Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 38.483
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443615

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiome of raw milk obtained from three semi-subsistence farms (A, B, and C) located in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. The composition of drinking milk was assessed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing using the Ion Torrent platform. Based on the conducted research, significant changes in the composition of the milk microbiome were found depending on its place of origin. Bacteria belonging to the Bacillus (17.0%), Corynebacterium (12.0%) and Escherichia-Shigella (11.0%) genera were dominant in the milk collected from farm A. In the case of the milk from farm B, the dominant bacteria belonged to the Acinetobacter genus (21.0%), whereas in the sample from farm C, Escherichia-Shigella (24.8%) and Bacillus (10.3%) dominated the microbiome. An analysis was performed using the PICRUSt tool (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) in order to generate a profile of genes responsible for bacterial metabolism. The conducted analysis confirmed the diversity of the profile of genes responsible for bacterial metabolism in all the tested samples. On the other hand, simultaneous analysis of six KEGG Orthologs (KO), which participated in beta-lactam resistance responsible for antibiotic resistance of bacteria, demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between the predicted occurrence of these orthologs and the place of existence of microorganisms. Therefore, it can be supposed that bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics occurs regardless of the environmental niche, and that the antibiotic resistance maintained in the population is a factor that shapes the functional structure of the microbial consortia.


Assuntos
Fazendas , Microbiota/genética , Leite/microbiologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408158

RESUMO

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445403

RESUMO

Natural smectites have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of diarrhea. The present study evaluated the prophylactic effect of a diosmectite (FI5pp) on the clinical course, colon damage, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and the composition of the gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Diosmectite was administered daily to Balb/c mice from day 1 to 7 by oral gavage, followed by induction of acute DSS-colitis from day 8 to 14 ("Control", n = 6; "DSS", n = 10; "FI5pp + DSS", n = 11). Mice were sacrificed on day 21. Clinical symptoms (body weight, stool consistency and occult blood) were checked daily after colitis induction. Colon tissue was collected for histological damage scoring and quantification of tight junction protein expression. Stool samples were collected for microbiome analysis. Our study revealed prophylactic diosmectite treatment attenuated the severity of DSS colitis, which was apparent by significantly reduced weight loss (p = 0.022 vs. DSS), disease activity index (p = 0.0025 vs. DSS) and histological damage score (p = 0.023 vs. DSS). No significant effects were obtained for the expression of TJ proteins (claudin-2 and claudin-3) after diosmectite treatment. Characterization of the microbial composition by 16S amplicon NGS showed that diosmectite treatment modified the DSS-associated dysbiosis. Thus, diosmectites are promising candidates for therapeutic approaches to target intestinal inflammation and to identify possible underlying mechanisms of diosmectites in further studies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicatos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Silicatos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443585

RESUMO

Crocodiles are remarkable animals that have the ability to endure extremely harsh conditions and can survive up to a 100 years while being exposed to noxious agents that are detrimental to Homo sapiens. Besides their immunity, we postulate that the microbial gut flora of crocodiles may produce substances with protective effects. In this study, we isolated and characterized selected bacteria colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of Crocodylusporosus and demonstrated their inhibitory effects against three different cancerous cell lineages. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, several molecules were identified. For the first time, we report partial analyses of crocodile's gut bacterial molecules.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443592

RESUMO

The bacterial infection of post-operative wounds is a common health problem. Therefore, it is important to investigate fast and accurate methods of identifying bacteria in clinical samples. The aim of the study was to analyse the use of the MALDI-TOF MS technique to identify microorganism wounds that are difficult to heal. The most common bacteria are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. We also demonstrate the effect of culture conditions, such as the used growth medium (solid: Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Mueller Hilton Agar, Glucose Bromocresol Purple Agar, and Vancomycin Resistance Enterococci Agar Base and liquid: Tryptic Soy Broth and BACTEC Lytic/10 Anaerobic/F), the incubation time (4, 6, and 24h), and the method of the preparation of bacterial protein extracts (the standard method based on the Bruker guideline, the Sepsityper method) to identify factors and the quality of the obtained mass spectra. By comparing the protein profiles of bacteria from patients not treated with antibiotics to those treated with antibiotics based on the presence/absence of specific signals and using the UniProt platform, it was possible to predict the probable mechanism of the action of the antibiotic used and the mechanism of drug resistance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Ferimentos e Lesões/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4845, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381036

