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1.
Gut ; 69(1): 92-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) were previously shown to display a bacterial gut dysbiosis but fungal microbiota has never been examined in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal gut microbiota in patients with PSC. DESIGN: We analysed the faecal microbiota of patients with PSC and concomitant IBD (n=27), patients with PSC and no IBD (n=22), patients with IBD and no PSC (n=33) and healthy subjects (n=30). Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. RESULTS: We found that patients with PSC harboured bacterial dysbiosis characterised by a decreased biodiversity, an altered composition and a decreased correlation network density. These alterations of the microbiota were associated with PSC, independently of IBD status. For the first time, we showed that patients with PSC displayed a fungal gut dysbiosis, characterised by a relative increase in biodiversity and an altered composition. Notably, we observed an increased proportion of Exophiala and a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared with patients with IBD and healthy subjects, the gut microbiota of patients with PSC exhibited a strong disruption in bacteria-fungi correlation network, suggesting an alteration in the interkingdom crosstalk. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that bacteria and fungi contribute to gut dysbiosis in PSC.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Gut ; 69(1): 42-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prenatal and early life bacterial colonisation is thought to play a major role in shaping the immune system. Furthermore, accumulating evidence links early life exposures to the risk of developing IBD later in life. We aimed to assess the effect of maternal IBD on the composition of the microbiome during pregnancy and on the offspring's microbiome. METHODS: We prospectively examined the diversity and taxonomy of the microbiome of pregnant women with and without IBD and their babies at multiple time points. We evaluated the role of maternal IBD diagnosis, the mode of delivery, antibiotic use and feeding behaviour on the microbiome composition during early life. To assess the effects of IBD-associated maternal and infant microbiota on the enteric immune system, we inoculated germ-free mice (GFM) with the respective stool and profiled adaptive and innate immune cell populations in the murine intestines. RESULTS: Pregnant women with IBD and their offspring presented with lower bacterial diversity and altered bacterial composition compared with control women and their babies. Maternal IBD was the main predictor of the microbiota diversity in the infant gut at 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days of life. Babies born to mothers with IBD demonstrated enrichment in Gammaproteobacteria and depletion in Bifidobacteria. Finally, GFM inoculated with third trimester IBD mother and 90-day infant stools showed significantly reduced microbial diversity and fewer class-switched memory B cells and regulatory T cells in the colon. CONCLUSION: Aberrant gut microbiota composition persists during pregnancy with IBD and alters the bacterial diversity and abundance in the infant stool. The dysbiotic microbiota triggered abnormal imprinting of the intestinal immune system in GFM.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/microbiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adulto , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 705-713, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing importance of probiotics apparent health benefits, an impediment to the use of new probiotic cultures is their safety. Hence there is a need to strictly examine the biosafety as well as health benefits of probiotics in in vivo model systems. RESULTS: In this study, two lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cultures Lactobacillus fermentum NCMR 2826 and FIX proven for their in vitro probiotic properties were investigated for their in vivo safety in Wistar rats. An acute toxicity study (14 days) with a high dose of biomass (1016 colony-forming units (CFU) mL-1 ) followed by a subchronic test for 13 weeks with oral feeding of the probiotic cultures in three different doses (107 , 108 and 1010 CFU mL-1 ) on a daily basis revealed the safety of the L. fermentum cultures. The probiotic feeding had no toxic effects on survival, body weight and food consumption with any of the dosages used throughout the treatment period. No statistically significant changes in relative organ weights and serum biochemical and hematological indices were found between the control and the probiotic fed animals. In addition to the safety attributes, the L. fermentum culture fed rats showed reduced serum cholesterol levels, macrovesicular steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning compared with control animals. Further, quantification of intestinal microbiota using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis from animal feces indicated a significant increase and stability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts but a decrease of Escherichia coli numbers. CONCLUSION: This study of safety and beneficial features highlights the use of the two native L. fermentum isolates as potential probiotic food supplements. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colesterol/sangue , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus fermentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Probióticos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 67-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although, peripheral caries (PC) affects almost half of UK horses, no comprehensive microbiological study has been performed on this disorder. As a high proportion of oral bacteria cannot be conventionally cultured, molecular microbiological techniques such as Next Generation Sequencing are required to examine the complex oral bacteria community. OBJECTIVES: To identify the microbiota involved in equine PC, including comparing microbiota at the more commonly and severely affected three caudal cheek teeth with the less commonly affected three rostral cheek teeth. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Equine dental plaque samples were collected from the palatal aspects of cheek teeth of 63 horses. DNA was isolated and amplified using PCR, targeting the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and Next Generation Sequencing of these gene amplicons was performed. The acquired data were processed and analysed using Mothur and R. RESULTS: Streptococcus species was the genus most commonly associated with equine PC, whereas Gemella species was the genus most associated with the control group. In a further analysis where the rostral and caudal cheek teeth were compared with each other and with the control group. Veillonella species was the most commonly associated genus with PC of the rostral cheek teeth, Streptococcus species was the most associated genus with the caudal cheek teeth, and Corynebacterium with the control group. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Some bacteria can have multiple heterogeneous copies of the 16S rRNA gene, which can affect the estimation of their relative abundance. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to caries studies in other species, acidogenic and aciduric microorganisms including Streptococcus species were found to be associated with equine peripheral caries.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Cárie Dentária/veterinária , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Cavalos
5.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500715

