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1.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e039, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508729

RESUMO

This clinical study compared the effectiveness of two rotary systems: HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Altstetten, Switzerland) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) on the removal of cultivable bacteria and endotoxins from primarily infected root canals. This study was designed as a randomized single-blinded, 2-arm, clinical trial. Twenty-four primarily infected root canals were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: HyFlex CM (n = 12); and ProTaper Next (n = 12). Samples were collected before and after the biomechanical preparation and inoculated in specific flasks. Irrigation was performed using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. A kinetic turbidimetric lysate assay of limulus amoebocytes was used to quantify endotoxins. Microbiological culture technique was used to determine the count of bacterial colony forming units (CFU/mL). Data collected were statistically analyzed using SigmaPlot 12.0 for Windows. The Two-Way ANOVA statistical test was performed and the level of significance was 5%. In the samples before the biomechanical preparation, cultivable bacteria and endotoxins were evidenced in 100% of the cases. The culture analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial reduction between the two instrumentation systems. Endotoxins were present in 100% of the canals after instrumentation and there was no statistical difference between the two systems in endotoxin reduction. Thus, it was concluded that both instrumentation systems were effective in reducing root canal bacteria and endotoxins with primary endodontic infection and that there was no statistical difference between them. However, no system was able to eliminate 100% of the bacteria and their by-products.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Endotoxinas/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 889-894, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484249

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the seasonality and etiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in adults from Shanghai. Methods: Adult patients with diarrhea who had visited the enteric disease clinics in 22 hospitals that carrying on the Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance sentinel programs in Shanghai during 2014-2017, were surveyed. Stool specimens were collected according to the different intervals of sampling and detected for 12 bacteria and 5 viruses. Concentration ratio and circular distribution method were used for data analysis. Results: From 2014 to 2017, a total of 9 573 stool specimens were collected from the targeted diarrhea patients ≥18 years old (n=96 067), through the Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance program. The positive rate of detection was 46.44%. Seasonal peaks of infectious diarrhea were both seen in summer (bacteria peak, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.) and in winter (virus peak, Norovirus, etc.). Both bacterial and viral infections presented seasonal concentration (Raleigh's test P<0.001) but more obvious with bacterial infection. Viral infection accounted for 60.19% of the cause of infectious diarrhea. The top five predominant pathogens appeared as Norovirus, Rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella spp.. Conclusions: Among the adult outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, obvious seasonality was seen, with peaks in both summer and winter. Viral infection with Norovirus in particular, appeared as the predominant source of infection. Active, continuous and comprehensive diarrhea-related surveillance programs would be able to monitor the changing dynamic of pathogen spectrum, and lead to the adoption of targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/etiologia , Fezes , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 904-910, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484252

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017. Methods: Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens. Results: A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001). Conclusions: In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 911-916, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484253

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of hospitalized severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Shanghai, China. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, one Tertiary hospital and one Secondary hospital were chosen as the surveillance sites. Two respiratory tract specimens per case were collected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. One specimen was tested for 22 respiratory pathogens by RT-PCR, and the other specimen was cultured for 6 respiratory bacteria. Results: A total of 287 SARI cases were enrolled for sampling and lab testing. 70.73% of the cases were aged 60 years and older, with 41.46% (119/287) were positive for at least one pathogen. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen, accounting for 17.77% (51/287) of all SARI cases. Human rhinovirus/Enterovirus and Coronavirus were both accounting for 7.32% (21/287), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5.57%, 16/287). The positive rates of parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumo virus were all less than 5%. Bacterial strains were identified in seven SARI cases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (3 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (2 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 strain) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 strain). Two or Three pathogens were co-detected from 40 cases, accounting for 33.61% of 119 positive cases. The most common co-detected pathogens were influenza virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10 cases). Influenza cases peaked in winter-spring and summer. Mycoplasma pneumoniae peaked in winter-spring season and overlapped with influenza. The positive rates of pathogens were not significantly different between different age groups. Conclusions: Various respiratory pathogens can be detected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen and the co-detection of influenza virus with Mycoplasma pneumoniae the most common one.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16626, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464899