RESUMO

The human gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important factor in modulating innate and adaptive immunity through release of ligands and metabolites that translocate into circulation. Urbanizing African populations harbor large intestinal diversity due to a range of lifestyles, providing the necessary variation to gauge immunomodulatory factors. Here, we uncover a gradient of intestinal microbial compositions from rural through urban Tanzanian, towards European samples, manifested both in relative abundance and genomic variation observed in stool metagenomics. The rural population shows increased Bacteroidetes, led by Prevotella copri, but also presence of fungi. Measured ex vivo cytokine responses were significantly associated with 34 immunomodulatory microbes, which have a larger impact on circulating metabolites than non-significant microbes. Pathway effects on cytokines, notably TNF-α and IFN-γ, differential metabolome analysis and enzyme copy number enrichment converge on histidine and arginine metabolism as potential immunomodulatory pathways mediated by Bifidobacterium longum and Akkermansia muciniphila.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto , Arginina/metabolismo , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Histidina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma/imunologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia , Urbanização
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 383, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381527

RESUMO

Introduction: lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are infections involving the trachea, primary bronchi and lungs. People with LRTIs typically experience coughs as the primary symptoms; however, shortness of breath, weakness, fever and fatigue may be coupled with the cough. It is common among the aged, children under five and the immune-suppressed. Persons with symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may have tuberculosis, other respiratory tract infection or co-infection of tuberculosis and other respiratory pathogens. This study aimed to identify the presence of pathogens in sputum of suspected tuberculosis cases and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Methods: this was a retrospective study conducted from September 2018 to November 2019 at Tamale Public Health Laboratory. Sputum or gastric lavage samples were collected from persons with suspected clinical presentations of TB and/or LRTI. These samples were cultured using standard microbiological protocols and antimicrobial susceptibility test performed on the positive cultures by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular identification of M. tuberculosis was performed on all the suspected TB cases using GeneXpert mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampin (MTB/RIF) assay. Results: during the study period, there were 264 cases of which 49.2% were males and 50.8% were females. Positive cases for culture were 47.3%. Out of the 264 cases, 186 (70.5%) were suspected TB with 51.6% being positive for culture, 6.5% positive for M. tuberculosis (GeneXpert confirmed) and 3.8% co-infection of TB with other bacteria pathogens. Klebsiella spp. (35/125; 28%) and Pseudomonas spp. (19/125; 15.2%) were the most predominant pathogens isolated. There was no significant difference in detection of bacteria in males and females (p=0.89), however individuals with suspected TB were significantly infected with other bacterial species than the unsuspected individuals (p=0.03). Almost all the isolates showed high susceptibility towards carbapenem (meropenem) and high resistance towards the third generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftriaxone). Conclusion: this study highlights the need to test individuals with classical symptoms of LRTIs for other bacterial infections other than TB only. Sputum culture is recommended for all suspected tuberculosis cases to provide accurate laboratory diagnosis to LRTIs and mitigate unnecessary use of antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Lavagem Gástrica , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381553

RESUMO

Introduction: the crude mortality rate due to infectious diseases in India is approximately 417 per one lakh persons and pyogenic infections are one of the significant contributor. Poor antimicrobial stewardship in India has led to an increase in multidrug resistant superbugs in both community as well as hospital settings. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial etiology of pyogenic infections and to evaluate their antimicrobial resistance profile. Methods: this is a retrospective observational study from January, 2018 to December, 2018. A total 1851 samples, collected as a part of patient care were included in this study. Specimens were subjected to culture on Blood agar and MacConkey agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Species identification was done as per standard laboratory protocol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: of total 1851 samples, culture was positive in 61.54%. A total 70.59%, Gram negative organisms were isolated followed by Gram positive cocci in 45.48%, yeast in 1.05%, coryneform bacteria in 0.79% and in one case, non-tubercular mycobacteria was isolated. Staphylococcus aureus (30.9%) was the predominant organism isolated. Most common multi drug resistant isolates were Klebsiella spp. (74.79%) and Acinetobacter spp. (74.32%). Conclusion: this study gives an insight about the prevalence and common etiology of pyogenic infections along with their antimicrobial resistance profile in north western region of India. This study will contribute in formulating antibiotic stewardship program by selecting the antibiograms of pyogenic isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 410, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381554