RESUMO

The production of Chinese horse bean-chili-paste (CHCP) involves three fermentation phases: chili-to-moromi fermentation (CF) phase, horse bean-to-meju fermentation (HF) phase and moromi-meju mixed fermentation (MF) phase. To understand the microbial dynamics among these three phases and the potential roles of viable microbes for fermentation, microbial community dynamics was investigated by using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Furthermore, the capacities of enzyme-producing of the isolates were determined. During the CF phase, reducing sugar content increased from 3.1% to 3.49%, while pH declined from 4.85 to 4.5. The protein content in the HF phase and MF phase reduced sharply from 22.23% to 10.29% and 4.39%-1.19%, respectively. Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Oceanobacillus sp., Candida sp., Zygosaccharomyces sp. and Aspergillus sp. dominated the CF phase, while Bacillus sp., Candida sp. and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were the dominant microorganisms in both the HF and MF phases. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and A. oryzae possessed strong capacities of producing enzymes, i.e. α-amylase, cellulase and xylanase, acid protease and leucine aminopeptidase, and could make a great contribution to CHCP fermentation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Microbiota , Soja/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Capsicum/microbiologia , Células-Tronco , Vicia faba/microbiologia
6.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500716

RESUMO

High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis followed by sequencing was applied for determination of bacteria grown on plates isolated from farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) during their storage at 4 °C. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from the isolates was amplified using 16S universal primers. Melting curves (peaks) and high resolution melting curves (shape) of the amplicons and sequencing analysis were used for differentiation and identification of the isolated bacteria, respectively. The majority of the isolates (a sum of 101 colonies, from five time intervals: day 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8) from non-selective solid medium plates were classified in four bacterial groups based on the melting curves (peaks) and HRM curves (shape) of the amplicons, while three isolates presented distinct HRM curve profiles (single). Afterwards, sequencing analysis showed that the isolates with a) the same melting peak temperature and b) HRM curves that were >95% similar grouped into the same bacterial species. Therefore, based on this methodology, the cultivable microbial population of chill-stored mussels was initially dominated by Psychrobacter alimentarius against others, such as Psychrobacter pulmonis, Psychrobacter celer and Klebsiella pneumoniae. P. alimentarius was also the dominant microorganism at the time of the sensory rejection (day 8). Concluding, HRM analysis could be used as a useful tool for the rapid differentiation of the bacteria isolated from mussels during storage, at species level, and then identification is feasible by the sequencing of one only representative of each bacterial species, thus reducing the cost of required sequencing.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bivalves/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Refrigeração , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124700, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524602