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common malignant tumors in China, with a high morbidity and mortality. With the development and application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and metagenomics, a great quantity of studies have shown that gastrointestinal microbiota is closely related to digestive system diseases. Although some studies have reported the effect of long-term follow-up after subtotal gastrectomy on intestinal flora changes in patients with GC. However, the features of gut microbiota and their shifts in patients with GC in perioperative period remain unclear.This study was designed to characterize fecal microbiota shifts of the patients with GC before and after the radical distal gastrectomy (RDG) during their hospital staying periods. Furthermore, fecal microbiota was also compared between the GC patients and healthy individuals.Patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma at distal stomach were enrolled in the study. The bacterial burden within fecal samples was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To analyze the diversity and composition of gut microbiota from fecal DNA of 20 GC patients and 22 healthy controls, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from all subjects were pyrosequenced. To study gut microbiota shifts, the fecal microbiota from 6 GC patients before and after RDG was detected and subsequently analyzed. Short-chain fatty acids were also detected by chromatography spectrometer in these 6 GC patients.RDG had a moderate effect on bacterial richness and evenness, but had pronounced effects on the composition of postoperative gut microbiota compared with preoperative group. The relative abundances of genera Akkermansia, Esherichia/Shigella, Lactobacillus, and Dialister were significant changed in perioperative period. Remarkably, higher abundances of Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, and Clostridium XVIII and lower abundances of Bacteroides were observed in gut microbiota of overall GC patients compared to healthy controls.This study is the first study to characterize the altered gut microbiota within fecal samples from GC patients during perioperative period, and provide a new insights on such microbial perturbations as a potential effector of perioperative period phenotype. Further research must validate these discoveries and may evaluate targeted microbiota shifts to improve outcomes in GC patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Filogenia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9820-9830, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411471

RESUMO

Brain aging is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but the ameliorative effect of krill oil and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the components of krill oil were measured, and the antiaging effects of krill oil were investigated in mice with d-galactose (d-gal)-induced brain aging via proteomics and gut microbiota analysis. Krill oil treatment decreased the expression of truncated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins and proteins involved in the calcium signaling pathway. In addition, the concentrations of dopamine were increased in the serum (p < 0.05) and brain (p > 0.05) due to the enhanced expressions of tyrosine-3-monooxygenase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Moreover, krill oil alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis, decreased the abundance of bacteria that consume the precursor tyrosine, and increased the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and short-chain fatty acid producers. This study revealed the beneficial effect of krill oil against d-gal-induced brain aging and clarified the underlying mechanism through proteomics and gut microbiota analysis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Euphausiacea/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 759-768, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376108

RESUMO

The cultivation of microbial species remains a primary challenge in microbiology and obtaining pure cultures is essential for the study of microbial physiology and function. When isolating microorganisms from aquaculture environments, Vibrio are the most dominate isolates on the media that are commonly used. In order to expand our ability to study microbial species, an easy-operation and low-cost medium that can reduce the interference of Vibrio strains and increase the cultivability of other bacteria is urgently needed. We compared viable cell counts on conventional media (CM; including Marine Agar 2216 and LB media) and diluted media (DM; including 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, 1/10-LB). We also assessed the diversity of cultivable microorganisms under high and low nutrient conditions by a plate-wash strategy coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that microbial communities from DM, especially 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, are more diverse than those obtained from CM. Vibrio isolates were reduced on DM. PICRUSt analysis revealed that nutrient composition is a significant contributor to the diversity and function of the cultivable microbial communities. Bacteria grown on CM possess more pathogenic characteristics, whereas DM favors the growth of bacteria that have multiple metabolic functions. Collectively, our data provide strong evidence that dilution of CM influences the cultivability of bacteria from aquaculture seawater. It also supports that DM can expand the range of microbial species that can be cultivated. This study also provides insights for media design in microbial cultivation from aquaculture systems.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vibrio/genética , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio/metabolismo
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 132, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432260