RESUMO

Introduction: synanthropic flies are sometimes involved in the transmission of diarrheal diseases as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to assess the diversity of synanthropic flies and to determine their potential involvement in the transmission of diarrheal diseases in the city of Maroua. Methods: fly catching sessions were carried out per season in 12 wards, in five different sites and in three moments of the day, corresponding to the different daily sunshine hours. Multiple keys for the identification of diptera and of microbiological analyzes in the laboratory were used to estimate the biodiversity and the portage of microorganisms by the synanthropic flies. We carried out an ecological and statistical analyses of collected data. Results: eight species of synanthropic flies belonging to four families were identified in the city of Maroua and the distribution of these species varied according to the seasons, sites and moment of the day (p<0.05). Musca domestica and Chrysomya putoria were the most numerous species detected in the sites where the activities of agri-food processing and livestock were intense, notably Hardé, Pont-vert, Doualaré, Kongola and Makabaye. Escherichia coli was more involved than Salmonella spp.in the transmission of diarrheal diseases and the portage of bacteria by synanthropic flies was abundance-dependent. Conclusion: the diversity of synanthropic flies varies as a function of anthropogenic activities, season of the year and moment of the day. These flies are important potential mechanical vectors of fecal pathogenic bacteria in Maroua.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Dípteros/microbiologia , Insetos Vetores , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Camarões/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26932, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397940

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To determine the differences in intestinal flora between Uygur and Han patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).Microbial diversity and structural composition of fecal bacteria from patients with UC and their matched healthy spouses or first-degree relatives were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing technology.The fecal microbial diversity and abundance index of Uygur patients with UC (UUC) were significantly lower compared with the Uygur normal control group, while there was no significant difference between the Han UC patients (HUC) and the Han normal control group (HN). Compared with their respective control groups, Uygur UC patients and Han UC patients had a different main composition of human intestinal flora (P < .05). The abundance of Burkholderia, Caballeronia, Paraburkholderia in the UUC group were higher compared with the HUC group, while Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia in the HUC group were higher than those in the UUC group (P < .05). Veillonella in the UUC group was higher than that in the Uygur normal control group group, while Subdoligranulum and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-002 were significantly lower (P < .05). Prevotella_9 in the HUC group was significantly higher than that in HN group, while Blautia, Anaerostipes, and [Eubacterium]_hallii_group were significantly lower. Moreover, the top 6 species in order of importance were Christensenellaceae_R_7_group, Ruminococcae_ucg_005, Ruminococcae_ucg_010, Ruminococcae_ucg_013, Haemophilus, and Ezakiella.The difference in intestinal microflora structure may be one of the reasons for the clinical heterogeneity between Uygur and Han patients with UC. Christensenellaceae_R_7_group, Ruminococcae_ucg_005, Ruminococcae_ucg_010, Ruminococcae_ucg_013, Haemophilus, and Ezakiella could be used as potential biomarkers for predicting UC.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , China/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cell Rep ; 36(9): 109637, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433082

RESUMO

Research conducted on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) generally focuses on the systemic host response, especially that generated by severely ill patients, with few studies investigating the impact of acute SARS-CoV-2 at the site of infection. We show that the nasal microbiome of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (CoV+, n = 68) at the time of diagnosis is unique when compared to CoV- healthcare workers (n = 45) and CoV- outpatients (n = 21). This shift is marked by an increased abundance of bacterial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is also positively associated with viral RNA load. Additionally, we observe a robust host transcriptional response in the nasal epithelia of CoV+ patients, indicative of an antiviral innate immune response and neuronal damage. These data suggest that the inflammatory response caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased abundance of bacterial pathogens in the nasal cavity that could contribute to increased incidence of secondary bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
12.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 59-64, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422235