RESUMO

An eight-year field trial was conducted to investigate the effects of four different N fertilization treatments of urea (CO(NH2)2, the control), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), and ammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4]) on cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in rice and soil microbial communities in a Cd-contaminated paddy of southern China. The results demonstrate that the different N treatments exerted different effects: the application of (NH4)2HPO4 and (NH4)2SO4 significantly increased rice grain yield and decreased soil-extractable Cd content when compared with those of the control, while NH4Cl had a converse effect. Expression of genes related to Cd uptake (IRT and NRAPM genes) and transport (HMA genes) by roots may be responsible for Cd phytotoxicity in rice grown in the different N fertilization treatments. Our results further demonstrate that N fertilization had stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than fungal communities. The bacterial and fungal keystone species were identified by phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN) analysis and mainly fell into the categories of Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria for the bacterial species and Ascomycota for the fungal species; all of these keystone species were highly enriched in the (NH4)2HPO4 treatment. Soil pH and soil available-Cd content emerged as the major determinants of microbial network connectors. These results could provide effective fertilizing strategies for alleviating Cd phytotoxicity in rice and enhance the understanding of its underlying microbial mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Acidobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Cloreto de Amônio/química , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Grão Comestível/química , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Oryza/microbiologia , Fosfatos/química , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ureia/química
8.
Food Chem ; 305: 125431, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610425

RESUMO

Recent European regulations require safety assessments of food enzymes (FE) before their commercialization. FE are mainly produced by micro-organisms, whose viable strains nor associated DNA can be present in the final products. Currently, no strategy targeting such impurities exists in enforcement laboratories. Therefore, a generic strategy of first line screening was developed to detect and identify, through PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene, the potential presence of FE producing bacteria in FE preparations. First, the specificity was verified using all microbial species reported to produce FE. Second, an in-house database, with 16S reference sequences from bacteria producing FE, was constructed for their fast identification through blast analysis. Third, the sensitivity was assessed on a spiked FE preparation. Finally, the applicability was verified using commercial FE preparations. Using straightforward PCR amplifications, Sanger sequencing and blast analysis, the proposed strategy was demonstrated to be convenient for implementation in enforcement laboratories.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
9.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(4): 465-476, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880891

RESUMO

The associated microbiota plays an essential role in the life process of jellyfish. The endobiotic bacterial communities from four common jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata, Cyanea capillata, Chrysaora melanaster, and Aurelia coerulea were comparatively analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing in this study. Several 1049 OTUs were harvested from a total of 130 183 reads. Tenericutes (68.4%) and Firmicutes (82.1%) are the most abundant phyla in P. punctata and C. melanaster, whereas C. capillata and A. coerulea share the same top phylum Proteobacteria (76.9% vs. 78.3%). The classified OTUs and bacterial abundance greatly decrease from the phylum to genus level. The top 20 matched genera only account for 9.03% of the total community in P. punctata, 48.9% in C. capillata, 83.05% in C. melanaster, and 58.1% in A. coerulea, respectively. The heatmap of the top 50 genera shows that the relative abundances in A. coerulea and C. capillata are far richer than that in P. punctata and C. melanaster. Moreover, a total of 41 predictive functional categories at KEGG level 2 were identified. Our study indicates the independent diversity of the bacterial communities in the four common Scyphomedusae, which might involve in the metabolism and environmental information processing of the hosts.The associated microbiota plays an essential role in the life process of jellyfish. The endobiotic bacterial communities from four common jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata, Cyanea capillata, Chrysaora melanaster, and Aurelia coerulea were comparatively analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing in this study. Several 1049 OTUs were harvested from a total of 130 183 reads. Tenericutes (68.4%) and Firmicutes (82.1%) are the most abundant phyla in P. punctata and C. melanaster, whereas C. capillata and A. coerulea share the same top phylum Proteobacteria (76.9% vs. 78.3%). The classified OTUs and bacterial abundance greatly decrease from the phylum to genus level. The top 20 matched genera only account for 9.03% of the total community in P. punctata, 48.9% in C. capillata, 83.05% in C. melanaster, and 58.1% in A. coerulea, respectively. The heatmap of the top 50 genera shows that the relative abundances in A. coerulea and C. capillata are far richer than that in P. punctata and C. melanaster. Moreover, a total of 41 predictive functional categories at KEGG level 2 were identified. Our study indicates the independent diversity of the bacterial communities in the four common Scyphomedusae, which might involve in the metabolism and environmental information processing of the hosts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Cifozoários/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Microbiota , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cifozoários/classificação
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2745-2752, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854667