RESUMO

This paper aims to characterize halophilic bacteria inhabiting Algerian Saline Ecosystems (Sebkha and Chott) located in arid and semi-arid ecoclimate zones (Northeastern Algeria). In addition, screening of enzymatic activities, heavy metal tolerance and antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi were tested. A total of 74 bacterial isolates were screened and phylogenetically characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed a heterogeneous group of microorganisms falling within two major phyla, 52 strains belonging to Firmicutes (70.2%) and 22 strains (30.8%) of γ-Proteobacteria. In terms of main genera present, the isolates were belonging to Bacillus, Halobacillus, Lentibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Paraliobacillus, Planomicrobium, Salicola, Terribacillus, Thalassobacillus, Salibacterium, Salinicoccus, Virgibacillus, Halomonas, Halovibrio, and Idiomarina. Most of the enzymes producers were related to Bacillus, Halobacillus, and Virgibacillus genera and mainly active at 10% of growing salt concentrations. Furthermore, amylase, esterase, gelatinase, and nuclease activities ranked in the first place within the common hydrolytic enzymes. Overall, the isolates showed high minimal inhibitory concentration values (MIC) for Ni2+ and Cu2+ (0.625 to 5 mM) compared to Cd2+ (0.1 to 2 mM) and Zn2+ (0.156 to 2 mM). Moreover, ten isolated strains belonging to Bacillus, Virgibacillus and Halomonas genera, displayed high activity against the pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxyporum, F. verticillioides and Phytophthora capsici). This study on halophilic bacteria of unexplored saline niches provides potential sources of biocatalysts and novel bioactive metabolites as well as promising candidates of biocontrol agents and eco-friendly tools for heavy metal bioremediation.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biota , Microbiologia Ambiental , Salinidade , Argélia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 166, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303935

RESUMO

Introduction: Superbugs are pathogenic micro-organism and especially a bacterium that has developed resistance to the medications normally used against it. As the superbug family increases, the need for appropriate diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control strategies cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, this work determined the distribution of superbug bacteria among patients on prolonged hospital admissions in three tertiary hospitals of Kano state, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among 401 patients from medical, surgery, orthopedic and burn centre wards in a three tertiary hospitals in Kano state. A sample collected comprises wound/pus, urine, urine catheter and nasal intubation and were analysed using standard microbiological methods for Acinetobacter spp and other related nosocomial bacterial pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: One hundred and thirty eight (138) isolates were recovered, from the studied participants. More than 80% of the nosocomial infections (NIs) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebseilla spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomona spp and Acinetobacter spp. In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that acinetobacter were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin and imipenem. Conclusion: Superbugs (Acinetobacter species) significantly contributed to delayed hospital admissions through observed 100% resistance to used antibiotics. The healthcare managers of these hospitals and the ministry of health need to take measures against this resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter spp) especially on prescribing antibiotics that showed 100% resistant from these studied hospitals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(8): 775-783, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259432

RESUMO

We unearthed some interesting microecological discoveries while selecting for the most beneficial bacterial strains to be used as probiotics in Lecane inermis rotifer mass culture. For 3 years, we maintained the cultures of L. inermis, with selection for the highest growth rate and resistance to potential contamination. Then, we conducted further selection and isolation in two groups: rotifers inoculated with the bacterial consortium isolated from the rotifer cultures, and rotifers fed with a commercial bioproduct. Selection was conducted in demanding conditions, with particulate matter suspended in spring water as a substrate, without aeration and under strong consumer pressure, and led to selection of two cultivable strains isolated from the optimal rotifers culture. According to molecular analysis, these strains were Aeromonas veronii and Pseudomonas mosselii. Biolog® ECO plate tests showed that both investigated bacterial communities metabolized wide but similar range of substrates. Therefore, intensely selective conditions led to considerable reduction in bacterial community regarding taxonomy, but not in metabolic activity, showing a functional composition decoupling. Aside from this result, our novel selection method dedicated to the sustainable culture of two trophic levels, a directed selection procedure (DSC), could potentially lead to the development of biotechnologically valuable strains with high metabolic activity and the ability to metabolize different sorts of substrate without harmful impact on higher trophic levels.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Consórcios Microbianos , Rotíferos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Filogenia , Rotíferos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esgotos/microbiologia
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1306-1313, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274401