RESUMO

Background: Non-susceptibility of bacteria to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparations threaten the effectiveness of prevention of surgical site infections. Data concerning susceptibility of multidrug resistant bacteria strains to antiseptic agents was limited at our setting. This study presents the susceptibility of extended spectrum ß-lactamases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (with and without biofilm formation) to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparations at zonal referral hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted through July 2020. Presumptive extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were recovered for this study. Disc combination method was used to confirm production of ESBL while tube method was used to detect biofilms formation. Then, isolates were tested for susceptibility towards 10% povidone iodine, 70% methylated spirit, 50% hydrogen peroxide (6% of industrial H2O2 diluted in equal volume with sterile distilled water) and 2% chlorhexidine. STATA software version 13.0 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 31 presumptive ESBL producers were recovered and phenotypically confirmed, whereas 54.8% (n=17) were K. pneumoniae and 45.2% (n=14) were E. coli. Five (35.7%) E. coli and seven (41.2%) K. pneumoniae had positive biofilms test results. Four (12.9%) bacteria were non-susceptible to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparations. However, none exhibited resistance towards 10% PVP-I. Conclusion: In this study we highlight the existence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to antiseptic agents used for preoperative skin preparation at a zonal referral hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tanzânia
13.
S Afr Med J ; 111(6): 575-581, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed to patients with severe COVID-19, motivated by concern about bacterial coinfection. There is no evidence of benefit from such a strategy, while the dangers of inappropriate antibiotics are well described. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency, profile and related outcomes of infections by bacterial pathogens in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective, descriptive study in a dedicated COVID-19 ICU in Cape Town, South Africa, involving all adult patients admitted to the ICU with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia between 26 March and 31 August 2020. We collected data on patient comorbidities, laboratory results, antibiotic treatment, duration of admission and in-hospital outcome. RESULTS: We included 363 patients, who collectively had 1 199 blood cultures, 308 tracheal aspirates and 317 urine cultures performed. We found positive cultures for pathogens in 20 patients (5.5%) within the first 48 hours of ICU admission, while 73 additional patients (20.1%) had positive cultures later during their stay. The most frequently isolated pathogens at all sites were Acinetobacter baumannii (n=54), Klebsiella species (n=13) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=9). Length of ICU stay (p<0.001) and intubation (p<0.001) were associated with positive cultures on multivariate analysis. Disease severity (p=0.5), early antibiotic use (p=0.5), diabetes mellitus (p=0.1) and HIV (p=0.9) were not associated with positive cultures. Positive cultures, particularly for tracheal aspirates (p<0.05), were associated with longer ICU length of stay and mortality. Early empirical antibiotic use was not associated with mortality (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 0.95 - 6.81). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial coinfection was uncommon in patients at the time of admission to the ICU with severe COVID-19. Avoiding early empirical antibiotic therapy is therefore reasonable. Strategies to avoid coinfection and outbreaks in hospital, such as infection prevention and control, as well as the strict use of personal protective equipment, are important to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371955

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of quinoa protein as the source of antihypertensive peptides through in vitro enzymolysis, there is little evidence supporting the in vivo antihypertensive effect of intact quinoa protein. In this study, in vivo study on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was conducted by administering quinoa protein for five weeks. Gastrointestinal content identification indicated that many promising precursors of bioactive peptides were released from quinoa protein under gastrointestinal processing. Quinoa protein administration on SHRs resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure, a significant increase in alpha diversity, and microbial structure alternation towards that in non-hypertension rats. Furthermore, blood pressure was highly negatively correlated with the elevated abundance of genera in quinoa protein-treated SHRs, such as Turicibacter and Allobaculum. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota in quinoa protein-treated SHRs shared more features in the composition of genera with non-hypertension rats than that of the captopril-treated group. These results indicate that quinoa protein may serve as a potential candidate to lower blood pressure and ameliorate hypertension-related gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Chenopodium quinoa , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
15.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415303