RESUMO

As an important urban drinking water source, reservoirs are a special type of water body formed by artificial dams. Water quality of reservoirs directly affects the residents' drinking water safety. In order to reveal the characteristics of stratification and vertical changes of bacterial communities in the Miyun Reservoir, a drinking water source of Beijing, vertical stratified samples were collected during the stable stratified period of the reservoir (autumn). The vertical distribution characteristics of bacterial communities in the Miyun Reservoir were studied by using 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cluster analysis and multivariate statistical analysis were used to reveal the response relationships between bacterial communities and environmental factors. The results were as follows. ①The thermocline of the Miyun Reservoir was located at a water depth of 20-30 m, and the water temperature range was 15-19℃. The cluster analysis data of the seven sampled water layers were divided into an aerobic area (upper layer) and anoxic area (lower layer). The temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH gradually decreased below 15 m. The electrical conductivity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and total nitrogen changed significantly after 15 m. The water quality showed obvious features in the vertical direction. ② The redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that there were obvious vertical changes in the dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen between the aerobic and anoxic water layer. Those factors were the main environmental factors affecting the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities in the Miyun Reservoir. ③ The total bacterial number fluctuated with changes in the water depth. The Shannon-Wiener index and the number of T-RFs of bacteria in the aerobic zone were significantly higher than those in the anoxic zone, which indicates that there was significant stratification in the distribution of bacterial communities in the water of the Miyun Reservoir in autumn. This study explored the effects of water stratification on reservoir water quality and bacterial communities, and the findings provide a scientific basis for predicting water quality changes and reservoir management.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Pequim , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3339-3346, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854736

RESUMO

The effects of heavy metal contamination on farmland continues to worsen progressively with an increase in anthropogenic activities such as industrial pollution and mining. Excess Cd and Pb in agricultural soils enter the food chain and adversely affect all organisms. Therefore, it is important to find an eco-friendly way to reduce heavy metal accumulation in crops. Based on their heavy metal resistance and growth-promoting characteristics, functional bacterial strains were screened and their effects on growth and heavy metal accumulation in wheat were verified via shaking flask adsorption and sand culture tests. Eighteen functional strains were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Salvia setaria. Among them, Bacillus megaterium N3 and Serratia liquefaciens H12 were most effective at resisting high Cd (650 mg·L-1) and Pb (2700 mg·L-1) concentrations, and at producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (56.6 mg·L-1and 69.1 mg·L-1, respectively), siderophores, and 1-Amino-1-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase. Static incubation experiments showed that strains N3 and H12 significantly increased the NH4+ concentration and pH, and decreased the Cd (63.1%-73.8%) and Pb (69.1%-81.8%) concentration in solution. In sand cultures, strains N3 and H12 not only increased the dry weight of wheat roots (47.2%-97.4%) and shoots (65.3%-153%) significantly, but also significantly reduced the Cd (49.2%-68.3%) and Pb (27.4%-84.5%) content in wheat roots and shoots. Thus, the results provide strain resources and a theoretical basis for the remediation of Cd- and Pb-contaminated farmlands for the safer production of crops.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Metais Pesados/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 219, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692780

RESUMO

Introduction: "suya" and smoked fish are cherished food delicacies in Nigeria, but can be a source of dissemination of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Moreover, there are limited studies on these MDR bacteria from Dutsin-Ma. Therefore, this study examined the bacteriological qualities and antibiogram profiles of bacteria in these foods from this area in Nigeria. Methods: Twenty samples of each of "suya" and smoked fish were collected from the study areas and microbiologically analyzed. Total viable count, coliform count, characterization and identification of bacteria were carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Results: Findings revealed that "suya" samples possessed the highest total viable bacteria count (3.4×105 to 7.7×105 cfu/g) and coliform count (2.1×105 to 6.2×105 cfu/g). A total of 85 and 78 bacteria were isolated from "suya" and smoked fish samples respectively. E. coli (24.7% and 24.4%) was the most frequently isolated from each sample respectively. Highest (66.7%) resistance to each of cefuroxime, gentamicin, amoxillin/clavulanate and ciprofloxacin were observed among E. coli from "suya". MDR phenotypes commonly isolated was resistance to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, augmentin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: These studies showed the presence of MDR bacteria in samples, hence, raise the need for improved production hygiene and public health awareness.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nigéria , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12428-12440, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668067