RESUMO

Introduction. Umbilical catheterization offers unique vascular access that is only possible in the neonatal setting due to unobstructed umbilical vessels from foetal circulation. With the cut of the umbilical cord, two arteries and a vein are dissected, allowing quick and painless catheterization of the neonate. Unfortunately, keeping the umbilical access sterile is challenging due to its mobility and necrosis of the umbilical stump, which makes it a perfect model for vessel catheter colonization analysis.Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial colonization of the umbilical catheter, with a focus on the difference between various sections of the catheter, the duration of catheterization, patient status and gestational age.Methodology. We performed bacterial cultures for 44 umbilical catheters, analysing the superficial and deep parts of the catheter separately, and revealed colonization in one-third of cases.Results. One hundred per cent of the colonization occurred in preterm infants, with a shift towards extreme prematurity. The catheters were mainly colonized by coagulase-negative staphylococci. The majority of catheters presented with superficial colonization dominance, and there were no cases of deep colonization. The bacterial strains and their resistance were consistent between the catheter's proximal and distal parts, as well as positive blood cultures. The patients with the most intense bacterial catheter colonization presented with sepsis around removal time or a couple of days later, especially if they were extremely premature and exhibited very low birth weight. Catheterization time did not play a major role.Conclusion. Umbilical catheters are vectors for skin microflora transmission to the bloodstream via biofilm formation, regardless of antibiotic use and the duration of catheterization, especially in preterm neonates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cateterismo/métodos , Cateteres/microbiologia , Uso de Medicamentos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/patologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/patologia , Cateterismo/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1373-1382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329097

RESUMO

Introduction. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is dysbiosis associated with an increased risk of several sexually transmitted infections. It is primarily diagnosed via Gram staining, although molecular analyses have presented higher diagnostic accuracy.Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of BV in asymptomatic women to determine its association with several commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms of the genitalia.Methodology. The prevalence of BV was investigated through semiquantitative assessment of 201 women recruited during their routine gynaecological inspection at an outpatient clinic in Tabasco, Mexico.Results. Women with BV showed an increased prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (P=0.021) and Mycoplasma hominis (P=0.001). Of the BV-associated micro-organisms, Gardnerella vaginalis was significantly associated with C. trachomatis (P=0.005) and/or Ureaplasma parvum (P=0.003), whereas Atopobium vaginae and Megasphaera type 1 correlated significantly with Mycoplasma hominis (P=0.001). No significant association was observed between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and BV, although there was increased prevalence of HPV59, HPV73, HPV52 and HPV58 in women displaying cervical cytological abnormalities.Conclusion. Identification of BV-associated micro-organisms via molecular analysis may help to distinguish recurrent cases from new infections and identify micro-organisms potentially associated with pharmacological resistance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/virologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
APMIS ; 127(10): 660-670, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344275

RESUMO

Multiple approaches were employed to detect pathogens from bone margins associated with Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis (DFO). Intra-operative bone specimens of 14 consecutive subjects with suspected DFO were collected over a six-month study period from Liverpool Hospital. Infected bone and a proximal bone margins presumed to be 'clean/non-infected' were collected. Bone material was subjected to conventional culture, DNA sequencing and microscopy. In total, eight of 14 (57%) proximal bone margins had no growth by conventional culture but were identified in all proximal bone specimens by DNA sequencing. Proximal margins had lower median total microbial counts than infected specimens, but these differences were not statistically significant. Pathogens identified by sequencing in infected specimens were identified in proximal margins and the microbiomes were similar (ANOSIM = 0.02, p = 0.59). Using a combination of SEM and/or PNA-FISH, we visualized the presence of microorganisms in infected bone specimens and their corresponding proximal margins of seven patients (50%) with DFO. We identify that bacteria can still reside in what seems to be proximal 'clean' margins. The significance and implications of clinical outcomes requires further analysis from a larger sample size that incorporates differences in surgical and post-operative approaches, correlating any outcomes back to culture-sequence findings.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Pé Diabético/patologia , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Osteomielite/patologia , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Food Chem ; 298: 125068, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260977