RESUMO

The gut microbiota of insects usually plays an important role in the development and reproduction of their hosts. The fecundity of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius) varies greatly when they develop on different host plants. Whether and how the gut microbiota regulates the fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata was unknown. To address this question, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to analyze the gut microbiomes of H. vigintioctopunctata adults fed on two host plant species (Solanum nigrum and Solanum melongena) and one artificial diet. The development of the ovaries and testes was also examined. Our results revealed that the diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms varied significantly in insects reared on different diets. The gut microbiota of H. vigintioctopunctata raised on the two host plants was similar, with Proteobacteria being the dominant phylum in both groups, whereas Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in the group reared on the artificial diet. The predominant microbiota in the S. nigrum group were Acinetobacter soli and Acinetobacter ursingii (Acinetobacter, Moraxellaceae); Moraxella osloensis (Enhydrobacter, Moraxellaceae); and Empedobacter brevis (Empedobacter, Weeksellaceae). The microbiota in this group are associated with high lipid metabolism. In addition, the beetles' ovaries and testes were more highly developed in the S. nigrum group than in the other two groups. These findings provide valuable information for elucidating the complex roles the gut microbiota play in the fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata, and may also contribute to developing future novel control strategies involving this economically important pest.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fertilidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Besouros/microbiologia , Besouros/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Dieta , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Pragas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
mBio ; 12(4): e0177721, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399607

RESUMO

Viral infection of the respiratory tract can be associated with propagating effects on the airway microbiome, and microbiome dysbiosis may influence viral disease. Here, we investigated the respiratory tract microbiome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its relationship to disease severity, systemic immunologic features, and outcomes. We examined 507 oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and endotracheal samples from 83 hospitalized COVID-19 patients as well as non-COVID patients and healthy controls. Bacterial communities were interrogated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the commensal DNA viruses Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae were quantified by qPCR. We found that COVID-19 patients had upper respiratory microbiome dysbiosis and greater change over time than critically ill patients without COVID-19. Oropharyngeal microbiome diversity at the first time point correlated inversely with disease severity during hospitalization. Microbiome composition was also associated with systemic immune parameters in blood, as measured by lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios and immune profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Intubated patients showed patient-specific lung microbiome communities that were frequently highly dynamic, with prominence of Staphylococcus. Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae showed more frequent colonization and higher titers in severe disease. Machine learning analysis demonstrated that integrated features of the microbiome at early sampling points had high power to discriminate ultimate level of COVID-19 severity. Thus, the respiratory tract microbiome and commensal viruses are disturbed in COVID-19 and correlate with systemic immune parameters, and early microbiome features discriminate disease severity. Future studies should address clinical consequences of airway dysbiosis in COVID-19, its possible use as biomarkers, and the role of bacterial and viral taxa identified here in COVID-19 pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of the respiratory tract, results in highly variable outcomes ranging from minimal illness to death, but the reasons for this are not well understood. We investigated the respiratory tract bacterial microbiome and small commensal DNA viruses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and found that each was markedly abnormal compared to that in healthy people and differed from that in critically ill patients without COVID-19. Early airway samples tracked with the level of COVID-19 illness reached during hospitalization, and the airway microbiome also correlated with immune parameters in blood. These findings raise questions about the mechanisms linking SARS-CoV-2 infection and other microbial inhabitants of the airway, including whether the microbiome might regulate severity of COVID-19 disease and/or whether early microbiome features might serve as biomarkers to discriminate disease severity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anelloviridae/classificação , Anelloviridae/genética , Anelloviridae/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 702-712, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211146