RESUMO

In the present study, the digestion and fermentation of blackberry polysaccharides (BBPs) with different molecular weights (Mw) were investigated. The results showed that the Mw decrease rates of BBP, BBP-8, BBP-16, and BBP-24 were 77.48, 69.61, 56.87, and 52.89%, respectively. The antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of BBPs were decreased under gastrointestinal condition, which might be due to the variation of Mw during digestion. The bile acid-binding ability of BBPs showed an Mw-dependent manner for higher Mw polysaccharides with higher viscosity. Through fermentation, the BBPs affected the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids, lowering the pH of colon, and decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. All BBPs showed almost a similar modulation effect on the gut bacteria, but the lower Mw polysaccharide was more easily utilized by bacteria.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Rubus/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Rubus/química , Estômago/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12441-12451, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674783

RESUMO

Sesamin, a lignan from sesame seed, has been reported to attenuate chronic mild stress-induced depressive-like behaviors. Gut microbiota play pivotal roles in mediating psychological behaviors by regulating gut barrier integrity and systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we found that oral sesamin administration (50 mg/kg·bodyweight/day) significantly attenuated depressive, aversive, repetitive, and anxiety-like behaviors in a long-term multiple nonsocial stress-treated mice model. Sesamin inhibited stress-induced gut barrier integrity damage, reduced circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, and suppressed neuroinflammatory responses. Moreover, sesamin treatment also restructured the gut microbiome by enhancing the relative abundances of Bacteroidales and S24-7. The correlation analysis indicated that the microbiota composition changes were strongly correlated with behavioral disorders, serotonin, norepinephrine, and LPS levels. In conclusion, sesamin has preventive effects on stress-induced behavioral and psychological disorders, which might be highly related to the reshaped microbiota composition. This study provides a clue for understanding the systemic mechanism of anti-depression effects of sesamin.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dioxóis/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sesamum/química , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/microbiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Estresse Psicológico
15.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 10-16, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687941

RESUMO

Aim - to evaluate pathogens and their susceptibility to antibiotic therapy (ABT) in combat-related penetrating craniocerebral gunshot wound (PCGW) patients and develop recommendations for treatment of post-traumatic meningoencephalitis. We conducted a prospective analysis of examination and treatment results of 121 patients who were admitted to the Public Institution, Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Regional Clinical Hospital, Dnipro, Ukraine, from 25 May 2014, to 31 December 2017, and were successively enrolled in the study. Intracranial purulent-septic complications were diagnosed in 14 (11.6%) patients including eight cases of isolated meningoencephalitis, three cases of meningoencephalitis combined with ventriculitis, two cases of meningoencephalitis combined with ventriculitis and subdural empyema and one case of multiple brain abscesses. In most cases of combat-related craniocerebral wounds, infections are considered nosocomial and typically related to medical procedures and devices. In most cases, the effectiveness of first-line antibiotics was low, and it was often necessary to prescribe broad-spectrum ABT, including those related to second-line antibiotics and reserve drugs, according to the World Health Organisation classification. The use of initial de-escalation of empiric ABT with the broadest-spectrum drugs, mainly as a part of combination therapy for expected gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic infection pathogens, is recommended.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Abscesso Encefálico/epidemiologia , Abscesso Encefálico/microbiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/diagnóstico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 835, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing number of hospitalized children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is co-detected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp). The clinical characteristics and impact of Mp co-detected with other bacterial and/or viral pathogens remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinical features of CAP children with Mp mono-detection and Mp co-detection. METHODS: A total of 4148 hospitalized children with CAP were recruited from January to December 2017 at the Children's Hospital of Hebei Province, affiliated to Hebei Medical University. A variety of respiratory viruses, bacteria and Mp were detected using multiple modalities. The demographic and clinical features of CAP children with Mp mono-detection and Mp co-detection were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 110 CAP children with Mp positive, 42 (38.18%) of them were co-detected with at least one other pathogen. Co-detection was more common among children aged ≤3 years. No significant differences were found in most clinical symptoms, complications, underlying conditions and disease severity parameters among various etiological groups, with the following exceptions. First, prolonged duration of fever, lack of appetite and runny nose were more prevalent among CAP children with Mp-virus co-detection. Second, Mp-virus (excluding HRV) co-detected patients were more likely to present with prolonged duration of fever. Third, patients co-detected with Mp-bacteria were more likely to have abnormal blood gases. Additionally, CAP children with Mp-HRV co-detection were significantly more likely to report severe runny nose compared to those with Mp mono-detection. CONCLUSION: Mp co-detection with viral and/or bacterial pathogens is common in clinical practice. However, there are no apparent differences between Mp mono-detection and Mp co-detections in terms of clinical features and disease severity.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11584-11590, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566380

