8499, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310523

RESUMO

The ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3 induce tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and restrain tumor invasion and metastasis. Despite Rh2 and Rg3 having versatile pharmacological activities, contents of them in natural ginseng are extremely low. To produce ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3, the saponin-producing capacity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Panax ginseng was investigated. In this work, 81 endophytic bacteria isolates were taken from ginseng roots by tissue separation methods. Among them, strain PDA-2 showed the highest capacity to produce the rare ginsenosides; the concentrations of rare ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 reached 62.20 and 18.60 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, it was found that strain PDA-2 belongs to the genus Agrobacterium and was very close to Agrobacterium rhizogenes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/biossíntese , Panax/microbiologia , Agrobacterium/classificação , Agrobacterium/genética , Agrobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
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