RESUMO

In this work, 18 gluten-free flours (prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and legumes), differing in pigmentation, were screened for their phenolic profiles, cooked and, then, subjected to digestion and large intestinal fermentation in vitro. A combined targeted/untargeted metabolomic approach was used to elucidate the microbial biotransformation processes of polyphenols following digestion. This preliminary work demonstrated an increase in 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (on average from 0.67 up to 1.30 µmol/g dry matter) throughout large intestinal fermentation of pseudocereals (esp. quinoa), due to their high alkylresorcinol contents. Isoflavones were converted into equol- or O-desmethylangolensin- derivatives, whereas anthocyanins were degraded into lower-molecular-weight phenolics (i.e., protocatechuic aldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, with the latter exhibiting the highest increase over time). A decreasing trend was observed for antioxidant activities (i.e., FRAP and ORAC values) moving from digested to faecal fermented samples. These findings highlight that gluten-free flours are able to deliver bioaccessible polyphenols to the colon.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Suínos
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7869-7879, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287296

RESUMO

Carnitine, a dietary quaternary amine mainly from red meat, is metabolized to trimethylamine (TMA) by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by host hepatic enzymes, flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of flavonoids from oolong tea and citrus peels on reducing TMAO formation and protecting vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. The results showed that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water significantly (p < 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TMAO compared to control group, whereas the plasma TMAO was remarkedly reduced by flavonoids used. Meanwhile, these dietary phenolic compounds significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. Additionally, oolong tea extract decreased mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers such as tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Polymethoxyflavones significantly lowered the expression of VCAM-1 and showed a decreasing trend in TNF-α and E-selectin mRNA expression compared to the carnitine group. Genus-level analysis of the gut microbiota in the cecum showed that these dietary phenolic compounds induced an increase in the relative abundances of Bacteroides. Oolong tea extract-treated group up-regulated Lactobacillus genus, compared to the carnitine only group. Administration of polymethoxyflavones increased Akkermansia in mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Carnitina/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonas/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 30(5): 349-355, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261188

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study is a review of recent literature in the diagnosis and management of preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis and dacryocystitis, including causative organisms, diagnosis and medical or surgical therapy and potential complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae B have resulted in a shift in the most common causative organisms of preseptal and orbital cellulitis. Management of orbital cellulitis has been advanced by adjuvant corticosteroids, and subperiosteal abscess volumes of more than 1250 ml has been shown as predictive for requiring potential surgical intervention. SUMMARY: Periorbital infections require prompt evaluation and management. Although the infectious organisms in both preseptal and orbital cellulitis include Staphylococcus/Streptococcus species, management may differ significantly on the basis of the nidus of infection, presenting signs and symptoms, and response to initial medical management.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Dacriocistite/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Celulite Orbitária/microbiologia , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dacriocistite/diagnóstico , Dacriocistite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Celulite Orbitária/diagnóstico , Celulite Orbitária/tratamento farmacológico
17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1144-1154, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288301