RESUMO

Ureolytic microbes play a pivotal role in the maintenance of soil fertility. Soil aggregates are supposed to provide heterogeneous habitats for microorganisms, which may result in distinct metabolic functions. However, limited information is available regarding the distribution patterns, driving factors, and activity of ureolytic microbiota at the aggregate scale. In this study, we characterized the ureolytic microbiota and urease activity of three soil aggregate fractions from an Inceptisol subjected to 5 years of different fertilization regimes. Correlations between soil chemical characteristics and ureolytic microbial communities were analyzed. The results showed that the total abundance as well as the relative abundance of copiotrophic ureolytic microbes generally increased with the increasing soil aggregate size. This trend was in line with the nutrient distribution patterns, including labile carbon, NH4+, total carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Soil urease activity also increased significantly with the increasing soil aggregate size and was positively correlated with copiotrophic ureolyric microbes, such as Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Thus, we speculated that larger size soil aggregates with greater availability of labile carbon support more copiotrophic ureolyric microbes with a high growth rate, leading to a high density of total ureolytic microbes and higher urease activity. Smaller aggregates with less available carbon were associated with more oligotrophs, higher abundances of total ureolytic microbes, and higher urease activity. Our results suggest that larger soil aggregates and associated ureolyric microbes play a more important role in nutrient cycling for crop growth in this Inceptisol ecosystem.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Ureia/metabolismo , Urease/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Fósforo/metabolismo
18.
Braz Oral Res ; 33(suppl 1): e064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576948

RESUMO

The aim was of this study was to determine the current weight of evidence for the existence of specific differences between the microbiota of healthy teeth and healthy implants, or of teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched up to February 2018 for studies comparing microbiological data of biofilm samples collected from healthy teeth and implants or from teeth with periodontitis and implants with peri-implantitis. The weight of evidence was defined in three categories (strong, moderate and mild/some), according to the difference in number of studies showing statistically significantly higher counts and/or proportions and/or abundance and/or prevalence of microorganisms in health or in disease. Of the 132 articles identified, 8 were included. A wide range of microorganisms were present in different conditions but no microorganisms showed strong, moderate or mild/some evidence for a specific association with either teeth or implants. The results of this systematic review indicated that there is insufficient evidence in the literature to support specific differences between microorganisms colonizing teeth and implants, either in health or in disease.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12335-12340, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617360

RESUMO

The Human Microbiome Project has prompted unprecedented advancement in microbiome science. Personalized microbiome modulation with precision (PMMP) is one of the emerging yet challenging fields in microbiome research. Carbohydrate-based prebiotics (CBPs) have been shown to modulate the gut microbiome to various extents according to different structural characteristics, such as degree of polymerization, branching, glycosidic linkage, monosaccharide profile, and chemical modification. Subsequently, a targeted modulation of the microbiome might be achieved by using CBPs with a specific structure. A multidimensional database can be established based on the structure-microbiome and structure-microbial-marker relationships. Such relationships could facilitate the development of synbiotics and PMMP.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12796-12805, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659898

RESUMO

Whole-grain dietary fiber is rich in bound-form phenolics, and the biological activity of this special structural feature has attracted increasing attention. In this study, rice bran dietary fiber (RBDF) was subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation to investigate the liberation of bound phenolics and their potential activities. Bound phenolics were released at a higher ratio during colonic fermentation (27.57%) than gastrointestinal digestion (2.68%). Nine phenolic compounds were detected from the fermentation supernatants. The released phenolics showed radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.11 µg GAE/mL). Compared with phenolics-removed RBDF (PR-RBDF), RBDF had a significantly stronger prebiotic effect on the microbes associated with diabetes (Lactobacillus spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii). These findings indicate that bound phenolics may act as important functional components that could contribute to the health benefits of whole-grain dietary fiber.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Prebióticos/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oryza/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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