RESUMO

Assays for the molecular detection of nucleic acids are typically constrained by the level of multiplexing (this is the case for the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for isothermal amplification), turnaround times (as with microarrays and next-generation sequencing), quantification accuracy (isothermal amplification, microarrays and nanopore sequencing) or specificity for single-nucleotide differences (microarrays and nanopore sequencing). Here we show that a portable and battery-powered PCR assay performed in a toroidal convection chamber housing a microarray of fluorescently quenched oligonucleotide probes allows for the rapid and sensitive quantification of multiple DNA targets with single-nucleotide discrimination. The assay offers a limit of detection of 10 DNA copies within 30 min of turnaround time and a dynamic range spanning 4 orders of magnitude of DNA concentration, and we show its performance by detecting 20 genomic loci and 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in human genomic DNA samples, and 15 bacterial species in clinical isolates. Portable devices for the fast and highly multiplexed detection of nucleic acids may offer advantages in point-of-care diagnostics.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Sondas de DNA/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Genoma Humano , Genótipo , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Análise em Microsséries , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
19.
Microb Ecol ; 82(2): 365-376, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219185

RESUMO

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has had major impact on human health worldwide. Whilst national and international COVID-19 lockdown and travel restriction measures have had widespread negative impact on economies and mental health, they may have beneficial effect on the environment, reducing air and water pollution. Mass bathing events (MBE) also known as Kumbh Mela are known to cause perturbations of the ecosystem affecting resilient bacterial populations within water of rivers in India. Lockdowns and travel restrictions provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of minimum anthropogenic activity on the river water ecosystem and changes in bacterial populations including antibiotic-resistant strains. We performed a spatiotemporal meta-analysis of bacterial communities of the Godavari River, India. Targeted metagenomics revealed a 0.87-fold increase in the bacterial diversity during the restricted activity of lockdown. A significant increase in the resilient phyla, viz. Proteobacteria (70.6%), Bacteroidetes (22.5%), Verrucomicrobia (1.8%), Actinobacteria (1.2%) and Cyanobacteria (1.1%), was observed. There was minimal incorporation of allochthonous bacterial communities of human origin. Functional profiling using imputed metagenomics showed reduction in infection and drug resistance genes by - 0.71-fold and - 0.64-fold, respectively. These observations may collectively indicate the positive implications of COVID-19 lockdown measures which restrict MBE, allowing restoration of the river ecosystem and minimise the associated public health risk.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Rios/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hinduísmo , Atividades Humanas , Índia/epidemiologia , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 636, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors associated with mortality and multi-drug resistance bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) among adult cancer patients in Shiraz, Iran. We also report a four-year trend of antimicrobial resistance patterns of BSIs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study at a referral oncology hospital from July 2015 to August 2019, which included all adults with confirmed BSI. RESULTS: 2393 blood cultures tested during the four-year study period; 414 positive cultures were included. The mean age of our patients was 47.57 ± 17.46 years old. Central Line-Associated BSI (CLABSI) was more common in solid tumors than patients with hematological malignancies. Gram-negative (GN) bacteria were more detected (63.3%, 262) than gram-positive bacteria (36.7%, 152). Escherichia coli was the most common gram-negative organism (123/262, 47%), followed by Pseudomonas spp. (82/262, 31%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (38/262, 14.5%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was the most frequently isolated pathogen among gram-positive bacteria (83/152, 54.6%). Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were the most common Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producers (100, 96.2, 66.7%, and 60.7, respectively). Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were the most common carbapenem-resistant (CR) isolates (77.8, 70.7, 33.3, 24.4, and 13.2%, respectively). Out of 257 Enterobacterales and non-fermenter gram-negative BSIs, 39.3% (101/257) were carbapenem-resistant. Although the incidence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) gram-negative BSI increased annually during 2015-2018, the mortality rate of gram-negative BSI remains unchanged at about 20% (p-value = 0.55); however, the mortality rate was significantly greater (35.4%) in those with resistant gram-positive BSI (p-value = 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 21.5%. Early (7-day mortality) and late mortality rate (30-day mortality) were 10 and 3.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of MDR gram-negative BSI is a significant healthcare problem in oncology centers. The high proportion of the most frequently isolated pathogens were CR and ESBL-producing Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas spp. We have few effective choices against MDRGN BSI, especially in high-risk cancer patients, which necessitate newer treatment options.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/complicações , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sepse/complicações , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...