RESUMO

There have been several studies regarding lichen-associated bacteria obtained from diverse environments. Our screening process identified 49 bacterial species in two lichens from the Himalayas: 17 species of Actinobacteria, 19 species of Firmicutes, and 13 species of Proteobacteria. We discovered five types of strong antimicrobial agent-producing bacteria. Although some strains exhibited weak antimicrobial activity, NP088, NP131, NP132, NP134, and NP160 exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all multidrug-resistant strains. Polyketide synthase (PKS) fingerprinting revealed results for 69 of 148 strains; these had similar genes, such as fatty acid-related PKS, adenylation domain genes, PfaA, and PksD. Although the association between antimicrobial activity and the PKS fingerprinting results is poorly resolved, NP160 had six types of PKS fingerprinting genes, as well as strong antimicrobial activity. Therefore, we sequenced the draft genome of strain NP160, and predicted its secondary metabolism using antiSMASH version 4.2. NP160 had 46 clusters and was predicted to produce similar secondary metabolites with similarities of 5-100%. Although NP160 had 100% similarity with the alkylresorcinol biosynthetic gene cluster, our results showed low similarity with existing members of this biosynthetic gene cluster, and most have not yet been revealed. In conclusion, we expect that lichen-associated bacteria from the Himalayas can produce new secondary metabolites, and we found several secondary metabolite-related biosynthetic gene clusters to support this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Líquens/microbiologia , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 603, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the pathogen distribution and drug resistance in patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection. METHODS: From August 2015 to December 2017, 172 pathogenic bacterial strains from patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection in our hospital were identified, and the drug sensitivity was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 172 strains of pathogenic bacteria, gram negative bacteria was the main cause of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with acute cerebral infarction, accounting for 75.6% of all pathogens. Furthermore, 80% of diabetic patients with cerebral infarction had lung infection induced by gram negative bacteria, which was significantly higher than that in non-diabetic patients (72.2%). Moreover, the drug resistance rate in the diabetic group (68.3%) was significantly higher than that in the non-diabetic group (54.3%). Gram positive bacteria accounted for 19.1% of all pathogenic bacteria. The infection rate of gram-positive bacteria in diabetic patients with cerebral infarction was 14.7%, which was lower than that in the non-diabetic group (22.6%). The drug-resistance rate was higher in the diabetic group (45.5%) than in the non-diabetic group (28.2%). Furthermore, the fungal infection rate in patients with lung infection in these two groups was 5.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and fungi presented with high sensitivity to commonly used antifungal agents. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection, the majority of pathogens are multidrug-resistant gram negative bacilli. Pathogen culture should be conducted as soon as possible before using antibiotics, and antimicrobial agents should be reasonably used according to drug sensitivity test results.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 607, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood culture bottles (BCBs) provide a semiautomated method for culturing periprosthetic tissue specimens. A study evaluating BCBs for culturing clinical samples other than body fluids is needed before implementation into clinical practice. Our objective was to evaluate use of the BacT/Alert® Virtuo blood culture system for culturing periprosthetic tissue specimens. METHODS: The study was performed through the analysis of spiked (n = 36) and clinical (n = 158) periprosthetic tissue samples. Clinical samples were analyzed by the BCB method and the results were compared to the conventional microbiological culture-based method for time to detection and microorganisms identified. RESULTS: The BacT/Alert® Virtuo blood culture system detected relevant bacteria for prosthetic joint infection in both spiked and clinical samples. The BCB method was found to be as sensitive (79%) as the conventional method (76%) (p = 0.844) during the analyses of clinical samples. The BCB method yielded positive results much faster than the conventional method: 89% against 27% detection within 24 h, respectively. The median detection time was 11.1 h for the BCB method (12 h and 11 h for the aerobic and the anaerobic BCBs, correspondingly). CONCLUSION: We recommend using the BacT/Alert® Virtuo blood culture system for analyzing prosthetic joint tissue, since this detect efficiently and more rapidly a wider range of bacteria than the conventional microbiological method.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Hemocultura/métodos , Prótese Articular/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Hemocultura/instrumentação , Humanos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8493-8499, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310523

RESUMO

The ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3 induce tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and restrain tumor invasion and metastasis. Despite Rh2 and Rg3 having versatile pharmacological activities, contents of them in natural ginseng are extremely low. To produce ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3, the saponin-producing capacity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Panax ginseng was investigated. In this work, 81 endophytic bacteria isolates were taken from ginseng roots by tissue separation methods. Among them, strain PDA-2 showed the highest capacity to produce the rare ginsenosides; the concentrations of rare ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 reached 62.20 and 18.60 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, it was found that strain PDA-2 belongs to the genus Agrobacterium and was very close to Agrobacterium rhizogenes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/biossíntese , Panax/microbiologia , Agrobacterium/classificação , Agrobacterium/genética , Agrobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
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